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Agapius, Universal History (1909) part 2. pp.1-287.

[Translated by Alexander Vasiliev]


Copied for himself by Sa`id, son of Abu-l-Bedri John, son of `Abd al-Mesih - may God have mercy on him, his parents, his ancestors and on all Christians.

In the name of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit, one God.

Julius Caesar 1 reigned for four years and four months, and Caesar Augustus reigned for fifty-six years and six months. In the year 8 of his reign the kingdom of the Jews was destroyed, which had belonged to them, and which became a |4 dependency of the Romans and their priesthood was abolished. Herod, son of Antipater, who, as we reported, was of gentile race, ruled them for thirty-four years, he imposed a poll tax on them and had Hyrcanus, the high priest, and Jonathan, his son killed. All the high priests of the Jews, before Herod ruled them, were called Messiahs (anointed ones), but from the time when Herod reigned over them, their prophecy and kingship ceased at the same time. Then was fulfilled the word of Jacob, [the chief of the Patriarchs], who said: "Kings and prophecy will not be removed from Judah, until he comes to whom everything belongs and it is he who is expected by the people." 2  And likewise was fulfilled what Daniel said, when the Archangel Gabriel appeared to him, about the seven weeks and the sixty-two weeks 3, the total of which is four hundred and eighty-three years and which were completed at that time, the first year of which was the sixth of Darius, son of Hystaspes, in which the Temple of the Lord was completed.

Shortly afterwards, when Herod had received from the Romans sovereignty over [the Jews], the Jews revolted against him and would not have him rule them. He completely destroyed the two walls of Jerusalem and killed many of its inhabitants, he took the priestly insignia |5 and would not permit anyone to be high priest for more than one year. The same measure was taken by those who ruled the Jews after him. Then he brought from Babylon and set up Hananiel as high priest over them for a year; after one year he instituted Aristobulus, son of Hyrcanus, the brother of his wife, for one year. Then he killed Aristobulus, son of Hyrcan, and restored Hananiel over them.

In the fourteenth year of Augustus Caesar and the fourth year of Herod, Augustus marched against Antonius, his lieutenant, who had revolted, had resisted, had refused obedience to him and had protested against Caesar, because he was in love with Cleopatra, queen of Egypt. Augustus fought the people of Egypt, seized the two sons of Cleopatra, who were called Sun and Moon, and killed them and he captured (also) Cleopatra and Anthony, who killed themselves overnight. From that day the kingdom of Egypt ceased to exist and it fell under the dominion of the Romans.

In the eighteenth year of his reign, Augustus sent Tiberius his general in Armenia who subjected it and captured it. |6

It was on this day that the Romans instituted the leap month, which was every four years, ie: idus πρὸ ἓξ καλανδῶν Μαρτιῶν.  As for the Greeks, they called it βίσεξτον.

The twenty-eighth year of Augustus, Herod built a city called Caesarea, after Caesar.

At that time the scholar Sextus, Pythagorean philosopher, and Judah the Galilean were distinguished.

In the thirty-second year of Herod and the three hundred and ninth year of Alexander, was born our Lord the Messiah, may He be glorified on Wednesday (Tuesday), the twenty-fifth day of Kanoun I; according to the calculation of Greeks, today was the twelfth day of the month. From Adam until then there is a space of 5,506 years.

Prior to that year, the Romans had sent the judge (legate) Cyrinus to count the population subject to tax. Everyone [went to register] in his hometown, and now Joseph, husband of Mary, went up |7 to register . . . then. After the birth of Our Lord the Messiah, may He be glorified, the Magi came from the East with their presents, they offered to Our Lord the Messiah, may He be glorified, --- gold, myrrh and incense. The learned Greek Longinus introduces this event in the third part of his book, which [treats] of the Roman wars against Antioch, a city of Syria, i.e. as-Schâm, when he said to Caesar: "The Persians from the East have entered your empire and they have offered presents to a child born in Palestine; who he is and whose son he is, we have not yet learned." He wrote about this to Augustus and sent him a letter. And Augustus wrote to Longinus in response to his letter: "I have read your letter and the information you have given about the child born in Palestine among the Jews, and about the Mages, who have come from the East and have given him presents; and you do not know who he is or whose son he is. I will learn the truth and act according to justice: Herod, our governor in Judea, will let us know who he is, his condition and history."

And Augustus wrote to Herod, his governor in Judea, the following letter: "From the king of kings Augustus to Herod, the son of Antipater, governor of Judea, greeting. Longinus, the scholar, has let me know that |8 among you is born a child to whom the Persians made gifts and presents; inform yourself carefully about him and about the Magi, who came to him --- what is the cause of their coming, who sent them and what were the presents they offered him? Hide nothing about this, so I may obtain knowledge, if great God wills it. "

Herod had an interview with the Magi and said to them: "What are you doing?"

The Magi said: "The giant (Nimrod) composed books for us in which he prophesies as follows: A child will be born in Palestine in a few centuries, he will be great and the whole universe will be subject to him, and as a sign of this, you will find, as we know, a star of such and such aspect; you will look for it, and when you have seen, carry myrrh, gold and incense, go and find the child, give him all this, love him and come back; if you do not do this, a great misfortune will happen to you. And we have not ceased to keep this prophecy in our memory, we and our forefathers, until this star appeared to us. When we found there the signs that our great leader had given us, we obeyed him: we brought these things and have come to see him and adore him." |9

And Herod said: "Your approach is correct. Go and find exactly where the child is, and when you have found him, please let me know so that I may also worship him. "

The Magi, departing, saw a star that went before them and led them to the cave where the child was; when it arrived with them at this place, it stopped and did not move. When the Magi had seen this, they entered the cave, found the child and his mother, felt a great joy, opened their travel bags, offered him the presents and worshipped and then they went another way and did not return to Herod.

Herod, having seen that the Magi did not pay attention to him, went into a great rage and sent to kill all the children of Bethlehem two years old and below, because the Messiah was at that time the age of two years.

But by inspiration of God, Joseph and Mary took the child and left Bethlehem.

His mother Mary was thirteen years old; the duration of her whole life was fifty-one years, she lived six years after the Ascension of Our Lord Christ. It was the forty-fourth year of Augustus Caesar. |10

Caesar wrote to Herod, king of the Romans, in response to the letter he had received from him: "To Caesar, King of the Romans, from his servant Herod, greeting. The King of Kings required me to inform myself about the child of whose birth in Judea he had learned, and of the Magi who came to him with gifts. I stopped the Magi and forced them to confess to their affair, and they made me know that in ancient times Nemrod (the giant, the Great) gave them and left a will in which he said: After some time, in the land of Judea, will be born a child, who will reign over all the earth, and the sign of this is that you see in the sky a star, which differs from ordinary stars, and he indicated the signs; he ordered them, when they saw this star with these signs, to take myrrh, gold and incense, to go to the child, to worship him and to offer these presents; he also told them that if they did not, they would fall into a great misfortune. And their ancestors have not ceased, nor they themselves, to inquire into this matter, until the star appeared to them today, and they did what Nemrod ordered them: they took gold, myrrh and frankincense and went to him to adore him. I sent envoys with them to ascertain where the child was, and to return the Magi to me, so that I could send them to the king of kings, Caesar. But they gave my envoys money and escaped. So I have sent to Bethlehem to kill all the children aged two and |11 below, and with them I have killed the child. May the emperor be informed. Greeting."

Augustus Caesar read the letter of Herod and was content and . . . of his thought.

Elizabeth, whom we have already discussed, became pregnant before this, and gave birth in the month of Haziran. The Annunciation of Mary took place on 25th of the month of Adar, six months after the conception of Elizabeth, and Mary gave birth on Wednesday (Tuesday), 25 of Kanoun I. After eight days, (Our Lord) was brought to the place of circumcision, and forty days after his birth, was presented to the Temple and the old man Simeon carried Our Lord Christ in his arms. Two years after his birth, he was transported to Egypt at night when the Magi came to him, and he stayed in Egypt; He was then aged four; then he returned to his hometown of Nazareth and lived there.

Then Herod died, having lived in his city seventy years, he reigned thirty-four, in the year 44 of Caesar. Before his death, he killed his wife and children. His intestines were swollen and his feet were too; his intestines swarmed with worms and his breathing was difficult. Prey to the disease and tortured by pain, Herod, who had |12 an apple in his hand and a knife with which he cut and ate, tried to kill himself with the knife because of the sorrow and grief that tormented him; then he lay down on his side, his stomach burst and he died. (Before that) he said to Salome, his sister and to her husband: "I know that the Jews will be have a big party because of my death and will rejoice at it greatly. So let us take those who are gathered here and put them to death so that when the Jews come together, they will beat their hands and shout laments at my death against their will. " Herod had nine wives and thirteen children.

After the death of Herod, Archelaus succeeded him in the year 45 of Augustus Caesar in the year 312 of Alexander; and Archelaus ruled for 9 years.

Then Augustus handed their affairs over to Herod, brother of Archelaus, and appointed Philippe governor of Filan, Trakhuma and. . . . 4

Augustus then banished Athroudis to exile in Alania, within Armenia, and gave him Herod as successor who reigned twenty-eight years. |13 

Augustus lived seventy-five years and died after having reigned for fifty-six years and six months.

Tiberius Caesar reigned for twenty-three years and lived seventy-eight years.

The first year of his reign, there was a great earthquake, and several cities were knocked down and many men and animals killed.

In the year 7 of his reign, Herod built a city and called it Tabariye (Tiberias) in honor of the Emperor Tiberius. In the year 14 the procurator (ἡγεμών, ἐπίτροπος) Pilate was sent to the Jews (in Judaea).

In the year 15 (of Tiberius), Our Lord Christ, may He be glorified, was baptized by John, son of Zechariah. He had returned . . . our Lord Christ, may He be glorified, was thirty years old, and his baptism took place on [6 of Kanoun II] . . . 5.

[The first miracle was that] of the water changed into wine at Cana 6; he healed the paralysed, opened the eyes of the blind, expelled spirits . . . , forgave sins and worked other (miracles) that the Holy Gospel relates.  |14 

In the year 19 of Tiberius Caesar, and in the year 342 of Alexander, Our Lord Christ was crucified . . .

On the same day that Adam had been driven out of Paradise, Our Lord Christ died, may He be glorified, and he was buried, then rose from the dead and ascended into heaven. That year the Passover took place on 21 Adar, on Thursday, and the Passover of the Christians, the people of our Lord Christ, may He be glorified, took place on Sunday, 24 of Adar; the Ascension on Thursday, 3 of Iyar, and Pentecost on the Sunday, the 13 of Iyar.

From Adam until that time there were 5,539 years, according to what is H.r.l . . . s (?) says. [But writers do not agree] 7 on this subject, and each of them says whatever [does not] exceed the limits of his knowledge. The first of them, Eusebius, says that from Adam [to the Passion of Our Lord], may He be glorified, there are five . . . years . . . [2 lines illegible] . . . 5,350 years. As for the Hebrews, they count only 4,000 years, the Samaritans, 4,365. The philosophers in their books tell that the days of the Passion of Christ, |15 may He be glorified, . . . in the volume . . . [three lines illegible] . . . kings, that, during the reign of Caesar, the sun was darkened, and it became night at the ninth hour and the stars appeared: there was a strong earthquake at Nicaea and in all the surrounding cities, and extraordinary things happened. The philosopher Ursinus says in the fifth chapter of his book on the wars and expeditions of the kings: "We were in great grief and long anguish. The sun was darkened and the earth shook, and we learned that extraordinary and terrifying things were happening in the country of the Hebrews, and we know the cause of this from the letters which the Governor Pilate wrote from Palestine to Tiberius Caesar, when he said that from the death of a man whom the Jews had crucified, these things happened." On learning this, Caesar sent orders to Pilate and dismissed the government of Judea, because he had surrendered to the Jews, and he threatened and intimidated the Jews who had crucified Christ.

Josephus the Hebrew spoke of this also in his books which he wrote about the wars of the Jews: "At that time there was a wise man named Jesus, whose life was perfect, his virtues were recognized, and many Jews and Gentiles became his disciples. And Pilate condemned him to death on a cross, and those who had become his disciples, preached his doctrine. They claimed |16 that he appeared to them alive three days after his passion. Maybe he was the Messiah, about whom the prophets had spoken of miracles." This is the story of Josephus and his coreligionists concerning our Lord Christ, may He be glorified. 8

It is also said that the life of our Lord Christ, may He be glorified, and his preaching (or pilgrimage) happened in the pontificate of Hannan and Caiaphas, because they were high priests in those years , i.e. from the pontificate of Hannan to the beginning of the pontificate of Caiaphas; as for the time between them, there was no time for four years because, when Herod was appointed governor, he burned the books of the tribes of the Hebrews, because they knew only that he belonged to a race which was little valued by them; and he took the priestly vestment, put it under seal and allowed each high priest to serve only for a year. Because of this there were four priests from the pontificate of Hannan to that of Caiaphas: Hannan was removed and Ishmael, son of Yachya, succeeded him; a year later, Eleazar, son of Hannan, succeeded him as high priest; when his year was over, Simeon, son of Qamihoud, succeeded him. He was succeeded by Caiaphas, at which time and under whose pontificate Our Lord Christ, may He be glorified, |17 was crucified. There were between Hannan and Caiphas less than four years, according to Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea. 9

In the year 17 of Tiberius Caesar, and in the year 341 of Alexander, one year before the crucifixion of our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, Abgar the Black, king of Edessa, sent messengers to some towns on business.  On the way back they entered Jerusalem and there were eye-witnesses of certain actions of the Jews towards our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, and of their preparations to crucify him.  They preserved an account of the actions of our Lord the Christ and of that which they learned of his miracles and the cures of incurable illnesses carried out by him.

When they arrived at Edessa, they told their master all that they had seen and that they had learned of the actions of our Lord the Christ, may be he glorified, and of the injustice of the Jews towards him, and how they were plotting against him.  When Abgar learned this, he was filled with admiration and wanted to go to Him and see himself His divine miracles; but he could not go outside his kingdom for fear of enemies.  So he sent Hannan the painters and charged him with a letter, where he said: |18 

"From Abgar the Black to Jesus the physician, who has appeared at Jerusalem.  I have heard of you, of your knowledge of medicine, of your spiritual knowledge and that you heal pain and illnesses without drugs or remedies.  My astonishment at this was great, and my joy at it extreme.  And I am telling myself that you must certainly be God, or the son of God, since you do such things.  I ask you and invite you to come to me.  Perhaps you may heal the painful illness from which I suffer.  I have heard that the Jews want to kill you and crucify you.  I have a town, pleasant and pretty, which would be enough for me and for you to live there.  There you would be in tranquillity, good health and safety; and if you pleased to grant my wish, do so, and you will fill me with joy because you have."

Our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, received his letter, read it, and wrote to him.

"Be blessed, because you have believed in me before you have seen me.  It is written of me that those who see me will not believe in me.  As for your request for me to come to you, it is necessary that I complete the work for which I was sent; and when I have completed it and ascended (to heaven), I will send one of my disciples who will heal your pains and illnesses and will convert those with you to eternal life."

Hannan, who was a painter, after receiving the response of our Lord the Christ, |19 may he be glorified, took a square board and painted our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, on it in bright and attractive colours.  He set himself to look at Him and to paint his image on this board.  Then he went with it to Edessa and gave it to his master, Abgar the Black.  Abgar received it with great honours and placed it in one of his treasuries, and it can be found there to this day.

When our Lord the Christ had ascended to his Father, he sent the apostle thomas, one of the Seventy (disciples) to Edessa.  When he arrived there and Abgar the Black saw him, he prostrated himself before him, because a divine light shone from his face.  And the apostle Thomas said to him, "If you believe in He that sent me, you will find what you need and obtain what you ask."

And Abgar the Black said to him, "I have already believed in Him. And if it were not for the treaties that exist between the Romans and myself, and the confidence they have in me which I cannot break, I, because of my admiration and my love for Him, would leave with a great number of my men, make war against the Jews who crucified Him, and destroy them."

Then (Thomas) approached him and healed him of his illness: and in this place he worked many miracles, so that Mousa, king of Athour heard about him and wanted to see him. |20

Then Abgar wrote to Tiberius Caesar, emperor of the Romans, a letter where he said:

"From Abgar, sovereign of Edessa, to Tiberius Caesar, sovereign of the Romans.  Know, o king, that the Jews that are in your empire have crucified the messiah, although he did not deserve this, and had done nothing that they could condemn.  When they had crucified him, the sun was darkened, the earth shook, many of the dead came back to life and rose up (from their tombs) and extraordinary things happened which have never before been seen."

Tiberius Caesar wrote to him, in response to his letter, a letter where he says:

"From Tiberius, master of the Romans, to Abgar, master of Edessa.  Know that I have already learned all that the Jews have done to the man of whom you speak; and I want to punish them; but I cannot, because of the wars that I was undertaking against the inhabitants of Spain, who have risen up and revolted against me, and I was busy fighting against them; but when I am a little more free, I will carry out my vengeance against them and will inflict on them an exemplary chastisement.  As for Pilate whom I named as their judge, I have already deposed him with great humiliation and scorn, because he gave way to them and did what they wanted; and I have sent another in his place."

After reading this letter, Abgar rejoiced at it and was content.  A little time later, he learned that Caesar had put to death the chiefs of the Jews: and he rejoiced greatly at this. |21

After the death of Thomas the apostle happened on the 14th May, (the apostles) sent in his place Addai, the silk-maker.

After the ascension of our Lord the Christ, may be he glorified, the eleven apostles chose Matthias in the place of Judas Iscariot.  Fifty days after the resurrection and ten days after the ascension, they received the Holy Spirit in the assembly: they laid hands on James, son of Joseph, who had fathered James by another wife, and made him bishop of Jerusalem, where he ruled for thirty years.  They established the seven deacons.  One of them was Stephen, whom the Jews stones; Philip, who preached to the inhabitants of Samaria; Nicanor; Timon; Prochoros; Parmenas; and Nicholas of Antioch.

At this period the emir of Ethiopia, the eunuch, was baptised by the apostle Philip.

The apostle Paul was converted in the year that Stephen was stoned, at the end of the reign of Tiberius and at the same time that Cornelius was converted in the town of Caesarea by Simon Cephas (Peter).

The names of the thirteen apostles, including Matthias, the place (of their apostolate) and of the death. |22

Simon Cephas (Peter), originally from Bethsaida, of the tribe of Nephthli; he went first to Antioch, where he built a chapel in the first year of the reign of Claudius.  Then he passed to Rome, where he was bishop for 25 years, until the 13th year of Nero Caesar.  Nero had him killed, and Paul with him.  Peter was crucified with his head at the bottom.

Andrew, his brother, went to the land of the anthrophages, and preached there.  Then he went to Nicaea, to Nicomedia, and into Achaia which he entirely converted.  He was the first to be enthroned at Constantinople, made proselytes there and baptised them.

James, son of Zebedee, of the tribe of Zabulon, of Bethsaida, whom Herod Agrippa had killed.

John, his brother, went to Ephesus and to the land of Asia.  Domitian exiled him in one of the islands of the sea in the year 9 of his reign, but at the end of his reign he called him back to Ephesus, where he died and was buried.

Philip, the apostle, of the tribe of Aschir (Asher), of Bethsaida, went to Carthage and preached to its inhabitants.  Then he went to Phrygia where he died and was buried.

Bartholemew, of the tribe of Issachar, went to Armenia Major, where he was crucified and died. |23

Thomas, of the tribe of Judah, went to Sind and to India, where he died.  His embalmed body was carried to Edessa.

Matthew the evangelist, of the tribe of Issachar, of Nazareth, went to the land of the anthropophages and preached there.  Then he returned to preach to the Hebrews and composed the gospel for them.  Then he went to India, where he died and was buried.  This ... 10

Simeon the Chananean, the Galilean, the Zealot (Ζηλωτής) of the tribe of Ephraim, died at Hemath.

Judas, son of James, called Thaddeus, of the tribe of Simeon.  He was called Labbai, because he was wise.  He died at Beirut, where he was buried.

James, son of Alphaeus, of the tribe of Manasseh, was stoned at Jerusalem.

Judas, son of Simeon, the Iscariot, of the tribe of Dan.  When he realised the price and horror of his perfidy, by which he sold our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, he strangled himself; all his intestines fell out.  Matthias was chosen in his place.

Matthias was of the tribe of Reuben.  The disciples chose him in the place of Judas Iscariot. |24

The names of the Seventy (disciples) and their origin.

Here is the list of the Seventy (disciples).

Addai of Phamas (Paneas); Severos son of Abgar killed him.  Ananias was killed at Damascus.  Milia (Malea, Ἀμπλίας) was stoned at Alexandria.  Capha (Κηφᾶς) was stoned at Antioch.  Barnabas (Βαρνάβας, Βαῤῥαβᾶς) died on the island of Cyprus.  Sontanis (Σωσθένης) was thrown into the sea.  Qeisqous (Κρήσκης, Κρισκής) died of hunger at Alexandria and was buried there.  Joseph of Arimathea, who was converted to Christ and died in the prison of Jerusalem.  Nicodemus the Welcome; this was he who was converted to Christ after he came to find Him and spoke with Him.  Nathaniel, chief of the scribes.  Justus, whom Paul mentions.  Judas, brother of James, brother of Christ.  Silas (Σιλᾶς), of whom Paul also speaks.  Judas, son of Barsabas.  Marcus, whome Luke mentions in the Πράξεις with the others.  John, called the Black (?).  Jason, Manaël, Herod, Rufus, Alexander, Simon the Cyrenean, Cleophas, brother of |25 Joseph the husband of Mary, Simeon, his son, whom became bishop of Jerusalem and was crucified.  Joses, son of Joseph, James, son of Joseph, James the elder, Judah, called Simeon.  Those who were with Cleophas on his voyage: Tourmis and Fastourius [Termus and Castorius?], the slaves whom the apostles ordained.  Those of whom Paul speaks: Andronicus, Titus, Hermas, Phlegon, Patroba, Asyneritus 11.  Hermas called the Pastor.  The six people with Peter at Caesarea; Crescens, Milichas, Kiriton (Crito), Simeon, Gaius, Apollos (Ἀπολλώς).  The two who did not believe in the divinity of Christ; Cerinthus and Cleon (?), who were heretics.  They were replaced with Luke the evangelist and Urbanus.  Istichaus (Στάχυς), Aristobulus, Stephen, Herodion, Mark, Rufus, Olympas, Maris (?), (?) M.rula. (?) Hymenaeus, Alexander, ... rus...laoun.

The false apostles: Simon r. k. r. bn d. la..

Now the apostles gathered together and established canon directed against those men who appeared in their times and did not agree with them.  The apostles were men who did not allow them to ... nor to proclaim |26 as the truth what each of them had invented themselves.  When they gathered, they baptised a great number of men in the name of the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit, taking them from impiety and error to make them ready for the true worship of God.

Matthew wrote the gospel in Hebrew for the Hebrews; Mark wrote the gospel in Latin (Frankish) for the inhabitants of mighty Rome.  Like wrote (the gospel) in Greek for the inhabitants of Alexandria.  John wrote his gospel in Greek for the inhabitants of Ephesus.  Then Luke wrote the Πράξεις, that is the Acts of the Apostles.  Paul wrote fourteen letters.

In the year 22 of Tiberius Caesar, Herod Agrippa went to Rome to intrigue against Herod the tetrarch and he remained there until the reign of Caius.  Tiberius died at 78, and Caius reigned four years, from the year 347 of Alexander.

In the first year of his reign, Flaccus the Prefect of Egypt made an expedition against (the Jews) and oppressed them for 7 years.  He filled their synagogues with statues and offerings to idols.  Ambassadors were |27 sent to Caius to let him know.  One of them was Philo, the Hebrew philosopher, who composed many treatises on the calamities which were happening to the Jews in his time. He wrote a satire against the emperor Caius where he criticised his ignorance and his folly.  He wrote a eulogy of the faithful who were living in Ehypt.  He interpreted the first book of the Torah.  He records that ... when he was waking up and surrounded.  He composed 5 treatises on the Exodus of the Israelites and 4 on the things which are told in the Law.  His treatises were read in the assemblies of the Romans in the time of Claudius and were borrowed; and (his treatises) were placed in the library of the emperors at Rome.

In the first year of the reign of Caius, Herod Agrippa was made king of the Jews and reigned for seven years.

In that year Pilate committed suicide.  This was Pontius Pilate, mentioned in the Creed of the faith.

In the 4th year of his reign, Caius ordered the Prefect of Syria to erect idols in the synagogues of the Jews and in all their temples.  And he erected the statue of Zeus, which the Romans worshipped at Jerusalem.  Then |28 the word of the prophet Daniel was fulfilled, who said, "the sign of the abomination is found where it should not be." 12 

At this time the Jews were enduring great misfortunes.  Petronius, who was governor of Judaea, wanted to set up idols in the synagogues and their chiefs gathered and asked him not to do this, saying that, if he did, all the Jews would perish.  Petronius wrote to the emperor Caius to tell him that all their tribes were prepared for death and that they would not violate the laws of their ancestors.  Caius sent a letter to the governor Petronius in which he ordered him, with menaces, to carry out his order concerning the Jews.  Petronius informed them of this, and was using violence against them, when the news arrived that the slaves of Caius had attacked him and put him to death.  At the same time the messengers bearing the menacing letters arrived.  Then the Jews threw themselves on the idols and removed them from their synagogues.

Claudius reigned for fourteen years,  In the first year of his reign Agrippa, governor of the Jews, put to death James, son of Zebedee, and put Simon Cephas in prison.  But then the angel delivered him from prison and he went to Antioch, where he laid the foundations of the church which is named |29 after Cassian and established a shrine there.  In year 3 of Claudius, Simon Cephas arrived at Rome.  He became bishop there and governed this church for 23 years.

A woman of the imperial family named Protonice, a patrician lady, went up to Jerusalem and discovered the cross of our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, which was found in the hands of the Jews, who would not let the Christians near it. Then Protonice went to them and took the cross from them, and the position of the Christians to it was reaffirmed.  She left the cross in Jerusalem and departed.

The apostles revealed the wicked actions of Simon the magician, unmasked him, and made his imposture known to the whole population of Samaria.  He went to Rome, and Nicaea.  He presented himself to the Jews as being God the Father; to the Samaritans as being God the Son; and to the gentiles as the spirit of God.  When he had arrived at Rome, that city gave him a good reception; and the inhabitants of Rome erected his statue, because he had led them astray with his sorceries, and they wrote on it, "this is the statue of Simon the holy god." 13

Simon Cephas had arrived in Rome in year 3 of Claudius, and he went to the house where Simon was living and found a dog lying at his door.  News of |30 the arrival of Simon Cephas at Rome had already come to Simon.  Simon Cephas ordered the dog to go in and announce to Simon that Simon Cephas was at the door, and "that he was calling him."  The dog went in and said to Simon, in front of all the company that was with him, "Simon, Cephas the Hebrew, who is at the door, is calling you."  Seeing the dog speak, the population of the town was seized with astonishment.  Then Simon the magician said to them, "Don't be astonished; I myself also ordered this dog to talk."  He then commanded it in these terms, "Go and say to Simon to come in."  The dog went out and said to him, "The man says 'enter'."  And he went in.

Then Simon had a living bull brought, went up to its ear and said something; and the bull burst.  Everyone was seized with astonishment at this.  While they were admiring this, Peter approached the bull, prayed, pressed it with  his foot; and the bull got up, alive and well.

Then Simon flew in the air, by the power of the demons that were with him.  Peter chased them away, and Simon fell to the ground and broke his limbs.

Then Simon (Cephas)  brought dead men back to life before the whole population of Rome.  Then he healed illnesses and worked miracles publicly.  When the population of Rome had seen this, they doubted the work of Simon and moved away from him: and many of the inhabitants of Rome were baptised and believed |31 in Christ, the Son of God.  The first of these was Cyprian, father of the dead man brought back to life by Simon Cephas: he was baptised, became a Christian, received Peter into his house, treated him as his guest, and honoured him.

The wife of Claudius, the lady patrician, of whom we have already spoken, was converted, was baptised, went on pilgrimage to Jerusalem and enquired after the cross of our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified.  It is said that James, the brother of Christ, was bishop of Jerusalem, and that the Jews were involved in these matters.   She ordered the chief Jews to come and see her; among them was the High Priest, Onias 1, Gedaliah, son of Caiaphas, and many others as well as those two.

She said to them, "Deliver over to the bishop James (the land of) Calvary, the tomb, and the crosses on which the Christ and the two robbers were crucified."  When she had given this order, she went to the tomb of Christ; but when she went in, her daughter fell down before her and died.  She was profoundly sorrowful and afflicted at this.  Then one of her slaves said to her, "This matter is no accident, nor without importance; it will demonstrate the power of Christ, God our Saviour."  Listening to the slave speak thus, the woman |32 was comforted a little, accepted her words, and gave orders for the crosses to be brought to her.  Then she placed the first and the second crosses on her daughter, but she did not stir.  But when she placed the third cross on her, her daughter stirred, revived and got up.  The woman confided this cross to bishop James, built a church there, returned to Rome, and told this story to her husband, and to the people there.

Then the emperor Claudius set himself to oppress and persecute the Jews, especially after they stoned the martyr Stephen.

Other apostles went to Antioch and there converted many people.  It is there that the supporters of Christ were called Christians.

At that time there was a famine.  And the disciples bought a great quantity of food and distributed it to the faithful, men and women.

Agrippa, governor of the Jews, died, and his son Agrippa succeeded him, and reigned fro 26 years.  He had no successor in the government, because Jerusalem was destroyed and its inhabitants were deported.

At this time Herod Agrippa took a census of the Jews whom he found in his realm.  They were counted, and their number was 6,944,000. |33

At this time a man named Cerinthus appeared.  He said that the kingdom of God would appear on earth, and that there men would eat, drink, and cohabit with women.

At this time the Egyptian mentioned in the Πράξεις also appeared; he led many people astray and wanted to overrun Jerusalem by force.  Then Felix, a Roman patrician, marched against him and killed many of those who had accepted his teaching.  This happened in year 8 of Claudius Caesar.

In that time, the Jews were divided into seven sects.  The 1st sect was the scribes, who were called scribes and doctors of the Law.  The 2nd was that of the Levites, who followed the tradition of the ancient priests.  The 3rd included those who believed in the resurrection and said that there were angels and spirits; they took their name from a priest named Sadoc, who was of their party.  The 4th was that of the baptised, who purified themselves daily and said that no-one would live unless they washed themselves with water every day.  The 5th was that of the Nazoreans, who ate no animal food and did not accept the books of Moses nor of any of the |34 prophets but invented strange books for themselves.  The 6th was that of the Jews who believed in God, observed the Law, and received the books of Moses and the Prophets.  The 7th was that of the Samaritans who, out of the sacred books, only received the Torah of Moses and followed an allegorical commentary of Holy Scripture.

One day the apostles gathered together at Rome and composed canons about divine things which, thanks to Clement, are at the disposal of the faithful.  And there they fixed the number of the divine books that must be received and read in the churches, and they prescribed that no others should be admitted.  Among the ancient books which must be received, they listed those which we call Torah, i.e. the 5 books of Moses; the book of Joshua son of Nun; the book of Judges; the story of Ruth; the story of Judith; the 4 books of Kings; the 2 books of Chronicles (Paralipomena); the 3 books of Maccabees; the book of Esdras; the story of Esther; the book of Job, the truthful; the book of Psalms of the prophet David; the 5 books of Solomon, son of David; the 16 books of the prophets: one book of the son of Sirach.  The new books were the gospel, composed of 4 books; the 2 letters of the apostle Peter; the 14 letters of Paul; |35 1 book of the Acts of the Apostles (Πράξεις); the 3 letters of John, son of Zebedee; 1 letter of James, son of Zebedee; the one of Juda; the 2 letters of Clement; the 8 books of Clement.  Then Clement also described in 8 books all the story and the acts of the apostles, what they had allowed and what they had forbidden.  The apostles ordered that all his books should be received.

At this time the apostle Andrew died, who was bishop of Byzantium, after 2 years of episcopate.  Stychus was bishop there for 15 years.  After him Onesimus for 13 years.

Then Claudius Caesar fell ill and died, after living for sixty-five years, of which he reigned for fourteen.  Nero, son of Claudius, reigned after him for fourteen years.

In the year 2 of the reign of Nero, Felix, governor of Judaea, died.  He had as successor Festus, under whom Paul baptised and who brought him before his tribunal.

At this time there was a great earthquake at Rome and an eclipse of the sun.  The Jews revolted at Jerusalem and Caesarea, and the High Priest of the Jews, Jonathan, was killed. |36

In the year 5 of Nero, Festus governor of Judaea died; he had for successor Albinus.

In the year 8 of Nero, the Jews at Jerusalem threw themselves on James, the brother of Christ, and killed him.  He was a pious man, living in poverty, obedient to God.  The Jews took him, placed him at the highest point of the temple, and said to him, "Speak to the people.  Renounce the faith of Christ."  When he would not agree to their demand, they threw him down.  He fell face down, and said, "God, don't punish them for this sin, because they don't know what they are doing."  Then they stoned him.  One of them, who was a fuller, took the stick with which he beat the fabric, and struck him with it.  He died, and was buried near the temple.  Then they destroyed the church, seized the cross of Christ and the two crosses of the robbers, and hide them underground.  Then they went back to the Torah and shortened the years of Adam, Noah, Abraham and others, by two thousand years, cutting a hundred years from period from the birth of each of them to the birth of their son, in such a way that they didn't shorten the total life of each.  In this way they sought to prove, against the Christians, that the Messiah had not yet come.  They likewise changed the names of towns and places signalled, according to tradition, by each action of the Lord the Christ, as well as the name of the place of crucifixion and other places. |37

At this time Nero violently persecuted the Christians.  After the death of James, his successor was Simon, son of Cleophas, who was his cousin, and he governed the people for forty-two years; ten years before the destruction of Jerusalem and thirty-two years after the destruction, from the ninth year of Tiberius Caesar until the second year after the death of John the evangelist.

It is recorded that John the evangelist did not die, but, being pursued by the inhabitants of a certain town, he went up on the mountain, and hid from their sight, and no-one knew what happened to him.

Then Nero cut off the heads of Simon Cephas and Paul.  As for Simon, there are those who claim that his head was not cut off, but that his beard was cut off, and that he was crucified head down.  Paul had his head cut off at the same time as Simon, who is the same as Peter, was crucified head down, in the year 13 of his reign.

At the moment when the Jews killed James, brother of the Christ, may he be glorified, Albinus, prefect of the Jews, was absent and at Rome.  When on his arrival he heard what the Jews had done to James, he deposed Anianus (Ananos), the High Priest, who belonged to the Sadducees, and established Jesus son of Danai in his place. |38

Peter Cephas sent Mark the evangelist to Alexandria and made him bishop of that city.  He lived there for 2 years and died.  He had as successor Anianus, whose episcopate lasted twenty-two years.

In the time of Nero the philosophers Musonius and Plutarchus flourished.

Then madness struck Nero, and his reason was disturbed.  He had his mother killed, his aunt and many of his relatives.  He had Peter and Paul killed by crucifixion, head down, as we have related.  This happened on Thursday the 28th of Temouz, in the year 377 of Alexander.

At Rome, Peter had as his successor Linus, of whom Paul speaks in his second letter to Timothy, and he governed the people for eleven years.

Paul established Timothy as his successor at Ephesus, and ordained Titus in Crete.  Like, who was then a physician at Antioch, was a companion of the apostles.

In this year Nero Caesar sent Vespasian, chief of his soldiers, with Titus his son, to make war on the Jews of Palestine, who were revolting and had risen up.  He went (to Jerusalem), stopped there, and besieged it for a long time.  When he was on the point of capturing it, he learned the news of the |39 death of Nero, who, in the course of his madness, had killed himself.  The Jews wanted to fight Vespasian, but he returned to Rome.  Earlier he captured the town of Aeliya (Yotapata) because he heard it said that Joseph son of the priest Matthai was there.  Some scholars claim that this Joseph was the same as Caiaphas, who had prophesied about the death of Christ, may he be glorified, and in whose pontificate He was crucified.  The town was taken and he made Joseph prisoner, but did not kill him, because he was the general, and he had predicted to him that he would be emperor after Nero.

At Antioch, Evodius was bishop for twenty-five years.  After his death Ignatius succeeded him and his episcopate lasted thirty-eight years, until the tenth year of Trajan.  The beasts devoured him at Rome.

Vespasian reigned for nine and a half years in the year 381 of Alexander.  The 1st year of his reign, he invaded Egypt and captured it.  Then he returned by sea to Rome.  He sent Titus his son with numerous soldiers to Jerusalem, in year 3 of his reign.  The latter besieged it, make 60,000 men perish, and made prisoners of more than 100,000.  A great number of people died of hunger.  He destroyed Jerusalem, set fire to its temple, burned the books of the Jews and dispersed them to the four corners of the world. |40

Thus all the Laws of Israel were abolished, and the prophecy of Jacob was fulfilled, who said, "The sceptre shall never pass from the tribe of Judah, nor the prophecy from its race, until he comes, to whom belongs the victory, and the peoples will obey him." 14   On the other hand see what Daniel says at Babylon, "After the death of Christ, may he be glorified, Jerusalem will be destroyed and its laws abolished." 15  Our Lord the Christ, may he be glorified, says in the gospel, "The days will come when your enemies will besiege you, and the children at your breast will be killed and die." He says also, "There will be great anguish and a great calamity on the people". 16 

All this was fulfilled thirty-nine years after His crucifixion and death.  The people were reduced to such misery that women ate their children.

It is said that those who perished in the battles in Jerusalem and died of hunger during the invasion of Vespasian and the siege of that city for 3 years were counted; and the number of dead was about 1,200,000; 110,000 were made prisoners, according to what Josephus says.17 

The cause of such an agglomeration of people in Jerusalem was that, when Vespasian had sent his son Titus to battle the Jews, the latter had |41 arrived at Jerusalem for the feast of the Passover; and people were gathered there from every city because of the feast.  And what happened, happened.

From Adam to the year in which Jerusalem was destroyed there were 5,570 years.  From Adam to the year 50 of Abraham, when Jerusalem was built, 3,376 years.  From its first construction to its final destruction in the time of Vespasian Caesar, 1,191 years.

Josephus the Jew tells in his book on the destruction of Jerusalem that before the ruin of this town, there appeared signs and prodigies, various and extraordinary, which presaged the destruction.  For example, there was seen above the town a long star, resembling a sword of fire, which shone. -- While (the Jews) were celebrating the feast of the Passover, a cow was brought for the sacrifice, and it gave birth to a lamb in the middle of the temple. -- The doors of the Temple which were of solid iron and that 20 men together could hardly close and open, opened of themselves at midnight. During the whole year, in the temple various voices were heard, saying "Let's get out of here." -- There happened many things like these, which announced the destruction of Jerusalem.18    |42

Those who want to know how many men perished have made a calculation according to various books. One of them reports that at the festival of the Passover which fell on the 12th of Nisan (April), the Jews offered 240,000 sheep; for each sheep there were 10 men purified, ignoring unpurified men and the children among them.

When the Romans possessed themselves of Jerusalem, -- Josephus had warned his countrymen before the destruction of Jerusalem and said to them, "Obey the Romans and submit to their emperors and you will praise yourselves for the result of your conduct." -- but they treated him with contempt and insulted him so much that they struck him several times and stoned him. He came to the Romans who, having made him prisoner, obliged him to remain at the court of the emperor. He composed 20 books on the organisation of the Jews, their emigration, their High Priests, the wars against the Romans and the siege of Jerusalem. Agrippa wrote 62 letters in which he praised the books of Josephus and the understanding and depth of his knowledge. After his death, the Romans erected a statue of him at Rome in his honour. 

At that time Vespasian persecuted the Jews and ordered that all the descendants of David should be killed. |43

There was a great plague at Rome.

Vespasian died after having lived seventy years, of which he reigned ten. (After him) reigned Titus, son of Vespasian, for two years and three months, in year 389 of Alexander.

In year 2 of his reign, Anencletus (Anacletus) succeeded Linus on the throne of Rome, and his episcopate lasted 12 years.

In that year a mountain split into two and a great flame came out of it, which set fire to several cities. At Rome, there was a great fire.

Titus fell ill and died at the age of forty. (After him) reigned Domitian, son of Vespasian, for sixteen years, in year 391 of Alexander.

In year 4 of his reign, at Alexandria, after Anianus, Aemilius sat for thirteen years.

The emperor Domitian built a temple, without any part of it of wood.

He ordered that all the philosophers and magicians should be expelled from the city, and he completely forbade anyone to plant vines at Rome. |44

In year 9 of his reign, he carried out a great persecution against the Christians and banished John the evangelist to an island of the sea, which is called Yafa (Patmos). Irenaeus, Bouttius, and Hippolytus record that great prodigies happened, which John attests in his book which he composed after the gospel.

In that time, Dionysius the Areopagite, who was the disciple of Paul, became bishop of Athens, the city of the philosophers. He wrote a letter to John the evangelist in which he says, "May anguish and sorrow not overcome you, because your stay there (at Patmos) will not be very long, and Christ will hasten your deliverance. Learn patience in your heart, and praise Christ."

In that time a great number of Christians who believed in Christ were put to death. |45

At that time Apollonius, master of talismans, became celebrated. He opposed the disciples of Christ by his works, which thwarted those of Christ, and he said, "What a misfortune for me, that I was preceded by the son of Mary!"

At the same time, the philosopher Patrophilus said to his master Ursinus, "I have intended to speak, master, of this man in whom all the peoples and the nations of different languages believe. According to what is said of him, he was crucified, died; then he came back to life and went up to heaven, according to the testimony of his companions, who believe in him. And we see that Theodore, chief of the sages of Athens, with Africanus of Alexandria, Martianus (Martinus) of drourousah (?) and Mark (?) gave up their gods in order to worship Him and call upon Him. They were freed from the business of this vile world, they have neither riches nor goods, and they are powerful in word and work." Ursinus responded to his disciple, "All the people have become his disciples and worship the Galilean of Nazareth. We quote the names of eminent scholars who after seeing him renounced their gods and worshipped Him. As for me, I think that all the peoples and their posterity will become his disciples. You say that his |46 disciples live a good life; what is also good, is that they do not abandon themselves to the evil hidden in the flesh."

In year 12 of Domitian, at Rome Clement became (bishop) and his pontificate lasted 9 years. We have found that the apostle Paul says, "Clement and my helpers."19  He wrote many books and letters, and he wrote a letter to the Corinthians, because of the enmities that had broken out among them, and this letter is received among all the books (of the church).

In that time Domitian Caesar was killed on his carpet in his palace. Nero (Nerva) the Little reigned for a year, in the year 407 of Alexander. He ordered the recall of all those who had been exiled, and John the evangelist returned to Ephesus after sixteen years of exile.

In that time Justus of Tiberias, a Jewish scholar, was illustrious.

Then Nerva died and in year 408 of Alexander Trajan Caesar began to reign, whose reign lasted nineteen years. The first year of his reign, the episcopal seat of Alexandria fell to Cerdon, who occupied it for eleven years. |47 In year 4 of his reign, Rome had Evaristus as bishop, who sat for eight years. At Byzantium, Als.midis (Polycarp?) having been bishop for seventeen years, had at that time for successor Plutarchus, who sat for fifteen years; and then Cedekion for eight years. In the sixth year of the emperor Trajan bishop Mar-Diogenes was established whose episcopate lasted fourteen years. In that year John the evangelist died at Ephesus. He had lived seventy-one years after the ascension of Our Lord Christ, may he be glorified... He wrote the gospel after those of Matthewm Mark abd Luke. When their copies were brought to him and he had them read, he said, "What they have written is good; but they have shortened the account of the acts of our Lord Christ, may he be glorified, before the imprisonment of John, son of Zachariah." This is why, the people having asked him to write a gospel which told the acts which had taken place before the imprisonment of John, he says that this was the first miracle worked by our Lord Christ, may he be glorified, and that John had not yet been placed in prison.

In year 9 of Trajan, Simon, son of Cleophas, bishop of Jerusalem, suffered martyrdom at the age of 120. He fulfilled the functions of bishop |48 for forty-two years; ten years before the destruction of Jerusalem and thirty-two years after the destruction. Then he had Justus as successor for five years; after him Zachaeus for two years; after him Tobias for three years; after him Benjamin for one year; after him John, for three years; after him Matthew, for two years.

In year 10 Ignatius, bishop of Antioch, suffered martyrdom at Rome. He was devoured by the beasts. Then Heron (Eros) occupied the seat of Antioch for 18 years.

In year 12 of Trajan, Alexander was bishop of Rome for 9 years, and at Alexandria, Primus for 12 years.

At this time there lived at Menbidj (Hierapolis) an eminent scholar (Papias), author of several treatises. He composed 5 treatises on the gospel. He records the following in a treatise which he composed on the gospel of John: In the book of John the evangelist there is an issue about a woman who was an adultress. The Jews brought her to our Lord Christ, may he be glorified, and he said to the Jews that had brought her, "Whoever among you is certain of being innocent of the sin of which she is accused, bear witness against her with the |49 proofs that he has!" When he said that to them, no-one among them answered him, and they went away.

In year 15 of his reign, Trajan expelled all the foreigners from Rome, because they were the cause of an increase in prices (of food) for the inhabitants. He also expelled the foreign Christians who were there, and these decided to leave and asked the emperor to allow them to take the bones of Peter and Paul with them, as they too were foreigners in Rome. He allowed them this, and they tried to carry them away. But the earth was rocked by an earthquake, the whole city was shaken, and darkness covered it, until the foreigners were called backed. And (the earth) calmed down.

At that time Menander the magicians made himself known. He was from a city in the land of Samaria, a disciple of Simon the magician. He baptised people and said that those who received baptism at his hands would be greater than the angels. Until that time the church of our Lord Christ, may he be glorified, was free of impure knowledge and the stains, the weeds of the demons and the follies of the heresies.

At that time a certain Saturninus appeared at Antioch and Basilides at Alexandria. |50

Saturninus said, "Seven angels gathered together and created the world; and it is to them that God addressed his word, 'Let us make man with our resemblance and in our image'. It is these which gave the Law." He said, "Marriage is the work of Satan; the demons ensnare the bad men and lead them to evil, and the Saviour came to save the good."

Basilides said, "We must honour and venerate the serpent, because he commanded Eve to sleep with her husband; if he had not existed, the world would no longer exist." He also said that there are 360 heavens, so that every day a new heaven appears, and affirmed many other proposals which he had invented.

But an account of all this will not be given because of its hideous character.

Then another man of the name of Cerinthus appeared, of the city of Corinth. He said that the world is the work of angels, and that the Messiah came from the union of the flesh. The scholar Irenaeus said, "Two years before his death, John the evangelist went into the bath; but on finding Cerinthus the heretic there, he went out without washing himself and said that the building and himself were in danger because of Cerinthus the heretic." 20 

In the last year of the reign of Trajan, the Jews of Egypt, Syria, |51 Palestine and Mesopotamia (al-Djezireh) revolted and set up a king named Lucua. Trajan sent soldiers against them, pursued them everywhere and killed several thousands of them.

Then the emperor Trajan died, aged sixty-six.

In year 4 of Hadrian (?), in year 427 of Alexander, Adrian reigned for twenty-one years.

In year 3 of his reign, Xystus occupied the seat of Rome for 10 years; at Alexandria Justus sat for 11 years; at Jerusalem Philip for 4 years; Seneca succeeded him and sat for 2 years; Justus succeeded him for 1 year; then Ephraim sat for 1 year. At Antioch Cornelius sat for 17 years. At Byzantium, Eleutherius sat for 6 years: he had Polycarp as successor whose episcopate lasted 6 years. Then at Rome, Telesphorus sat for 11 years; at Alexandria Eumenius sat for 13 years. At Ephesus, after Timothy, Onesimus sat; after him, Gaius; after him, Philologus; after him, Lucius; after him, Apollonius; after him, Posidus. |52

In year 4 of Adrian, the kingdom of Edessa was abolished and Roman governors administered the country.

Adrian built a house called Bas.lul 21 in the city of Athens. He gathered there many scholars and gave them the laws of Solon and Draco.

At that time, Sophia and her 3 daughters underwent martyrdom.

In year 18 of his reign, Adrian was infected with elephantiasis. He sought throughout his empire for someone who could heal him, but he was unable to find anyone; and he went to Egypt to find such a man there. He took with him his companion Aquila the astrologer, magician, prognosticator, and diviner, a pacific man. Adrian left Antioch, passed into Syria, and arrived at Jerusalem 47 years after its destruction. After examining the location of the city, and how much of it had been destroyed, he saw that nothing was inhabited except a church of the apostles, and he commanded his companion to rebuild the city. When Aquila undertook this, he believed in the miracles that the disciples (of Christ) had worked, wished to embrace the Christian religion, was baptised and was made a Christian. But he |53 did not renounce magic, astrology and superstitious practices. His disciples prohibited him doing this several times, but he did not obey. Then they excommunicated him and separated him from the church. Then anger, fury and shame led him to copy the (sacred) books which Bartholomew and Judas had composed; he wrote carefully some Syriac and Hebrew books and introduced errors into them in order to show the futility of the advent of our Lord Christ, may he be glorified. These books that he wrote are found in the hands of the Jews even today.

In that year the Jews of Jerusalem revolted. A man called Bar-Kuba came among them and led them astray; he claimed to be descended from heaven, like a star, to deliver them. Many among them followed him, and, as for those who did not, he made war on them and put them to death. At this news, Adrian sent soldiers against him; they attacked Jerusalem, destroyed all the Jews and demolished Jerusalem for the last time. Then another city was built there, called Aelia, in honour of the emperor Adrian, and foreigners were established there. Those of the Jews who remained and had not been killed in the battle had their ears cut off; and were forbidden irrevocably to turn their eyes towards the richness of their mother country. |54

The bishop Mark sat at Jerusalem for four years.

Then Adrian fell ill of dropsy and died, aged sixty-five. (After his death) Titus Antoninus, surnamed the Pious (?), reigned for twenty-two years and three months, in the year 448 of Alexander.

In the first year of his reign, bishop Hyginus sat at Rome for four years; after him, Pius for fourteen years.

At Alexandria, Marcianus sat for ten years; after him, Celadion for fourteen years.

At Antioch, Orthus (Orus, Eros) occupied the episcopal seat for sixteen years; after him Theophilus for fifteen years.

At Byzantium Athenodorus sat for thirteen years.

At Jerusalem, after Marcus, sat Cassianus, first of the gentile bishops, for three years; then Publius sat for four years; then he had for successor Maximus who sat for five years; then Julianus, for six years; then Gaius had an episcopate of two years, and his successor Matousous (? Symmachus) sat for four years.

At Rome Anicetus also sat for ten years. |55

At that time, there appeared at Rome a man named Valentinus, and another named Cerdon, who were the teachers of Marcion. Valentinus said that the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, brought a body with him from heaven, and that it was found in Mary the virgin like water in a river-bed, taking nothing from her.

Cerdon said that several divinities gathered together and created the world; and he denied the resurrection.

Then at Rome there appeared a man named Marcus who said that 360 gods existed from all eternity; they all gathered together and created the world, and each of them governed it in turn; power belonged to each of them for one day a year during which he was the sole master of it; among them, some loved good, the others evil. But united they had the ability to do good and evil, and they could choose in this regard. The chief of the gods sent the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, who was a part of his nature, in order to get men to worship him alone and obey him. Learning of this, the gods stirred up mankind against him, and these crucified him. |56

The history of Marcion

Then there appeared a man named Marcion, who was the son of a certain bishop of the land of Pontus. He found there a pious girl who stayed day and night at the church; she was a virgin. Marcion seduced her and corrupted her. When his father learned this, he excommunicated him and expelled him from the church. He went to Rome; but the faithful of that church would not receive him and scorned him. Returning to Asia, he attached to himself a bishop of that land named Aristinus. Marcion went out in public, proselytised, and discoursed on religion. When the bishop died, Marcion was not there. When he arrived, he was given the testament which bishop Aristinus had written, and where he was given (his last wishes). Marcion took it and read it, but, seeing nothing favourable to himself, he left in anger and corrupted all the people that he had captured for his purposes by his teaching.

The Lord Christ, may he be glorified, he said, was not the son of the Creator, as I told you until now; on the contrary, he is a stranger to him. There are 3 divine beings; one the Good, which is on high; the other the Evil, which is below; the third the Just, which is in the middle. The just god |57 formed the matter which was in the depths and called the wicked being, there manifested his acts, and created the sky, the four elements, paradise and the stars of heaven. Then he took from the mud of paradise, fashioned from it [the body] of man, placed a soul of his own substance and nature in him and ... like him. Then he created from the dregs of matter Tartarus, the earth and its larger inanimate objects; he created all the animals of the earth and placed in them a created soul. Then he finished by creating Adam; and he married him off; they multiplied and their descendants were numerous. While the earth was being filled with men, he gave them the books of the Torah and all the ancient books which contained his commandments, his prohibitions, his promises and his threats. Then, as the good God watched this, he stirred from his inertia and was jealous of the Just Being, the creator, and was envious of him; and he sent his son, who was of his nature and substance, to be with the creatures of the Just to recall them to the worship of his Father and to redeem them by his blood. He traversed his regions and passed, with the Just being knowing it, until he came down on to the earth where the fundament of matter was found. He saw the corruption of the creatures and their estrangement from religion and he led them to worship his Father. When the Creator learned this, he stirred up his servitors against him, and the Son himself gave to companions of the Creator the power to kill him and redeemed them by his power and his blood; then he returned from death and converted them to the worship of his Father. Embracing the worship of the good God, |58 they reduced the Just being, the Creator, to impotence. The Good God gave them new books which did not agree with those that the Just Creator had given them with his commandments, his prohibitions, his promises and his threats. He took paradise from the Creator; he established there those who were obedient to his order; but those who disobeyed him. He threw them into hell and made them remain there for ever. Of the evangelists he only accepted Luke.

Marcion published this impure teaching and the bishops exhorted him for a long time to return to the truth; but as he persisted in his error, they excommunicated him and expelled him from the church.

All this took place in the time of Titus Antoninus, the first year of his reign, which is the year 449 of Alexander. In year 470 of Alexander Marcus began to reign, with his two sons Antoninus and Lucius, for 19 years.

In year 8 of his reign at Rome bishop Soter sat for 8 years; his successor Eleutherius sat for 30 years.

At Alexandria Agrippinus sat for 12 years; after him, Julianus for 10 years. |59

At Antioch Maximus sat for 18 years.

At Byzantium Protonicus (Pertinax) sat for 10 years; after him Olympianus for 12 years.

At Jerusalem Gaius sat for 3 years; after him another Gaius for 4 years; then Symmachus for 3 years.

In year 12 of the reign of Marcus, Dionysius, bishop of Corinth, was illustrious, who composed several books.

In year 16 of Marcus, there was agitation against the Christians, and they were persecuted extremely; many bishops underwent martyrdom and Justus the philosopher was also crowned with martyrdom at Rome.

At this time appeared a man named Tatian, who was a disciple of Justus, the philosopher of whom we have spoken as being crowned with martyrdom. After leaving his teacher he abandoned orthodoxy and was the author of a great heresy. There exists, he said, several divine beings and several invisible aeons; everything is a mixture of good and evil, because everything lives in pairs (Syzygy). He altered and reversed the order of the tribes (genealogies) which had been fixed; he said that the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, |60 [is of the race of] David 22. He composed a gospel which differed from that ... He said that after death, eating... his errors (produced) several difficulties.

Then there appeared [a man] named Montanus who claimed to be the Paraclete. The Lord Christ, may he be glorified, [he said], sent him into the world; some disciples gathered to follow him, and he set himself to teach a doctrine of impiety and error. Then he was excommunicated and expelled; but he made some proselytes and had some followers who remained attached to him until his death.

Then at Rome appeared another heresiarch named Florinus, who was a priest. He was the object of public indignation and was deposed from the priesthood. Then he left the church, full of anger, and attracted some disciples.

He said that there were three divine beings who agreed among themselves: one of them was established on high, the second below him, in the middle, and the third below the latter, at the bottom. Each of the last two honours, respects and considers as superior to himself those above him. The god which is in the middle calls the god who is above him the Father; and the god at the bottom likewise gives the name of |61 Father to him who is above him, so that each of them is like the Son to him that is above him. Together they created the world. (In the beginning) they formed and created a subtle substance; then they created man and placed him in the region located between heaven and earth; they embellished this location with fires and lights, making for him a paradise where they planted different species of pleasant trees, and established him in the newly created world. A certain angel, seeing this, envied the man; without the permission of the gods he came down and established himself with a certain number of his companions. He set himself to oppose the man and wanted to expel him from paradise; and he didn't stop opposing him and fighting him until he was expelled from it; then he possessed himself of Paradise. The man multiplied and his descendants were numerous; but they were unable to return to Paradise. When the gods saw this, they sent to him someone to get him to return to his place, and so that the man and his posterity might reenter Paradise; but (the angel) refused to do it. Then the gods were annoyed with the angel and his companions. Then the bottom god was himself entrusted with it. By a ruse he transformed himself into a man and appeared before Satan who was disobedient and before his companions; he didn't stop fighting against them until he expelled them from Paradise and had restored the first man to his place. Florinus denied the resurrection of the dead. Apart from that, he advanced some impious propositions which he had put forward. |62

At this time at Menbidj (Hierapolis) there lived a wise man, Apollinarius, who was bishop of Menbidj. He battled against the sectaries of this heresy, refuted their opinions and composed several books on this subject.

History of the damned Ibn-Daisan (Bardesanes)  

In year 15 of Souhouq son of Narses, king of Persia, which is the year 465 of Alexander, a certain number of the inhabitants of his empire conspired against Souhouq, king of Persia, and wanted to kill him. He was informed of this, and had them arrested. There he found a man named Nouhama with his wife who was called Nahsiram. Learning what the king had ordered in this matter — he lived in the middle of the people — he and his wife left the city of the king and went to Edessa, where they settled. His wife Nahsiram was then pregnant. Then Nouhama was afraid that one of the Persian merchants who came from time to time to Edessa would notice him and have him arrested with his wife.

So he left Edessa and travelled towards the Euphrates, while his wife was |63 already on the point of giving birth. When he had left Edessa and come to the river, just below the town which is called Daisan, on the bank of the river his wife Nahsiram gave birth to a son, to whom they gave the name of Ibn Daisan, from the name of this river where she gave birth. They fled again, he and his wife, into a cave close to the road, where they settled and stayed for 25 days. Then he left that place, crossed the Euphrates and came to Menbidj (Hierapolis), where he settled. He found himself at Menbidj an old pagan priest, who had no children at all. The priest ... Nouhama and lived with him; his son became attached to the priest and the latter adopted him. When the child began to walk and was larger, he set himself to learn from the priest the teachings of the pagans and their mysteries, and he so arrived at the age of puberty. Then the priest who was instructing him sent him one day to Edessa so that he could bring back certain objects and certain things that he needed for the cult of the gods whom he worshipped. In walking in the streets of Edessa, he passed a church built by the apostle Addai; he heard the voice of thebishop of Edessa, who was preaching to the people from the sacred books. Ibn Daisan reflected in his heart and decided to learn the mysteries of Christianity. He went into the church, frequented it, and made known to the Christians that which had struck him. Then (the bishop) explained to him the truth of Christianity, baptised him, made him a deacon, and gave him a job at the church. |64

The young man bowed, went out, abandoned his family and his mother and began to make some treatises in which he refuted the false opinions that were current in that place; and he didn't stop doing this until the pagans had had a particular conference with him. So they corrupted him and sowed their weeds into his heart. He took up again the mysteries of paganism that the priest of Menbidj had taught him, adopted the teaching of Anathousois (or Scuthinus?) 23 and became the author of a heresy in which he had no predecessor. There are, he said, seven elements of which three are the principal ones, and the other four are less important. The three principal elements are: Intellect, Force and Spirit; the other four are Fire, Water, Light and Air. These seven elements are associated with one another, and from this union come 360 worlds. Man is likewise created from these seven elements: his soul is formed from the three principal and spiritual (elements); in another book, he admits that the body of man is composed of the four inferior elements. He affirms also the existence of seven and twelve (principles); he says: the brain of man comes from the sun; his bones from Saturn; his veins from Mercury; his blood from Mars; his flesh from Jupiter; his hair from Venus, his skin from the moon. |65 

According to this teaching, man consists in these seven things. (Ibn Daisan) says: As the moon increases and then diminishes through thirty days, so the Mother of life removes her clothes each month and goes into the Father of life; he is united to her, and she gives birth to seven children. So, each year, her children number 84. (Ibn Daisan) denied the resurrection of the body. He said that carnal copulation with women is a purification for them and a dimunition of the sin which is in them, and that in this way they may become better.

This happened in the time of Marcus and his two sons, Lucius and Antoninus.

Commodus, son of Antoninus, reigned for thirteen years, in the year 489 of Alexander.

The first year of his reign, at Alexandria the bishop Julianus sat for ten years; his successor was Demetrius who sat for forty-two years.

In the year 10 of Commodus, at Rome sat the bishop Victor for ten years.

At Antioch sat the bishop Serapion for twenty-one years.

At Byzantium sat the bishop Pertinax for eighteen years. |66

At Jerusalem sat the bishop Maximus for four years; after him, Antoninus for three years; after him Valens for four years; after him Dolichianus for four years.

The emperor Commodus died and Pertinax succeeded him and reigned six months, and he was killed in his palace.

In the year 502 of Alexander, Severus reigned for eighteen years.

In the year 9 of his reign, at Rome sat the bishop Narcissus.

In the year 10 of his reign there appeared at Rome two men, one called Artemon and the other Theodotus. They said that Christ was an ordinary created man and that he wasn't God at all; but that the Holy Spirit was of the substance of God and of his naturtem and that he had created the Son from nothing.

In the same year Severus stirred up a great persecution against the Christians and forced them to embrace paganism and to sacrifice to idols.

At this period the philosopher Origen was famous, who was a learned man of Alexandria where he was a professor. He had many disciples among whom |67 were: Gregory Thaumaturgus, Theodore bishop of Tarsus, Heracleas who became bishop of Alexandria and others.

In the year 13 some difficulties arose between the Jews and Samaritans: they went to war and a great number were killed on both sides.

In the year 520 of Alexander Antoninus Q.ntus 24 began to reign (Caracalla); his reign lasted seven years.

In the first year of his reign at Antioch the bishop Asclepiades sat, whose episcopate lasted 12 years.

At Byzantium the bishop Marcus sat for 3 years.

At Ephesus sat Onesimus for 10 years; after him, Lucius; after him, Proclus.

Narcissus occupied the episcopal seat of Jerusalem. He left his seat and retired to the desert. His successor Dius sat for 3 years; after him Germanus for 7 years; after him Gordius for 2 years. Then after 12 years Narcissus reappeared. (The bishops) asked him to return to his see (seat) and take up his ministry again, but he refused because he could not move because of his great age and his very advanced years. So they established Alexander in his place. |68

Macrinus reigned for one year.

At this period at Rome sat the bishop Calixtus for 5 years.

In the year 528 of Alexander Antoninus (Heliogabalus) began to reign; he reigned four years.

In the first year of his reign the city of Nicopolis was constructed in the land of Palestine, which the Holy Scripture calls Emmaus.

In the year 532 of Alexander, Alexander son of Mamma began to reign; his reign lasted 13 years.

In the first year of his reign, bishop Urbanus occupied the seat of Rome for 8 years; after him Pontianus for 6 years.

In the year 8 of his reign, at Alexandria after Demtrius sat Heracles for 16 years.

At Antioch sat Philetus for 9 years; his successor Zebina (Zebennus) sat for 12 years.

At Byzantium Cyrillianus sat for 15 years. |69

In the year 9 of the reign of Alexander Severus, Ardashir, son of Babek, the first king of Persia of the line of the Sassanids, came to the position of king and reigned for 14 years; this year was the 541st of Alexander.

Then reigned Maximianus (Maximinus) for 3 years. The inhabitants of his empire (the soldiers) attacked and killed him. He stirred up a persecution against the Christians and killed Sergius and Bacchus, the martyrs, and many other martyrs.

In the year 548 of Alexander Gordianus came to empire and reigned for 6 years.

In the first year of his reign, at Rome there sat the bishop Anterus for a month; after him, Fabius (Fabianus) for 14 years.

At Byzantium sat Constantine (Castinus, Kistinus) for 6 years.

At this period appeared at Caesarea of Pontus (Neocaesarea) Gregory Thaumaturgus.

At Antioch sat the bishop Babylas. He opposed the governor of Antioch in his time, and forbade him to enter the churches and mock them. So the governor killed him with three young folk, his disciples. |70

At this period Africanus was famous, author of chronicles who composed many books on the eras and the dates of kings and others.

At that time Africanus was illustrious, author of the chronicles, who composed several books on the times and the lives of the kings and others.

In the year 554 of Alexander, Philip became emperor and reigned for seven years; he professed the doctrines of Christianity. When he wanted to go into the church, the bishop forbade him and said to him: "You cannot go in there, so long as you will persist in your sins; you are a sinner; you must confess your sins to God for a definite and given time; then you will go into (the church) with the believers." And (the emperor) remained outside with the penitents.

In the first year of his reign, there reigned over the Persians Sabour, son of Ardashir, for thirty one years

In year 3 of his reign, there sat in Alexandria the bishop Dionysius for eighteen years; he was one of the disciples of Origen.

In this year, a sect of heretics appeared which said: "He who apostasises with his mouth, refuses to recognize God and hides his faith in his heart, is not an infidel, because his faith is in the thoughts of his heart and his desire; it is the same for incredulity." They put about on this subject a book where they tell that he who reads it and listens to it, receives the forgiveness of his sins. They did not accept any of the prophets and apostles. |71

At this time, the convents and the communities of monks were founded; they were established by Antonius, an Egyptian monk, and Paul the monk, the first of whom instituted the use of woollen clothing (the cilice) and the solitary life in the desert.

In the year 561 of Alexander, Decius became emperor and reigned for one year and three months. He conspired against the life of the emperor Philip, and he killed him because of his inclination for Christianity. Decius was an enemy of the Christians and he persecuted them cruelly; many of them suffered martyrdom, and Fabianus, bishop of Rome, was put at death; his successor Cornelius, in Rome, had a pontificate of three years.

In Antioch, after Babylas, Flavianus (Fabius) sat for four years.

Alexander, bishop of Jerusalem, was also put to death; Mazabanus succeeded him and sat for fifteen years

At that time, there appeared in Rome a priest called Novatus the heretic. He said that there is no forgiveness for those who sin after baptism, because those who are baptized must resemble Christ, may he be glorified, and be pure like him. He was excommunicated and driven out. Dionysius, bishop |72 of Alexandria, wrote letters to him, where he informed him and requested him to give up his personal opinion and to return to the catholic doctrines; otherwise he would be in revolt and would leave the Church. But he did not accept his remonstrances. Then sixty bishops met in council to deal with him and they excommunicated him.

At the time of Decius, the story of the young men happened, i.e. the sleepers of the cave. Here is what happened to them: Decius made a search for them, and they fled and hid in a cave. Having learned this, he ordered the entrance of the cave to be stopped up. It was done. But God sent a sleep on them which lasted until the day of their awakening.

In the year 562 of Alexander, Gallus and Valusius (Valusianus) reigned for two years. In the first year of their reign, Origen the philosopher died.

In this year, in Rome, the bishop Lucius sat for eight years; after him, Stephanus for two years.

In Antioch, Demetrianus sat for two years.

In Byzantium, Titus the bishop sat for thirty years.

At that time, in Egypt, a man named Sabellius appeared. He said |73 that the Father and the Son, may he be praised, are the names of only one essence and of several qualities with which it is provided; Our lord Christ, may he be glorified, appeared in the Old Testament with the attributes of the Father; then he took (?) a body in which he appeared in the world; he instituted the New Testament, where he was given as the Son, and he spoke to the Apostles as the Holy Spirit; but nevertheless, he is only one essence, only one person, only one God, who appeared under three aspects. Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, refuted him. The fathers excommunicated him and drove him out.

In the year 564 of Alexander, Valerian with Gallienus, his son, became emperor and reigned for fifteen years. He acted against the Christians and excited a great persecution against them; and holy Cyprian underwent martyrdom.

In the year 9 of his reign, Sabour, son of Ardashir, son of Babek, king of Persia, made war against Valerian. Sabour fought him, put him to flight, took him captive and took him back to Babylon. His son succeeded him as emperor. When Gallienus saw what had happened to Valerian, he put an end to the persecution against the Christians, had confidence in them and asked them to help him in matters of government.

At that time, in Rome, Xystus (Sixtus) the bishop sat, who governed for four years; (after him), Dionysius, disciple of Xystus, for nine years. |74

In Antioch, sat Paul of Samosata for fifteen years.

In Jerusalem, Hymenaeus sat for twenty-four years.

Paul of Samosata said that God, alone and solitary, did not generate and was not born; one speaks about the Father and the Son only as a parable; Christ, may he be glorified, did not exist before Mary; he was an ordinary man, and not God. Several bishops met in council about him and excommunicated him.

In the year 2 of Gallienus, Gar...ous was converted.

In this year, in Alexandria, Maximus sat for eight years. At the same time, the heretic Nepos the wicked made himself known, and this Nepos taught...

In the year 579 of Alexander, Claudius came to the empire and reigned for one year and nine months.

In the first year (of his reign), in the sky four stars appeared which formed a crown of fire.

In the year 580 of Alexander, Aurelian became emperor and had a reign of six years.

At that time, Paul of Samosata was excommunicated. A synod had been convened against him previously. He had made a show of repentance and of |75 conversion (to God). But when the synod had broken up, he returned to his first opinion. Then in this year, (the bishops) met (again) against him and excommunicated him; but he refused to leave the Church and had recourse to the emperor. The Christians also sought the help of the emperor Aurelian, who ordered him driven out of the Church. He was expelled in spite of himself and he remained in exile until his death.

The history of Mani (Manes) the damned.

The father of Mani was a man of Susa, named Foutbaq, from Al-Ahwaz; his wife was called Yousit; she gave him a son whom he called Qourbiqous. When he had grown and reached seven years of age, he was |76 taken into captivity and was led into Egypt. A woman of Africa, named Susannah, bought him. Her husband was called Sakousi. The doctors of Egypt attended him, and he shared the ideas of Pythagoras and of Empedocles and he had a disciple named B.rdourous, who was previously called Terbintos. Sakousi the woman's husband having died, his disciple, of whom we spoke and whose name was Bardourous, married her. He took along the woman and the young man whom she had bought, and, after having travelled, he arrived at Babylon. He said to the Persians that he had been born from a virgin and that he had been raised up in the mountains.

He composed four books; he called one the "Book of the Mysteries", another the "Gospel", the third the "Book of the Treasury," and the fourth the "Book of the chapters". He did not cease misleading people by his magic, insolence and perfidiousness, until he had amassed much money and had died in a miserable way. Susannah, his wife, after burying him, dealt with the young man; she was given to him; and she gave him the money of her husband, |77 about which I spoke above, and the books which her second husband had made; and she was united to him, i.e. to the young man Qourbiqous, who was her third husband. The young man informed himself from these books and applied himself for a long time to the study of the letters. Then the woman died and left the money and the books to the young man. He carried off the money and the books and arrived at Susa, his city and the place of his birth. He gave himself the name Mani and claimed to be the author of these books.

As he professed Christianity, the bishop of al-Ahwaz made him a priest; he taught at the church and explained the Scriptures and started to talk against the pagans, the Jews, the Magi and all the followers of the heretical doctrines in contradiction with Christianity. He chose disciples, of which one was called Addai, another Thomas, the third Hermeas (M.radi). He sent his disciple Addai to Yemen to invite people to embrace his doctrines; and he sent Thomas to India. Hermeas remained near him in Susa. The two disciples returned and let him know that (the people) had not complied with their word and had not received them. He was extremely irritated at this, abandoned the doctrines of the Christians which he had seemingly professed, and became the author of an absurd heresy.

He represented himself as the Paraclete whom the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, promised to send to his disciples. He gathered twelve disciples; and he blew on them, |78 as the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, did to his disciples. They separated, he and they, to lead the world astray.

He said: "I did not speak seriously when I said that the one God subsists in three person." Here in addition is what he wrote and did not cease inculcating: There were always two Beings of which one is God, source of Good and source of the Light and Kindness; the other is Matter, the substance of Evil and source of Ignorance, Darkness and Corruption. God is sublime and without limit; as for the two substances of the middle, they are limited, palpable and corporeal. One fine day, the Evil substance, having been disturbed, stirred up its children against each other; its children are the devils, demons, fire and water. They did not cease to make war against each other until they came to the place of the Good, and they stole its Light. They came then and said: "Let us attack it; if it is something edible, we will eat it; and if Good is a drink, we will drink it." And they resolved to attack it. When God, who is the principle of Good, had seen this, he took a piece of himself and threw it to them. The Evil Being absorbed this piece of God, whodrank him, was involved in him and was merged with him. And from this mixture the world was created. The most high God placed his two beloveds 25 at the end (of the reign) of the principle of the Evil. |79 And God recover this piece, which passed to the Evil principle, and will join it little by little to his substance; and he will be secure against the principle of the Evil so much so that the latter will not be able to fight against him a second time.

He denied the resurrection of the dead and he said that the Lord Christ is by essence and by nature, the Son of God; God sent him to the pieces which had passed from his substance to the principle of the Evil, to announce to them that they would be delivered from the Evil Being and that they would return to him with those who were on the side of Evil and did not know it. (Mani said:) All the substance of Christ is only a phantom. He said that he had not been really crucified and had not died; but that his crucifixion and death were only an appearance, because the Evil Being stirred up against him its demons, which killed him and crucified him seemingly; but actually that did not take place. He was saved and reunited with the divine whole. He said that souls are transmitted. He said that he was the Apostle of Christ, that he is of the pure essence of God and that the body in which he appeared, is only a phantom.

Sabour, son of Ardashir, king of the Persians, had him killed, skinned his body, impaled him and thus crucified him.

In the year 6 of Aurelian, Hormizd reigned in Persia for one year.

In this same year, was born the emperor Constantine. |80

(At that time) Eusebius, bishop of Laodicea, was known among the learned.

Then Aurelian wanted to stir up in all his empire a persecution against the Christians; but while he was thinking of it, lightning fell..., and struck him.

Tacitus reigned for six months and was killed.

Florianus reigned for six years and was killed in Tarsus.

Probus reigned for seven years, in the year 586 of Alexander. In the first year of his reign, Varahran, son of Varahran, reigned in Persia and occupied the throne for three years; he had as a successor his son Varahran who reigned for seventeen years.

In the year 4 of his reign, sat in Rome, after Felix who had governed for six years, Eutychianus for one year; Gaius succeeded him and had a fifteen year pontificate.

In Alexandria, Theonas sat for nineteen years.

In Antioch, Timaeus sat for fifteen years.

In Byzantium, Domitius (Domitianus) sat for twenty-three years. |81

In Jerusalem, Hermanus sat.

Then the emperor Probus was killed in a war.

After him, Carus, with his sons Carinus and Numerian, reigned for three years, in year 593 of Alexander; they were killed, all three, in a war.

In the year 2 of his reign, the martyrs Cosmas and Damianus were put to death.

Diocletian reigned for twenty years, in the year 596 of Alexander; the era of Diocletian starts from that year.

In the first year of his reign, the bishop Marcellinus occupied the see of Rome for fifteen years; after him, Eusebius for five years.

In Antioch, Cyrillus sat for eleven years; his successor (in Rome) Marthis (Maltiades) had a five year pontificate

In Alexandria, Peter sat for eleven years

After him (in Antioch), Tyrannus sat for ten years

In Byzantium, Probus sat.

Peter (of Alexandria) was succeeded by Archelaus (Achillas), according to what is in the diptych; it was a pontificate of eleven years. |82

In Jerusalem, after Hermanus who governed for twenty-four years, sat (Vitalius (?)) for eight years, and his successor Heraclius for nine years.

At that time there were four co-emperors: Diocletian; Maximianus, son-in-law of Diocletian; Maxentius, son of Diocletian (Maximianus), and Constantine. Diocletian and Maximianus governed the East, i.e. Armenia, Egypt, Syria and Mesopotamia as far as Palestine; and their administration was separate. As for Maxentius, son of Diocletian (Maximianus), he only reigned in Rome and over the neighbouring countries and the regions. Constantine reigned over Constantinople, which is Byzantium.

At that time, the inhabitants of Egypt and Alexandria revolted; and Diocletian sent against them many troops of soldiers who destroyed them.

In the year 11 of Diocletian, there reigned in Persia Narses for seven years; after him, Hormizd reigned for five years.

In the year 19 of his reign, Diocletian ordered the churches of the Christians to be destroyed, and they were ruined, totally, from floor to roof; and he started to persecute the Christians violently; that lasted for eight years, and a great number of them were put to death. |83

In this same year, Peter, bishop of Alexandria, suffered martyrdom. He was the first to uncover the heresy of Arius, and he anathematised him, because Arius disturbed his time and claimed that the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, is only a man and is not God. Peter died, without lifting (the anathema). After Peter had been put to death, Archelaus (Achillas) succeeded to him for one year; after him, the patriarch Alexander occupied the seat for twenty-three years.

There was, that year, a terrible famine, so much so that a modius of wheat was sold for 2500 dirhams.

Then Diocletian abdicated power, withdrew to his house and remained insane all the time until the moment of his death. His son-in-law Maximianus did the same. They had as successors one Severus and the other Maximianus, who persecuted the Christians and killed a great number of them.

After a reign of one year, Severus was killed.

Constantine the Great reigned for thirty-three years, in the year 627 of Alexander. He was the first of the sovereigns of the Romans and the Greeks who accepted baptism and converted to Christianity.

In the year 3 of his reign, he ordered the walls of Byzantium to be built, called it Constantinople and made it the capital. |84

(At that time), the bishop Mitrophanus occupied the see for thirteen years; after him, Alexander for twenty-three years.

In Antioch, Vitalius sat for six years; after him, Philogonius for five years; after him, Eustathius for eight years; after him, Paulinus for one year; after him, Eulalius for six years.

In Jerusalem, Macarius sat for twenty-four years; after him, Maximus for fifteen years

At that time, Father Pachomius, a monk of Egypt, started to found the communities and convents in Egypt.

In the year 5 of Constantine, Sabour, son of Hormizd, reigned in Persia for seventy years.

In the year 7 of his reign, Maximianus was killed.

In this same year, Constantine prepared to make war against Maxentius, son of Maximianus, son-in-law of Diocletian, because he had revolted (against him), had seized Rome and the neighbouring countries and had started to maltreat and persecute the inhabitants. Constantine reflected and thought that, if God helped him in this combat, he would worship him. While he was thinking about this, he raised his eyes to heaven in the middle of the day and saw there the image of a luminous cross on which was written: "In this sign and this image you will conquer." All those who were with him were also witnesses of this extraordinary |85 vision. The following night, he saw the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, who said to him: "Go to a goldsmith and say to him to make you (an image) of gold in the resemblance of that which you saw in the sky; and with this sign you will conquer and overcome your enemy and you will triumph over all those who are opposed to you." When morning came, (he did what the vision prescribed). It is because of this wonder that the emperors of the Romans were from now on preceded by the cross in their armies and their wars.

Then Constantine marched against Rome. Maxentius, son of Maximianus, went out to meet him; but he was put to flight, fell into the river and drowned... Rome for twelve years. On this day the emperor Constantine captured Rome and entered there. The Christians who were there, were fleeing in fear of him. Bishop Eusebius (Silvester) had also fled.

Constantine had married a daughter of Diocletian, who was called Maximi.

Constantine being leprous in his body, certain pagans came near him and said to him: "If you want, O emperor, to be purified of your leprosy, kill the children who are in this city and wash yourself in their blood." He ordered that the children should be taken to kill them. Then great clamours were heard in the city and its surroundings. When he had heard this, he had pity on them and ordered them let go and returned them to their parents. During the night |86 he saw in a dream two men who said to him: "If you want to be purified of your leprosy, send to seek out the bishop of Rome, Silvester, who, to hide from you, is in flight in the mountains, and make him come here; it is he who will cure your leprosy." In the morning he sent to seek out the bishop; he was found and brought back. When he came to the emperor, the latter said to him: "Explain to me, O man of God, who are the two pious men whom I saw this night in a dream." The bishop said to him: "O emperor! Those whom you saw, are not gods, but men like you: it is Peter and Paul, disciples of the Lord Christ, may he be glorified." And the bishop sent to seek out their image from the church. Seeing them, the emperor said: "In truth, these are those that I saw in dream." Then the bishop preached to the emperor and explained the principles of Christianity to him. The emperor believed and accepted baptism. At the moment of his baptism his leprosy disappeared and fell like scales from a fish.

Having received baptism, he ordered that the churches of the Christians destroyed throughout the country should be rebuilt; and they were restored. He established for them good and useful laws. At that time, approximately 12,000 pagans and Jews accepted baptism, without counting women and children. They praised the Great God and prayed for the emperor and the bishop. |87

That took place in the year 11 of Constantine, which was the year 628 of Alexander.

When the Jews who did not accept baptism saw this, envy misled them, and they said that it was not Christ who had cured the emperor of his leprosy, but the God alone whom the Jews worshipped. Having heard this, the emperor was disturbed by it, because of his desire to know the truth; he gathered twelve heads of the Jews and twelve bishops and ordered to them to discuss in front of him; and he did not cease listening to them greedily and acting as referee between them until they had finished their discussion. He made them go home and stuck to Christianity.

Then his mother Helena converted to Christianity, accepted baptism and went to Jerusalem on pilgrimage to beseech the protection of the Lord Christ, may he be glorified. She built churches of Great God in Jerusalem and in all the country. That was done with the assistance of Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem. She took the nails with which the hands and the feet of the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, had been nailed, carried them to her son Constantine, who made some into a bit for his horse. He also took half of the cross, according to what certain people claim, and brought it to Constantinople. The other half remained in Apamea. She covered with gold the half that she had brought, and placed it at Constantinople in a church. There are some |88 people who believe that she did not leave anything of it at Apamea and that she brought the complete cross to Constantinople.

The history of the damned Arius.

In the time of the emperor Constantine, there was in Alexandria a man named Arius. Peter, bishop of Alexandria, ordained him deacon; but having learned that Arius moved away from the truth, he excommunicated him. Then Peter was put to death and had as a successor Archelaous (Achillas) as bishop. Arius interceded with the latter and had recourse to the intervention of people close to him. Then Achillas lifted the excommunication that Peter the martyr, had pronounced against him, and made him a priest. But after a little time, he showed his hypocrisy and expressed what had been hidden in his heart. Arius envied Alexander because of his knowledge, his high culture and his influence. Alexander ordered in another message: Alexander was mistaken, because Achillas, who was after Peter... Achillas the year... (Alexander allowed?) Arius one day to preach at the time of a festival. When he had gone up into the pulpit, he began his sermon by quoting the passage where Solomon, son of David, says in his Book: "The Lord created me |89 before his creatures." One of those present asked him to interpret this passage. Arius answered him: "I understand only (by this passage) that the Lord Christ, the Son, was created before all the creatures." Then, one day, Arius went up into the pulpit and preached for the second time; he treated in his sermon the same idea and asserted that the Son is created. After that day he was forbidden by the priests to preach in the pulpits of Alexandria. The people wanted to know his opinion, so he taught them his doctrines and taught that the Lord Christ, may he be glorified, according to his opinion, is a created man, that the Son has a beginning and that he created the Holy Spirit. When Alexander had been informed about his doctrines, he assembled nearly one hundred bishops of Egypt, who anathematised him and all those who shared his ideas. Then bishop Alexander bishop informed the Patriarch of Constantinople about this. Arius also wrote to Eusebius, bishop of Nicomédie, requesting his help, and he let him know that several bishops shared his doctrines; among them: Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea in Palestine; Theodotus, bishop of Laodicea; Paulinus, bishop of Tyre; A.m.s, bishop of Menbidj (Hierapolis); Athanasius, bishop of Anazarbe, and others. Then Arius went to Rome, was presented to the emperor |90 Constantine and complained to him about the way in which Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, had treated him and his followers; and he explained to him why his doctrines were the truth.

Then the emperor Constantine wrote to Alexander, requesting him to lift the anathema on Arius. But Alexander refused to do it. Then the emperor, wanting to know the truth, to inform himself and to understand, sent to all the bishops the following letter:

"On behalf of the emperor Constantine to the bishops and monks who receive our present message, greeting! You know already what I expressed in an absolute way, that I have nothing more at heart and that there is nothing better in my eyes than the fear of God and the veneration which is due to him, with that brings us closer to God. The first synod had already gathered in Ancyra, town of Galatia. Now we have judged it good to convene another synod in the town of Nicaea for several reasons: the first is the convenient situation (of this city) for the bishops of Antioch and other cities; the second, the stability and softness of the climate; the third, that I will be in the vicinity of the Synod and that I will attend the meetings which will take place there. This is why I let you know, my brothers, and I order you to prepare yourselves and to arrange to travel to |91 the said town of Nicaea; — so that each one of you reflects on my order and regards it as his duty; arrange to arrive quickly, without sloth or negligence. Let each one of you attend the council of Nicaea as we have said. May God keep you and his grace be fulfilled in you. Greeting!"

The meeting of the council required a long time. Constantine charged those around him to organise the council and the bishops and the metropolitans who arrived successively at Nicaea, so that each got the residence which was appropriate for his rank and dignity until all the bishops of all the cities were brought together. And (those close to the emperor) carried this out.

When the council was assembled, they wrote to the emperor to notify their meeting to him. The emperor entered, placed himself in the middle of the company and assisted at the actions from beginning to end. Their first session took place on the 9 of Haziran (June) in the year 636 of Alexander, which is the year 19 of Constantine.

Here are the names of the most famous prelates at this council:

Viton and Vicentius, two priests, representatives of the pope of Rome. |92 Alexander, bishop of Alexandria. Macarius, bishop of Jerusalem. Germanus, bishop of Samaria (Schamrin, Neapolis). Eusebius, bishop of Damascus. Anatolius, bishop of Hims (Emesa). Eustathius, bishop of Antioch. Zinabius, bishop of Seleucia. James, bishop of Nisibis and with him holy Ephraim the doctor. Theodore, bishop of Tarsus, and others. They anathematised Arius and formulated the symbol (of Nicaea) received by all (the members). They said:

"We believe in one God only, the Father, the almighty, maker of heaven and earth, (of all things) visible and invisible; and in one Lord only, Jesus Christ, the Son of God, alone, begotten of the Father before time, light of light, true God of true God; begotten, not created, consubstantial with the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men, and for our salvation came down from heaven, became incarnate by the Holy Spirit of the virgin Mary, was made man, was crucified for us in the time of Pontius Pilate, suffered, died, was buried, rose again on the third day, as is written, went up to heaven, sat on the right of the Father; and he will return in glory to judge the living and the dead; and his reign will have no end. And in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the giver of life, who proceeds from the Father. |93

"As for those who say: He was and he died; he did not exist before being begotten; he was made of nothing or another substance or essence or another οὐσία; he is changeable or mutable; or that who represents the Son of God by one of these qualities, — that one is anathematised, excommunicated and wicked."

They also settled several questions about the Easter calculation, which was changed, and they wrote 20 canons. Some of these bishops had met before in Ancyra of Galatia, had written 24 canons, then they had gone to Nicaea. Then they met in Caesarea, after their meeting at Ancyra and before that of Nicaea, and also wrote 20 canons. Then 90 bishops gathered in Antioch and wrote 25 canons. Then (bishops) met (in Gangres) and wrote 20 canons. Then they gathered in Laodicea and wrote 19 canons.

All these events took place in the time of the emperor Constantine and of his house.

When Arius was anathematised at the council of the 318 bishops, who wrote his excommunication, there were there a certain number of bishops and other personnages who shared the doctrines of Arius and who refused to sign the excommunication of Arius. As the council inspired them |94 with fear, some of them repented and returned (to God); as for those who did not return, they were excommunicated, anathematised and banished. Among those who were anathematised and banished, were Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia; Theognis, bishop of Nicaea; Mari, bishop of Chalcedon, and Secundus, bishop of Akka (Ptolemaïs).

Then some of the bishops rose and presented to the emperor a letter wherein there were recriminations against other bishops. When the emperor had read it, he ordered that it should be burned and said: "If I find a certain priest suspected and afflicted, I will cover him with my clothing."

Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, was charged to formulate what had been halted by these synods.

The emperor sent a letter to all the provinces wherein he said that all the questions of this synod were finished and completed with the assistance of the Holy Spirit, his inspiration and his power, and that the question of the Easter Festival was appropriately settled. He ordered all the bishops to be zealous in the construction of churches; he ordered Eusebius to write to him the titles of the books that were read, and he ordered the books of Arius burned. He also sent another letter to all his governors in which he said: "On behalf of the emperor Constantine to the bishops, the metropolitans, the priests, |95 the governors and all the people who will receive our letter, greeting! Arius the liar resembles the devil, wicked and malicious, and he has separated himself from the faith; this is why he contradicted the people and became the author of a heresy without precedent. Thus misfortune has seized him and the testing happened to him. It is necessary to burn his books, so that there remains no memory of him and nothing of his words; and I order those who have something of his, to burn and destroy it all; if not, they will be tainted with the misfortune which happened to Arius; and none of them will find for his soul the way of salvation, God willing!"

Then, after these matters, the emperor made war with certain enemies who surrounded him, overcame them and made captive a great number of them.

Alexander, bishop of Alexandria, died 5 months after the meeting of the council of Nicaea; and he had as successor Athanasius, who sat for 46 years

Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia, Théognis and those who shared their doctrines did not give up their opinions, their revolt and their error and they persisted in their impiety; they went, convened a council at Antioch and drove out Eustathius, bishop of Antioch; they stripped him of everything and defamed him. They hid at his house a woman who was pregnant by a certain blacksmith; and she started to shout and say: "I am pregnant by a man who is called Eustathius." They deposed Eustathius and wanted |96 to establish in his place Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea; but the latter did not accept it from them. Then the people were divided into parties; discord reigned and the see of Antioch remained vacant for eight years.

Then, after that, sat the bishop Eulalius for one year; Euphronius succeeded to him and sat for six years.

When the inhabitants of Antioch had driven out Eustathius, they acclaimed Arius and declared in his favour. At the court of the emperor there was a follower of Arius, like a secret agent; he was attached to their doctrines, helped them and protected them. He requested the emperor to write to Arius and to enable him to come to him. The emperor acceded to this and ordered Arius to come to him. When he received the letter, he went to the emperor with a deacon, who had been anathematised with him. The emperor ordered them to explain their faith in a report and to present it to him. When he had examined it, he found there nothing which deviated from the truth.

The emperor wrote to Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and asked him to receive them and to restore them in their rank. But Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, refused to receive them. On this the followers of Arius gathered and, in their deliberations, they resolved to calumniate Athanasius to the emperor and to bring the most serious charges against him. And they acted accordingly. |97

But at the court of the emperor, there was one of the disciples of Athanasius, who apprised the emperor of the trickery of Arius and his followers, their jealousy for Athanasius, the falseness of their calumnies and their charges. Then the emperor ordered that Arius and his followers should be separated and he wrote to Athanasius to come and find him. When he arrived, the emperor questioned him on several points that Arius and his followers had taught, and he explained all that to him. Then the emperor restored him to his place with great honor.

These events took place in the year 30 of Constantine. And we have judged it good to give here the order of the kings who reigned from Adam to this time, according to what the authors of annals report, who wrote and laid out clearly the times and the years. We will join together (information) on the kings of various peoples and various nations as far as we are able, to show what difference exists between them about the increase and of the reduction in the years (of the reign of such or such king), if God the Almighty allows it.

Africanus says in the book that he composed on the times:

Adam governed the world from the beginning for 930 years. Seth, his son, governed the world for 128 years. After him, Alak.r.dis.(Alasparus) |98 for 920 years and 7 months; after him, Amelun for 128 years and 3 months; Alorus king of Medes (?) for 98 years, 9 months and 20 days; after him, Amenon for 168 years and 7 months and half; after him, Metalarus for 157 years and 6 months; after him, Daonus for 98 years and 7 months and half; Evedorachus for 117 years and 6 months and half; Amphis for 98 years and 7 months and half; after him, Otiartes for 28 years and 7 months and half; after him, Xisuthrus for 157 years and 6 months and half. The total number of years from Adam to the flood is 2,242 years In the detailed calculation he misses out 3 months and 10 days.

That agrees with the true Torah, according to the translation of the Seventy which was translated under Ptolemy, king of Egypt, in an irreproachable manner.

After the flood: Noah governed the world for 310 years; Sem, his son, for 130 years; Arphaxad, Khamite, for 33 ans;... hraus |99 (Evechius) for 21 years; Akoumasthous (Chosmasbolus) for 35 years; Kourous (Porus) for 30 years; Nachoubous (Nachoubes) for 33 years; Nabius for 40 years; Osanous (Oniballus) for 35 years; Findirous (Zinzirus) for 41 years; Mardocentes for (44) years; Mardafbus (Mardacus) for 40 years; M.r.d (Sisimordacus), his son, for 45 years; thius (Nabius) for 37 years; Parannus for 40 years; Samouanbous (Nabonnabus) for 28 years; Belus the Assyrian for 15 years; Nabius for 52 years; Semiramis for 42 years; Ninyas, called Zames, for 38 years; Arius for 30 years; Aralius for 40 years; Xerxes for 30 years; Armamithris for 30 years; Malaeus (Balaeus) for 52 years; Athadaus (Sehos) for 32 years; Mamythus for 30 years; Machalaous (Aschalius) for 28 years; Sphaerus for 22 years; Mamylus for 32 years; Asthatharas (Sparthaeus) for 28 years; Amyntes for 45 years; Ochsous (Belochus) for 25 years; Balatoris for 30 years; Lamprides for 32 years; Sosares for 20 years; Saqadataous (Ascadates) |100 for 40 years; Saphranous (Saqranous) for 40 years; .faris (Lampraïs) for 30 years; Phanyas (Panyas) for 45 years; Sousarmous (Sosarmus) for 22 years; Snaraous (Mithraeus) for 27 years; Toutoumaous (Teutamus) for 32 years; Teutaeus for 40 years; Arabilus for 42 years; Kalaous (Chalaus) for 45 years; Anabus for 38 years; Babius for 37 years; Thinaeus for 30 years; Darqoulous (Dercylus) for 40 years; Eupacmis for 38 years; Laosthanis (Laosthenes) for 45 years; Pertiades for 30 years; Arphiathous (Ophrataeus) for 21 years; Ephouthais (Ephecheres) for 50 years; Acraganis for 42 years; Kounthoulaous (Concolerus) for 20 years; 2 Arbacus for 28 years; Mandaous (Mandauces) for 20 years; Sousarmous for 30 years; A.tha.s (Artycas) for 30 years; Deioces for 54 years; Aphraartis for 24 years; Cyaxares for 32 years; Astyages for 28 years; Cyrus Perse for 32 years; Cambyses for 8 years; Darius for 36 years; Xerxes for 21 years; Artaxerxes for 41 years; Darius II for 19 years; Artaxerxes |101 for 46 years; Ochus for 21 years; Arses for two years; Darius III for 6 years; Alexander the Great for 6 years; Ptolemy, son of Lagos, for 39 years; Ptolemy called Philadelphus for 38 years; Ptolemy Evergetes for 25 years; Ptolemy Philopator for 29 years; Ptolemy (Epiphanes) for 24 years; Ptolemy Philometor for 35 years; Ptolemy (Evergetes II) Physcon for 16 years; (Ptolemy) Auletes for 9 years; Ptolemy Alexander for 3 years; Ptolemy Philadelphus II for 8 years; Ptolemy Dionysius for 29 years; Cleopatra for 22 years; Augustus the Romain for 43 years; Tiberius for 22 years; Gaius (Caligula) for 4 years; Claudius for 14 years; Nero for 14 years; Vespasian for 10 years; Titus for 3 years; Domitian for 15 years; Nerva for one year; Trajan for 20 years; Hadrian for 21 years; Titus Antoninus for 23 years; Marcus for 19 years; Commodus for 13 years; Severus for 18 years; Antoninus (Caracalla) for 7 years; Antoninus II (Heliogabalus) for 4 years; Alexander for 13 years; Maximianus (Maximinus) for 3 years; Gordianus for 6 years; Philippus for 6 years; Decius for 2 years; Gallienus for 3 years; Valerian, son of..., for 14 years; Claudius for 2 years; Aurelian for |102 6 years; Probus for 9 years; Carus for 2 years; Diocletian for 19 years; Constantine for 20 years: That made 5,816 years.

Chrysostom says in his treatise that he wrote for Acacius, bishop of Melitene: "You have asked me to explain to you the chronology of the kings who reigned from Adam to Constantine the Great, the pious emperor; and I will explain it to you.

"Adam, at the birth of Seth, was 230 years old; Seth, at the birth of Enos, was 205 years old; Enos, at the birth of Kaïnan, 290 years; Kaïnan, at the birth of Mahalalaïl, was 170 years old; Mahalalaïl lived, before the birth of Jared, 165 years; Jared, before the birth of Hénokh, 122 years; Hénokh, before the birth of Mathusaleh, 165 years; Mathusaleh, before the birth of Lamec, 107 years; Lamec, before the birth of Noah, 88 years; Noah, before |103 the birth of Sem, 105 years; Sem, before the birth of Arphaxad, 102 years; Arphaxad, before the birth of Sçaleh, 135 years; Sçaleh, before the birth of Haber, 130 years; Haber, before the birth of Phaleg, 134 years; Phaleg, before the birth of Ar`û (Rahu), 130 years; Ar`û, before the birth of Sarûg, 132 years; Sarûg, before the birth of Nachor, 130 years; Nachor, before the birth of Tarih, 79 years; Tarih, before the birth of Abraham, 70 years; Abraham, before the birth of Isaac, 100 years; Isaac, before the birth of Jacob, 60 years; Jacob, before the birth of Lévi, 86 years; Lévi, before the birth of Kahath, 46 years; Kahath, before the birth of Amran, 60 years; Amran, before the birth of Moïse the prophet, 73 years. The prophet Moses governed the Israelites in the desert, for 40 years.

"Joshua son of Nun governed the people for 27 years. Othoniel and Eglon the Moabite, for 40 years. The Moabites and Ahod, for 80 years. The Cananites, Debora and Baraq, for 40 years. The Madianites and Gideon, for 40 years. Thola, for 23 years. Abimelek, for 3 years. Jaïr, for 22 years. Jephthah (Jephte) and the Ammonites, for 6 years. Hesbon, for 7 years. Abdon, for 8 years. The Philistines and Samson, for 20 years. Heli, |104 the high priest, for 40 years. Samuel and Saul, for 40 years. David the prophet, for 40 years. Solomon, for 40 years. Roboam, son of Solomon, for 17 years. Abia, for 3 years. Asa, for 41 years. Josaphat, for 25 years. Joram, for 8 years. Ochozia, for one year. Athalia, for 7 years. Joas, for 40 years. Amasia, for 29 years. Azaria, called Ozia, for 52 years. Joatham, for 16 years. Achaz, for 16 years. Hezechiah, for 29 years. Manasseh, for 55 years. Amon, for 12 years. Josiah, for 31 years. Joachaz, for 3 months. Joachim, for 12 years. Jechoniah, for 3 months. Zedekiah, for 11 years. The Israelites remained in Babylon for 70 years.

"Darius (reigned) for 36 years. Xerxes, son of Darius, for 20 years. Artabanus, for 7 months. Artaxerxes Longhand, for 41 years. Xerxes II, for two months. Sogdianus, for 7 months. Darius, son of his mother (?), for 19 years. Artaxerxes Mnemon, for 40 years. Artaxerxes Ochus, for 27 years. Arses, son of Ochus, for 4 years. Darius, son of San (Arsam), for 6 years. Alexander, son of Philip, for 6 years and 7 months. Alexander tells in his book that he reigned for 16 years. |105

"Ptolemy Lagos, for 40 years. Ptolemy Philadelphus, for 38 years. Ptolemy Evergetes, for 26 years. Ptolemy Philopator, for 17 years. Ptolemy (Epiphanes), for 26 years. Ptolemy Philometor (mother-lover), for 35 years. Ptolemy Physcon, for 27 years and two months. Ptolemy Alexander, for 10 years. Ptolemy, who was driven out of the kingdom, for 8 years. Ptolemy, for 30 years. Cleopatra, for 22 years.

"Gaius Caesar, for 4 years and 4 months. Augustus Caesar, for 56 years and 6 months. Tiberius, for 22 years and 3 months. Gaius, for 3 years and 10 months. Claudius, for 13 years and 3 months. Nero, for 13 years and 7 months. Vespasian, for 9 years and 11 months. Titus, for 2 years and 2 months. Domitian, for 15 years and 5 months. Nerva, for one year and 4 months. Trajan, for 19 years and 6 months. Hadrian, for 20 years. Titus Antoninus, for 22 years and 3 months. Marcus, for 19 years. Commodus, for 13 years. Pertinax, for 6 months. Severus, for 18 years. Antoninus Caracalla, for 7 years. Marcianus (Macrinus), for one year. Antoninus (Heliogabalus), for 4 years. Alexander, son of Mammea, for 13 years. Maximinus, |106 for 3 years. Gordianus, for 6 years. Philip, for 7 years. Decius, for one year and 3 months. Aurelian, for 5 years and 3 months. Tacitus, for 6 months. Probus, for 6 years and 4 months. Carus and Carinus, for 2 years. Diocletian and Maximian, for 18 years. Constantine, for 20 years. All that made 5,460 years."

Jachya, son of Adiya, the grammarian, says in his chronicle which he made on... of Constantius (?); he begins and says: Adam governed the world for 230 years; Seth governed the world for 205 years.

History of Oudhi and his work. 26

In year 30 of the reign of the emperor Constantine a man named Oudhi of Edessa appeared; he was a Syrian and archpriest and had always aspired to the episcopal see. Seeing that he would not reach it, he attacked the truth |107 and fought it so as to obtain by this means the dignity (of bishop) outside the Church; he was the author of a great heresy in contradiction to Christianity, and he invented nonsense in which he had no predecessor. He affirmed that there were several gods: the father of life, the mother of life, several different sons and several Spirits. He said: Life is linked with the mother of life, and several gods were born from it. The father of life created an angel; then he ordered him to create all the angels. He believed that the father of life had an enemy; and the father of life created Eve. Then he said to her: "Conceive by me before the god who is below me makes you pregnant." She conceived by him, gave birth, and the race resulting from her multiplied. The body is made from matter, the soul from the substance of the father of life.

When the malicious adversary had seen the father of life, he envied him and wanted to usurp its rank. He detached a piece from him, called it Christ and created a body for him. Having crossed the region of the gods, he went down without any of the gods or spirits seeing him, to call men to the worship of his Master. While he preached to them, he violated the order of his Master; and the father of life set himself in anger against his Christ, killed him and crucified him. Oudhi told that the angels committed adultery with the daughters of men, and some of them had children. Evil is natural to men. The father of life will disappear and vanish, and the gods who are below him will also disappear; the mother of life will be also destroyed with the whole world, and there will remain nothing any more. |108

We cannot report many things about which he speaks, because our book would become too long thereby.

Many bishops united against him, anathematised him and drove him out of the Church.

Then the emperor Constantine concluded an agreement with his three sons and shared his empire between them before his death; he made each of them Caesar and started with his eldest son: he called him by his name Constantine and established him in Constantinople and the neighbouring countries on the side of the Occident. He established the other, who was called Constantine (Constantius), in the East, Syria, Mesopotamia, Egypt, Armenia and the neighbouring countries. He established the third, who was called Constans, in Rome and the neighbouring countries. This took place in the year 30 of his reign.

When he was about to die, none of his sons being present, he gave his will into the hands of the bishop Eusebius, who was attached to the person of the emperor, and ordered him to give it to his son Constantine.

The emperor Constantine died in the year 642 of Alexander, on Sunday, the 22nd of ab (August); he lived 65 years of which he reigned 33 years. His three sons reigned after him for 25 years. Then Constantius went to Nicomedia, |109 took the body of his father, embalmed it, put it in a coffin of gold and transported it to Constantinople.

In this year, Sabour, king of the Persians, rose up and moved against Nisibis, when he learned that Constantine the Great had died; he besieged it for 30 days, but, not having managed to seize anything, he returned to his empire.

Then he persecuted harshly the Christians who were in his empire, and he did not cease treating them this way until his death.

In this year, James, bishop of Nisibis died; Babou succeeded him and Vologeses succeeded him.

In Rome, after S.t.r.s (Silvester) who had governed it for 24 years, sat the bishop Marcus for 3 years; Julius succeeded him for 15 years; and after him, Liberius for 8 years

Athanasius occupied the pulpit of Alexandria.

In Antioch sat Mr.ris (Euphronius?) for 4 years; Stephanus succeeded him for 5 years; his successor Leontius sat for 6 years; Lucius succeeded him for 3 years. They professed the doctrines of Arius. |110 Then Meletius sat for 2 years, his successor Dorotheus (?) sat for one year; Paul (Paulinus) succeeded him and his episcopate lasted 6 years.

Then, in Constantinople, Alexander had as a successor Paul; then he was driven out, and Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia, occupied the see for 5 years; the heretic Macedonius succeeded him and sat for 5 years.

In Jerusalem, Cyril succeeded Maximus, sat for 12 years and was driven out.

At that time, several learned Christians were illustrious: Athanasius, Mar Ephrem and Eusebius of Emesa (Homs).

At that time, in Mesopotamia, lived great men, virtuous, pure and strong: the old man Julian, Abraham Qidounaya and others.

At the same time, the Persian Sage 27 was known who composed several books and various histories.

At the beginning of his reign, Constantius sent to seek out the bishop Athanasius whom his father had exiled, made him return and restored him in his dignity, having granted a rescript to him that nobody had obtained. |111

In the year 3 of the reign of these three (brothers), Constantine the Younger was killed.

When the followers of Arius saw that Athanasius had been restored to his rank, they were disturbed and excited. A priest, attached to the person of the emperor Constantius the Great, started to tell impure things (?) and to say that the doctrine of he who says that the Son is the substance of his Father, is the cause of misfortune, discord, the corruption of the people and their doubt; that there is nothing in this respect in the Holy Scriptures and that none of this is known according to the authentic sources; there is only Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, who affirms it.

Then Constantius, son of Constantine, emperor of the East, having a certain inclination for the followers of Arius, allowed himself to be led astray by their words and he sent some of his satellites to Egypt to drive out the bishop Athanasius from the city and to depose him. When Athanasius learned this, he fled, went to Julius, bishop of Rome, and let him know all these matters. Julius, bishop of Rome, ordered the followers of Arius to come to him to discuss with them and to deliver their opinions. They did not do so at all and did not reply; but they assembled in Antioch, to the number of 70 bishops, and anathematised any who say that the Son is substance of the Father; they confirmed that he had been created before the world and that God created the world. They wrote 25 canons.

At that time, at Antioch, sat the bishop Meletius. |112

This took place in the year 653 of Alexander.

Then the Arians raised up in Alexandria, in the place of Athanasius, Eusebius of Emesa, originally from Edessa. But the people refused to receive him, because he shared the ideas of Sabellius; and he returned to Emesa. Then the Arian Gregory was put in his place as bishop.

Alexander, bishop of Constantinople, died and had as a successor a man named Paul, who sat for 2 years.

Constantine the Younger having learned this, drove him out, because he had been instituted without his permission, and put in his place Eusebius, bishop of Nicomedia.

In the year 4 of Constantine the Younger, Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, died and he had as successor Acacius, his disciple.

In the year 5 of his reign, Eusebius, his disciple, bishop of Nicomedia, died, who had been put on the seat of Constantinople, and Paul returned to his place.

Then the Arians met and established a bishop, in Constantinople, a man named Macedonius. A violent dispute burst out between them and the opposite party, and many people on both sides were killed. |113

In the year 6 of Constantine the Younger, there was in Antioch a violent earthquake; and the earth did not cease trembling and being agitated for all the year; but this continued without causing damage.

Then the Arians who were in Alexandria attacked Gregory, bishop of Alexandria, drove him out and put another in his place. They drove out (also) Paul of Constantinople and established another in his place. Then Paul and Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, went to Julius, bishop of Rome, and let him know the misfortune which had happened to them, and the conduct of the Arians. He wrote letters to them and restored them to their places. Having learned this, the emperor sent to Paul and drove him out; and Macedonius was put into his place by violence and constraint. Athanasius, having learned of their threats against him, fled and hid for two years. The Orientals who supported the doctrines of Arius wrote to Julius, patriarch of Rome, and deluged him with injuries and insults, because he had restored these two exiled bishops — Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and Paul, bishop of Constantinople. Then Julius, bishop of Rome, ordered (the Arians) to assemble in Rome, and 400 bishops gathered.

But when they learned that Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, and Paul, bishop of Constantinople, were in Rome, they moved to another city, opposed the patriarch and anathematised |114 whoever said that the Son was of the same substance as the Father. In this manner, the bishops of the East who supported the doctrines of Arius overrode the bishops who supported the opposite doctrines, made themselves masters of the council and made their thesis that the Son is created by the Father before all ages prevail. All the Western bishops learned this and did not go to this council; they anathematised and condemned the Eastern bishops, assembled in their turn, established that the Son was of the substance and the nature of the Father, excommunicated those who said that the Son had been created, and restored their rank to Paul and Athanasius.

Then Constans, emperor of Rome, sent a letter to his brother Constantine by the intermediary of one of his patricians; he requested him to receive Athanasius and Paul and to restore them in their places; if not he would declare war on him. Having read the letter of his brother, Constantine convened a certain number of bishops and consulted them on what his brother had written to him on either the re-establishment of the two bishops in their places or the declaration of war. They advised to him to restore them in their places and declared to him that their re-establishment was more expedient than war. This decision lessened the calamities. Constantius accepted them and ordered that they be restored in their rank.

Then Constantius required Athanasius to concede a church to him in Alexandria. Athanasius said to him: "I myself have something to ask of you." The emperor said to him: "Ask!" Athanasius said: "Give me |115 in each city where the Arians are in possession of the churches, a church to belong to our followers."

In the year 15 of the reign of the children of Constantine, Constans, emperor of Rome was killed, in the year 663 of Alexander. This was the cause of his death: He marched against an enemy who had revolted against him, and was killed during the campaign.

Then Constantine the Younger proclaimed Gallicus (Gallus), brother of Julian, his brother-in-law, emperor of the East in the place of his brother Constantius, and marched against the enemy who had killed his brother.

The emperor Constans, master of Rome, having been killed, the Arians gathered, accusing Athanasius and Paul to the emperor Constantius after his return from the war and led him into error on their subject. The emperor ordered Athanasius killed and Paul exiled. Athanasius, having learned this news, fled and hid. Paul was taken and given to those which were to accompany him in exile in Armenia interior. When he arrived at the border of Armenia, the messenger sent with him to exile him, strangled him; he had sat in Constantinople for two years. Macedonius II succeeded him. In Alexandria George (Gregory) and in Antioch Leontius sat.

In the year 18 of Constantius and year 3 of Gallus, the Jews of Palestine |116 revolted, attacked various cities and there captured and killed many people. Then Constantius sent Gallus against them, who destroyed them and demolished their cities and their residences. When Gallus had seized these cities, pride, vanity and the pride seized him, and he became arrogant. He seized two of the principal patricians among his companions, and killed them without the permission of the emperor. Constantius learned this and sent troops against him, killed him and established his brother in his place; the name of his brother who was substituted for him, was Julian.

At that time Julius, patriarch of Rome, died after having sat for fifteen years; and Liberius succeeded him.

In the year 20 of Constantius, at Nicomedia a great earthquake took place, and the city was engulfed.

In this same year, the discords between the Arians and the other party burst out. Cyrillus, bishop of Jerusalem, were deposed; it was the same for S.r.n.s (Ursinus), bishop of Rome. In their place M.ttis was set up. But the people did not accept him, deposed him and put Eudoxius in his place (in Constantinople), after he had sat at Antioch for three years. In Antioch, after Eudoxius, sat Meletius of Sebaste, who had been bishop of Haleb. The Arians took him from Haleb and set him up in Antioch. Going up (into the pulpit) |117 to preach, Meletius showed them, during his sermon, his three fingers; and he said to them: "All three are one." Arians, seeing that he did not agree with them, deposed him, after he had governed (the Church) for two years, and established in his place Euzoius, who was an Arian from Egypt.

Then the people of Antioch were divided: among them there was one party with the priest Marina, the other with Euzoius.

In Jerusalem Arranius sat for nine years; after him Heraclius.

Macedonius, who had been driven out of Constantinople, said that the Son is different from his Father by his substance, and that he does not have any link (with him). After teaching this, he was exiled to the country of Pontus, and he had Eudoxius as his successor, who used hypocrisy near the emperor and gave himself a deceptive appearance. He was driven out (?). It was he who had driven out of Cyzicus Eleusius, bishop (of that place), and had established in his place Eunomius de Cilicia. Eudoxius ordered him not to let his doctrines appear immediately.

He began by seizing all the churches, because the Orientals contradicted the doctrines that he preached to them. Then they sent |118 someone to Constantius to speak for them. The emperor ordered Eudoxius to punish him; but he agreed with Eunomius and had sympathy with him, which was reciprocated, and they carried on the business at length. But Eudoxius started to blame Eunomius for making their doctrines known so quickly. Having learned that, the emperor ordered Eunomius to give up his seat. He left after an obstinate resistance, went to Eudoxius (and said): "You've acted badly towards me and my master Aetius."

Then he assembled a party, and they were called Eunomians. Eunomius and his followers said: God, eternal, alone, is unbegotten and does not beget. He is the creator of the Son and he created him like a spiritual soul; then he sent him into the world, and the Son took a body without linking himself with it, this body remaining the location of the soul. The Holy Spirit is created by the Son. Those who receive baptism are baptized only in the death of Christ; they baptize only the head of the child to the chest, and they do not baptize the lower parts of its body, saying that it is impure. In their baptism, they do not soak the child in water; but when they want to baptize a man, they move towards him and wrap the lower part of his body, from the feet to the chest; then they put him on a table, take water and pour some on his hands, chest and his head. |119

This Eunomius believed that he had resolved all questions and that he had from the substance of God the same knowledge as God himself. He was anathematised and exiled in the time of Constantius, son of Constantine, in the year 20 of his reign, which is the year 668 of Alexander.

The History of Apollinarius.

Then a man named Apollinarius appeared , from Alexandria, where he had studied the knowledge of the pagans. From Egypt he came to Beirut and was ordained priest there under Theodotus, bishop of the place. His son learned there (Greek) literature, and the father astronomy; and they both went to see the philosopher Epiphanes from time to time. When the bishop Theootus saw this, he prohibited them doing this, so that they did not deviate from the truth or lean towards paganism. They obeyed him and were obedient until the death of the bishop Theodotus. The latter had George as successor. They then started again to visit the philosopher and made (pagan) sacrifices with him. Bishop George endeavoured to lead them away from him, |120 and discord burst out between them and him (bishop George); but he could not succeed. As they refused to give up their practices, he excommunicated them and drove them out. As for Apollinarius, he invented, with his knowledge of philosophy, a new heresy and founded a sect. He went to find excommunicated bishops, who ordained him bishop. He and his son agreed to create a perverse doctrine and they imagined a trinity of degrees and ranks.

Apollinarius said that the Father is immense, that the Son is great and that the rank of the Holy Ghost is less than either (of the Father and the Son). He reports that the Son borrowed our animal soul and body, that he did not take the reasoning soul, but that the Divinity takes its place. Apollinarius wrote several books: in one, he said that the body of Christ comes from heaven; in another, that he took a false body for us; in the third (book), he said, like Sabellius, that God is only one substance and only one hypostasis. He only said: (the expressions should be understood) "the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost" according to the actions of God in creation. He made a great error, in saying that in the future life one would eat, one would drink and one would join oneself with women; that Christ is only a form made up of the divine elements and the animal body; and that the substance of the Son is created. He said that his psalms, that he had composed himself, were better than |121 those of the prophet David. The bishops of Constantinople met against him, excommunicated him and exiled him.

Then the emperor Constantius, who was at Antioch, learned that Caesar Julian, having fought the Barbarians, had put them to flight and that his subjects had proclaimed him emperor. Constantius was baptized by the bishop of Antioch, raised troops among the Romans and went against the rebel. While he was on the way, he was seized by sorrow and concern and died of apoplexy, after having reigned with his father for thirteen years and alone for twenty-five years. Julian the Apostate succeeded him, and reigned for two years; he was the cousin of Constantine.

When he began to reign, he ordered that everyone should make public profession of their doctrine and practise their religion.

Then the pagans attacked the Christians because of the hatred which was between them, and about which has been spoken previously; this hostility caused a great misfortune. This took place in Alexandria, and many people there were killed. They were thus punished for what they had done, as we reported above. They seized Gregory the Theologian, struck him and dragged him face down through all the city. |122

Then Julian prohibited the Christians from studying the knowledge (of the pagans) and said: (Otherwise) they would fight us with our own weapons. He ordered that the sacred vessels be taken from the churches, the convents and the oratories and his treasure stored in them.

Julian the Apostate had an uncle who was called Thouphili; the latter came to Antioch to take the vessels of the churches which were there. He entered the church, lifted his clothing and urinated on the altar. Euzoius sought to prevent him, but did not succeed.

Then the emperor ordered that food and drink should be sprinkled with magical and impure water; and the Christians refused to do so. Then he made search for those who did not obey him; and the Christians, in their turn, made use of stratagems. He laid out money on a table, also filled with meats coming from the sacrifices of the pagans; then he declared: "Here: whoever wants money, must throw incense on fire, enter and eat the pagan offerings; after which he will receive that which he needs." Many Romans refused the invitation and said: "We are Christian, and we will not obey you in what you want!" Then he ordered a great number to undergo martyrdom. |123

John the Great addressed a command to the cantons of.... And he said to them that the idols of the peoples were merely silver and gold, the work of human hands. That those who make them and all who have confidence in them are no better.

The emperor, having learned this, ordered them to be beaten and imprisoned. But the lightning burst out and set fire to their god Pythius, and his temple sank into the earth. The people attached to the oracle of Apollo and the priests, guardians of the temple, said to the emperor: "We saw our own eyes fire coming down from heaven and setting fire to the idol and the temple."

Then when Julian conceived the project to make the war against the Persians, he wanted to know whether or not his expedition would succeed. So he went into the (temple) of the oracle of Apollo with Valentinian the Christian; they found a priest who was sprinkling the idols with impure water; and some of this impure water fell on the clothing of Valentinian. Then he struck the priest with his whip and said to him: "You soiled me, O impure one!" That day, the oracle answered him nothing; but it said to him: "The bones, deposited in my vicinity, prevents me from saying anything to you. They are those of Babylas the Martyr." Then the emperor ordered them removed from the place where they were; and the people of Antioch went out, took the bones and, having put them in a |124 coffin, transported them into the city. Then the oracle declared in his favour and said to him: "You will come down and overcome your enemy on the Tigris."

When the oracle had decided in his favour in this way, the emperor became arrogant, entered an extreme fury and wanted to imitate Alexander the Macedonian; he reprised the same plan and went against the Persians. Arriving at Harran, he visited the oracle which was there and again asked him what he would say; and the oracle predicted victory for him. At the time when he was prepared to leave Harran, his head was disturbed, and he worshipped Sin, god of the Harranians; his crown fell from his head, and his horse, on which he was mounted, fell on the ground and died. The oracle said to him: "It is the Christians who are with you, who have attracted this misfortune to you." He then dismissed 20,000 men (of his troops). He did not raise the cross which was carried before him; he hid it and said: "If we obtain victory, we will say that we overcame not by the cross, but by our force; if we are overcome, we will say that we are overcome because of the cross which was with us."

Before arriving at Harran, he remained a few days at Tarsus. The Jews which were there, came to him and presented him with a crown of gold of seven mithqals for the idols which they adored. Julian said to them: "Why |125 do you not sacrifice according to your law?" They answered him: "We cannot sacrifice outside Jerusalem." Then they threw in front of him incense, spread perfume in front of the idols and offered sacrifices to them. The emperor made them presents and sent them home; he ordered them to rebuild their temples and to sacrifice according to their customs. When they had prepared materials for the construction which they needed, Cyrillus, bishop of Jerusalem, said: It is the time of which Our Lord Christ prophesied, saying: "The days will come, where there will not remain one stone on another which is not overturned."

During the night, a violent wind rose and destroyed all that they had built; then a great earthquake occurred, and 22 cities were engulfed.

In the same year, Julian was killed in the war, after a reign of two years and four months; he had lived thirty-one years. Here is how he was killed: During the war which he made against the Persians, at the moment when he was marching in the ranks of his soldiers to stir them to combat, a Persian launched a spear at him and struck him in the side; and the emperor fell from his horse. While he suffered, he filled the hollow of his hand with his blood and threw it in the air |126 towards heaven, saying: "You have overcome me, Son of Mary!" and he died. He was transported to Tarsus and buried there.

The Roman army remained without an emperor; and (soldiers), according to the council of Sabour, elected Jovian who was the head of Julian's vanguard. But Jovian refused, saying that he was a Christian. They said to him that they were also Christians and that the fear of Julian had prevented them from expressing their faith. Jovian drew the cross from the treasure and drew up it in front of them in the camp; and everyone worshipped it, except the pagan priests. Peace was restored between him and Sabour. Sabour conducted him back to Nisibis, and Jovian ceded it to him, after having transplanted the Romans who lived there to Amida.

From his time, Basil the great, Julian the elder and Didymus were illustrious.

Jovian reigned for one year, in the year 675 of Alexander. It is said that, while he commanded the vanguard of Julian, he went to Nisibis and left his troops to seek out the monks there. Mar Eugenios appeared to him then and ordered him to return to his troops and told him that his Master had been killed; that he would achieve empire; that king Sabour would come, at a time that he would reveal to him, in the camp of Julian to get informed about the situation; |127 that he was to go there to find him at this time, and that after having seized him, he should treat him with honour and respect and to let him leave. Jovian left, as Mar Eugene had ordered him. Sabour came into (the camp) at the time that Mar Eugenios had indicated to him; and Jovian found him during the night in the camp, though Sabour had disguised himself and put on the clothing of a merchant. Jovian took him, brought him into his tent and, finding himself alone with him, told him that he had already recognized him, and that no trick threatened him neither personally nor on behalf of all his entourage. He ordered that food be brought, and they both ate. Then they sailed on the river at night, and Jovian did not leave him before he had led him to his camp; after which Jovian withdrew. For this reason Sabour advised that he should be invested with the imperial power.

Hardly had he started to reign than he sent a delegation to Sabour, king of the Persians, made peace with him and gave him Nisibis. Since that time Nisibis, with the surrounding area, has belonged to the Persians.

In leaving the East, Jovian recalled all the bishops from exile. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, reappeared and took again possession of his see.

Then the emperor wrote to the patriarch Athanasius, asking him to write out for him the true creed of the faith in its real sense, to explain it to him in a letter and to send this to him. Athanasius gathered some |128 bishops, who wrote to the emperor that he should follow the symbol of the law of the 318 bishops who had met in the town of Nicaea.

Then Jovian died at that time after having reigned for one year. After him, Valentinian and Valens reigned for 15 years. It was this Valentinian who had struck the priest and had said: "You soiled me with this water!" He fixed himself in Rome and made his brother Valens emperor of the East. That took place in the year 676 of Alexander.

Valentinian adhered to the true faith and approved the symbol of the 318.

As for Valens, he leaned towards the doctrines of Arius, because he had been baptized by Eudoxius, bishop of Constantinople, who was an Arian. It is told that Valens, having been baptized by Eudoxius the Arian, wanted to take communion; but the latter refused him and did not give him the Eucharist until he had sworn to him to communicate only according to the doctrines of Arius and to be opposed to those which opposed these doctrines. When he began to reign, he fulfilled his oath: he exiled all the bishops who did not agree with the doctrines of Arius, acted against all the bishops who did not adhere to his ideas, and persecuted them. |129

Eusebius bishop of Samosata pretended that he was of the party of the Romans; he occupied his see all his life and, dressed in a (bournous) for fear of the Romans, he travelled and traversed the cities and ordained in secrecy priests and deacons (of the Orthodox party).

In this same year, a rebel named Procopius revolted against Valens, in Constantinople; and Valens put him to death because of his treason.

The same year, hail as big as stones fell: there were earthquakes in Constantinople, where several districts were engulfed; and part of the town of Nicaea was also overthrown.

Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria, hid in a tomb, without seeing anything for four months, by fear of Valens. When this difficult situation ended, he came out and remained in his rank until his death.

At that time, in Edessa, there appeared a man named Eusebius and surnamed Euchites (?), who had five disciples. Here is his doctrine: God is alone, but he has manifested himself in the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. He said that the body of Christ was only an appearance, because God had created it from a fine and spiritual substance, and that his crucifixion was also only an appearance. He prohibited common prayer; he claimed that all his visions came |130 from the Holy Spirit: that communion is useless and unprofitable; that the Holy Spirit lived in whoever was attached to his doctrine; that adultery is a permissable thing; that after Christ there is neither sin nor error. He said that that which is thrown to the ground in an epileptic fit is thrown by a movement of the Holy Spirit. They were designated by the name of Messalians. They said: "Whoever has prayed and fasted for 12 years can order the mountain to transport itself from the place where it is; and it will be transported." Then all those who adhered to his doctrines after this time, left and said to the mountain: "O mountain! I order you to be transported from the place where you are." As it was not transported, they renounced his doctrine of which they thus knew the corruption.

At that time, Diodorus (of Tarsus) and Theodore (of Mopsuestia) were known. Among the doctors Athanasius and Mar Ephrem the Syrian and another (?) with Zenobius, priest of Edessa; Basil the Great; Gregory, his brother; Malchus; and Arsisius were illustrious.

In same time, Macarius the Pious the Egyptian and Macarius of Alexandria who was transported to paradise were known, as is reported. Valens exiled them to an island of the sea. |131

Likewise known were r.ou.s (Evagrius?) the monk, a disciple of Basil.

In the year 7 of Valens, Abraham, bishop of Nisibis died. In this year Julian the Old died at Tour-Sina (Sinai).

In this same year, Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria died, to whom succeeded Peter... who had been his companion in all his tribulations.

Then Euzoius, bishop of Antioch, who belonged to the sect of Arius, asked Valens for permission to go to Alexandria. He allowed him. Euzoius there went and took along with him a certain number of Greeks. He seized Peter, imprisoned him and set up in his place Lucius de Samosata. A few days later Peter escaped from the prison, went to Rome to Damasus, patriarch of Rome, and advised him how Valens had treated the people.

Then Valens carried out a great persecution against the followers of Sabour (?); he made many perish and exiled a certain number. Then a group of priests, 80 in number, and other personnages met, went to Valens and asked him to grant them peace, the safety of their lives and freedom from persecution. Valens ordered one of his chiefs to put them in |132 a boat at sea, like exiling them to an island; and they rejoiced. While they were in the middle of the sea, the Patrician sent with them, with his companions, passed in another separate boat; then he set fire to the boat where the priests were, and burned them with the boat.

Then Valens went to Edessa to see the church of the apostle Mar Thomas and found that the population did not agree with him; then he ordered that the recalcitrant ones and Barsê, bishop of Edessa, be sent to the island of Roudis (Aradus); and he banished eighty inhabitants of Edessa, the chiefs and all the bishops who did not adhere to the doctrines of Arius, except Basil and Gregory the Theologian whom he could not proscribe.

Then Valens sent for Basil and had him brought to Antioch to reprove him. His son being sick, Valens said to him: "If your doctrine and belief are true, pray for this child, so that he recovers from his disease." Basil said: "If the child is baptized by those who adhere to the truth, it will heal and be in good health." When the emperor was told what Basil required of him, Eudoxius, the Arian bishop, ordered the Arians to baptize the boy. Hardly they had baptized him, than he died. The afflicted emperor entered |133 the church to pray; and he called Basil and said to him: "What proof do have you that the truth is with you and your followers?" Basil explained the true faith to him and conversed with him a long time. Then the emperor treated Basil well and dismissed him safe and sound. A few days later, the emperor changed his mind and ordered Basil into exile; then he again changed his mind on what he had ordered in his connection, and left him alone.

The emperor Valentinianus, having lived as emperor for 13 years, died.

Valens reigned, and his anger only became more violent against those who did not agree with him; and he persecuted them. Then a philosopher came and said to him: "O emperor! you should not fret to see several sects among the Christians. The pagans are divided into eighty beliefs. God allows this to glorify him and likes to be praised and described (in his qualities). This is why he is represented in various ways." On these entreaties Valens calmed himself a little and renounced his cruel conduct.

In the year 14 of Valens, Euzoius, Arian bishop of Antioch, died, after having governed for 17 years; he was the seventh bishop of the Arians. |134

Then Peter, bishop of Alexandria, returned from Rome to his city; after 6 years of episcopate, he died. His brother Timothy succeeded him and sat for 7 years

Then Valens prepared to make war against the Goths. When he was preparing to leave, a monk who was a hermit, named James the monk, said to him: "O enemy of God! if you wish to have success and to succeed, order that the bishops whom you exiled return to their seats; if you do not do it, you will not overcome and will not succeed." Valens said: "I will overcome, I will return and will kill you." James said to him: "If you return, does not leave me alive." And all the monks who were there said him the same thing. But Valens paid no attention to their words and left for his expedition.

He met the enemy. While he was in the battle against them, he entered a nearby village, where he hid with his companions. His enemies learned that he was there under a disguise. One of his enemies also disguised himself; he traversed the troops, entered the village where Valens was hidden, and set it on fire. So Valens with his companions, was burned to death, after having reigned for 15 years; he was 50 years old. |135

Gratian reigned with his brother Valentinian for one year, in the year 690 of Alexander.

In this year died Sabour, king of the Persians, after having reigned for 70 years; and he had as a successor his brother Ardashir who reigned for 4 years.

Gratian ordered all the bishops and other people that Valens had exiled to return home. He ordered that each man should stay in the religion that God let him profess, except Eunomians and Manicheans.

Then Gratian associated a man named Theodosius in the empire; and he was baptized in Constantinople. Gratian died; and after him reigned Theodosius the Great for 17 years, — others say for 19 years, — in the year 691 of Alexander. He ordered that everyone might practise his own religion, and allowed all the exiles to return home. ** |139

When the bishops, (the followers) of Macedonius, saw this, they gave up their business, wrote several letters to Damasus, bishop of Rome, and stuck to their religion.

This is why Meletius, after his return to Antioch, said to Paulinus, bishop of that town: "All the people are favourably disposed to neither you or me: one is for you, another for me. Here is how we could arrange things: reunite my followers with yours: if the (episcopal) power stirs up hate between us, we will place the Gospel in the centre of the room; you would put yourself on one side, me on the other, and whichever of us two survives, will occupy the see." But Paulinus refused.

At this period Meletius took notice of Diodorus and learned that he well understood how to oppose heretics and refute them solidly; and he made him bishop of Tarsus.

Then Meletius and several bishops undertook to transfer |140 Gregory the Theologian from his place at Constantinople, because of his great spirit and abundance of learning, and they did that. Many people began to assemble near him, in the poor and small house that he was living in, with a man named Anastasius; and he instructed them. Two years later they abandoned him, disliking him for his merits, and he left the place.

Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, ordained in his place Maximus the cynic, who was a man who was conceited in his heart and proud and one who shared the ideas of Apollinarius.

Then Theodosius started to persecute the Arians, who had been masters of the country and the churches for forty years; and he stirred up a violent persecution.

Then he convened a council at Constantinople, and 150 bishops met there. This took place in the second year of his reign, which is the year 692 of Alexander, on the third of the month of Ab (=August).

At this period Damasus was patriarch of Rome, Timothy of Alexandria, Meletius of Antioch, Cyril of Jerusalem. With these were united |141 Basil, Gregory the Theologian, (Diodorus) bishop of Tarsus, who said that the Holy Spirit had been created, Maximus, bishop of Constantinople, and Nectarius.

They supplemented and confirmed the creed (of Nicaea) and added that the Son is of the substance of the Father and that the Holy Spirit is God and Lord, the giver of life, proceeding from the substance of the Father and the Son. They anathematised Eustathius, who shared the ideas of Macedonius.

They drew up four canons. In the first they pronounced an anathema against the Eunomians, Arians, Sabellians, Apollinarians (?), Photinians and Macedonians. In the other three canons they defined that bishops should not pass from one place to another and that each should occupy his see until his death or until he was exiled after committing some misdeed. They ordained that the see of Constantinople was first after that of Rome, and that an accusation of a heretical bishop against an orthodox bishop would not be received.

In the fifth year of Theodosius, Vahran (Fahran), son of Sabour, mounted the throne of Persia and reigned eleven years. |142

In that year a rebel named Maximus revolted at Rome. Theodosius sent his troops against him and he was killed.

In the sixth year of his reign, a son was born to Theodosius, who named him Honorius.

In the same year, Timothy, bishop of Alexandria, died. Theophilus succeeded him, for twenty-eight years.

Cyril, bishop of Jerusalem, died and John succeeded him, for twenty-two years.

John, priest of Antioch, was one of the famous scholars of this time.

In this year, Theodosius ordered that the wise people should define and profess their religious ideas in writing and present that to him. When they had done so and had presented it to him, he arose and prayed. Then he ordered that these (written) opinions be put on the altar; and God inspired him that only one was true, the statement of those which said that the Son is of the substance and essence of the Father. |143 Then he ordered all these opinions to be burned, and exiled their followers from the city; he expelled from holding command in his army, his council and his entourage all those who shared the ideas of Arius.

He ordered that the churches of the Arians and the temples of the idols throughout the country be destroyed; and he had many pagans killed in Alexandria.

In that year, a column of fire appeared in the sky and remained for thirty days.

In the same year, a terrible darkness took place at midday.

Then Theodosius fell sick and sent for Honorius, his son. When he arrived, Theodosius had him proclaimed (emperor) and sent him into the west; he had Arcadius, his other son, proclaimed and sent him into the east. Theodosius died in these circumstances, after reigning seventeen years and living sixty years

Arcadius, son of Theodosius, reigned thirteen years, in the year 708 of Alexander.

In his time, among the scholars, Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, and Acacius, bishop of Aleppo were illustrious. |144

At Rome, after Damasus, who occupied his see for eighteen years, came Siricius.

In that year, after Nectarius, John Chrysostom became bishop of Constantinople. He was originally from Antioch and, at the age of twenty-eight, he had composed the Commentary on the Gospel as well as the Commentary on the Epistles of Paul.

When he became bishop of Constantinople, he prohibited the priests from many acts of corruption. They envied him and set out to find some fault against him with which to accuse him. At that time, he read the books of Origen. Theophilus, patriarch of Alexandria, sent to Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, and to all his bishops, and they anathematised the books of Origen. John paid no attention to this. Then everyone became hostile to him; among his enemies was Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, and Antiochus, bishop of Acre.

The empress, wife of the emperor Arcadius, also was resentful against him, because he took down her statue, which was close to the church, and because he had insulted her, one day, in a sermon and had compared her to Jezebel, the wife of Ahab, who had taken the vineyard of Naboth the Israelite. This is why she departed one day with twenty-nine bishops, to which were joined seven other bishops who were stirred up against John, and they came to where Theophilus was. |145 Being in agreement about John, they sent an order to him to come to them; but he did not come. Then they excommunicated him and deposed him.

After the excommunication of John Chrysostom, the population of the city was disturbed and divided. The emperor, witnessing their division, sent for John and restored him in his dignity. After his return, he composed some sermons on his exile. In one of his speeches, he designated, one day, the empress under the name of "Herodias." Outraged, she sent for Theophilus, Epiphanius and other bishops, whom she gathered in Constantinople; they excommunicated John and exiled him. This took place in the year 8 of Arcadius, which is the year 716 of Alexander. He was exiled in an island of the Euxine Sea, where he died, at the age of forty-six years; he had been a bishop for four years.

A little time after him, the empress died. Arsacius, brother of Nectarius, succeeded John, for fourteen months; after him, Atticus, originating in Sebastia in Armenia came.

Flavianus, bishop of Antioch, died, and Porphyrius succeeded him. |146

Then disorders broke out among the Greeks, in Egypt and the East concerning the remains of John Chrysostom; they were brought back thirty-three years after his death; they were buried in Constantinople, and his name was consigned for always in the book of life (in the diptychs).

In the year 5 of Arcadius, Yezdegerd, son of Sabour, started to reign in Persia and reigned for twenty one years

Epiphanius, bishop of Cyprus, died. Jewish by origin, he had become a Christian and received baptism. It was he who baptized Arcadius and Honorius, both the sons of Theodosius.

Then Arcadius died, at the age of thirty. He left the throne to his son Theodosius, eight years old, who reigned for forty-two years, as from the year 721 of Alexander.

In the year 3 of his reign, Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, died; and Cyril, his nephew, succeeded him for thirty-three years.

In Rome, Anastasius was bishop for four years; after him, Bonifacius for three years, and after him, Celestinus for nine years. |147

At Antioch, after Porphyrius, who occupied the see for five years, Alexander was bishop for ten years. He restored the peace between the Easterners and Westerners, which had been disturbed in consequence of their discord about Paulinus, who had been bishop of Antioch at the time of Novatius(?) the impious. After a ten year episcopate, he had Theodotus as successor for thirteen years, and the latter had John as successor for thirteen years

At that time, the Christians were multiplying in the empire of Persia and Christianity became very strong, thanks to Maroutha, bishop of Mayafariqin, who, by the order of Theodosius, went among the Persians.

Then Yezdegerd reigned; he was unjust and an oppressor; and his subjects revolted against him, feared him and reviled him. But on a certain day, a nimble horse (ran), of beautiful colour and so beautiful to see that the like had never been seen; it started to run and stopped close to the door of the palace of Yezdegerd. All those who saw it, were amazed at it. The servants entered and told Yezdegerd, their Master. He went out in haste to see the horse, found it beautiful and halted to stroke it with his hand. When he walked behind the horse to stroke its back, the horse struck him with its two (back) feet and killed him; then it started to run and disappeared; and no-one knew from where the horse had come. |148 Thus the people were delivered from his persecutions.

Then Varahran (Bahram), his son, who succeeded him, persecuted and oppressed the Christians.

In that year, there was an eclipse of the sun.

In the same year there was a battle between the Greeks and Persians, and many were killed on both sides; the Persians were put to rout, and the persecution against the Christians ceased.

In that time, among the scholars there flourished Mar Isaac, disciple of Mar Ephrem; he lived in Antioch and composed several sermons on the festivals, the martyrs, the wars and the invasions which took place at that time; he was originally from Edessa.

In the same time, there were many Jews living in Alexandria. One fine day, several of them were baptized; so they took a statue, crucified it and said: "This is the Messiah!" A great discord broke out between them and the Christians and many people were killed. |149

In the year 6 of Theodosius the Younger, there were found, in Jerusalem, the bones of Stephen the martyr, and a church under his name was built there.

In the year 10 of Theodosius, in Antioch, Simeon Stylites was illustrious, who did miracles and wonders.

Among the scholars were Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, Theodoret of Cyr, and Acacius of Aleppo.

Having sat for twenty-two years, John, bishop of Jerusalem, died, and Praylius succeeded him for five years; the latter had as successor Juvenal for forty years

In the East there was a man called Nestorius; he was educated and studied the books of Theodore (of Mopsuestia) and Theodoret. Then he came to Antioch in the time of Theodotus, bishop of the city, and settled in a convent. As he was assiduous in reading of the Sacred Books, Theodotus ordained him priest. Then Theodosius made him come to him and made him patriarch in Constantinople.

He made many sermons to the people. |150 Once, while he was giving a sermon, instead of saying that Saint Mary is the Mother of God, he said that she was the mother of a man. (The people) did not hear any mention of his divinity. Anastasius, his disciple, who had come with him from Antioch, said also the same thing. When the people were disturbed and agitated by this, he went up in pulpit and said the same still more. The people listened, were irritated and disturbed.

This business spread, and news of it came to the bishop of Rome. He sent letters to Nestorius in which he exhorted him and told him not to give more sermons like this. Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, also sent letters to him in which he prohibited him from repeating what he had done. John, bishop of Antioch, wrote the same thing to him.

Three years passed in the hope that he would recant and would return to the truth. When they saw him persevering in his business, they submitted a report on this to the patriarch of Rome. Then the patriarch wrote to Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, asking him to be his representative and to gather an assembly of bishops who would excommunicate Nestorius, if he did not retract his opinions. He wrote this (also) to the emperor.

Theodosius the Younger convened at Ephesus a council of 200 bishops, who excommunicated Nestorius, patriarch of Constantinople. In this synod were Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, John, bishop of Antioch, |151 Juvenal, bishop of Jerusalem, Memnon, bishop of Ephesus, and Acacius, bishop of Meitene. After studying his books and epistles carefully, they excommunicated him and found that he had moved away from the faith of God and deviated from the way of truth.

After his excommunication, Nestorius said to them: "Myself, I will not call that God which was two or three months old, and I will not adore it as God." Then Nestorius gathered the bishops who were of his opinion, and these excommunicated Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, and Memnon, bishop of Ephesus.

None of the bishops of the East had attended the council. When John, bishop of Antioch, and, with him, the bishops of the East arrived, they found Nestorius already excommunicated, and they waited. Cyril several times sent his companions to them; but they did not come to him. Then Cyril excommunicated them, and they, they excommunicated him (likewise). When Nestorius saw that, he understood that the business would lead them into serious dissension; and he started to proclaim and to say: "No! Let it be said that Mary is the Mother of God!" The disorder calmed, and Nestorius returned to his convent to Antioch. |152

Then eight bishops from the followers of Cyril and eight bishops from the followers of John went, because of this business, to the emperor Theodosius. When they arrived there, he ordered them to say nothing of the business of Nestorius before him. Then each of them returned to his country.

The hostilities between the Easterners and the population of Egypt did not stop. Theodoret, bishop of Cyr, and Andrew, bishop of Samosata, were sent the decisions established by Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, defined in his third epistle to Nestorius.

In Constantinople, a priest of good conduct called Maximianus succeeded Nestorius.

Theodosius the Younger wrote to the patriarch Cyril about the hostility which reigned between the population of Egypt and the population of the East. When the letter reached Cyril, he wrote to the bishop of Aleppo and requested him to restore peace and security. Acacius, bishop of Aleppo, had gathered a council of many bishops, who sent a letter to Cyril in which they expounded the true faith; they sent this letter via Paul, bishop of Emesa, |153 after saying to each other that "peace between us and him had already existed before this".

Coming to Cyril, they gave the letter to him. He read it and approved their proposal. Then he ordered Paul, bishop of Emesa, to deliver a sermon to the people in the church; and the people listened to his speech.

Then Cyril sent a letter to the Easterners in which he recognized the truth of the faith about which they had written to him; he thanked them and excused past errors to them. He gave the letter to Paul and dismissed him. Thus, peace was made between them

From the convocation of the council of Nicaea to the day of the council of the 150 bishops in Constantinople, there were fifty-six years; from this council to that of the 200 bishops at Ephesus -- fifty years; from the council of Ephesus to the council of Chalcedon - twenty one years.

In the year 763 of Alexander, James the Mutilated underwent martyrdom.

Maximianus, patriarch of Constantinople, died, and Proclus was instituted in his place. |154

When this peace was restored between the peoples, they started to dispute about the bones of John Chrysostom; and Proclus brought back his bones, which were deposed in the great church of Constantinople.

In that time, among the Jews, a man appeared who was called Moses and who said to them: "I am come down from heaven to deliver you like Moses, son of Amran". This took place in an island of the sea which is called Crete. One fine day those who went with him, as well as their wives and their children in great number, at the sea-side, arrived in a place which overhung the sea; then he said to them: "I will make you able to cross the sea, and I will go first." Several of them threw themselves into the sea and drowned. When the others had watched the spectacle given by their companions who had drowned, they did not throw themselves in and wanted to seize Moses; but he fled (far) away from them, and certain impure spirits (devils) accepted him. (Because of this) many of them became Christians.

In that time, in Edessa, Rabboulâ was bishop. After his death, Hiba succeeded him. |155

In the year 29 of his reign, the emperor Theodosius the Younger remembered Nestorius and ordered that he be exiled in Egypt where he remained until his death.

Then the emperor sent to Antioch to seize all those which would not excommunicate Nestorius, and to exile them. Then eighteen metropolitans with many of the bishops, priests, monks and laymen were sent into exile.

The emperor ordered that the corpse of Odris (Diodorus? Theodore?) should be burned. There were in the East many people who were resigned to die, but none of them were burned; the population was unhappy and said: "It is not necessary to burn a man who is already dead."

In that year, the companions of the cave awoke from the sleep which had overcome them in the reign of the emperor Decius, 182 years ago. The emperor Theodosius went out with bishops, priests, metropolitans and the leaders of the city; they saw them, and (the confessors) spoke to them. Then they died in their own countries. |156

In this year, there was a great earthquake at Constantinople. Many people fled out of the city, and several places were levelled.

Celestinus, patriarch of Rome, sat for nine years and died; Xystus succeeded him for eight years and had Leo for successor.

Cyril of Alexandria sat for thirty-three years and died; Dioscorus succeeded him.

In Antioch, after John who sat there for thirteen years, came Domnus.

In the year 33 of the emperor Theodosius, Varahran (Bahrâm), king of Persians, died, after having reigned for twenty (twenty one) years; after him Yezdegerd reigned for eight years

That year, some people of Edessa arrived at Constantinople with their bishop (Hiba) and said that on a certain day he had given a sermon in which he had said: "I am not envious of what the Messiah did, because in all that happened to him, I am like him."

In the same year, some people went to Alexandria and said in front of Dioscorus about their bishop that, when he gave sermons, |157 he did not say that Mary had given birth to God, but that she was the mother of a man and that she had given birth to a perfect man, which resembled God, according to the doctrines of Nestorius.

At the same time, a man appeared who was called Eutyches. He said that the eternal Son did not take anything from Mary, but that he was changed, transformed, became flesh and blood and passed through Mary without having taken anything from her.

A council was gathered against him, and (the bishops) excommunicated him and sent him into exile. 130 bishops met because of him at Ephesus, Dioscorus, bishop of Alexandria, was head of the council; he drove out several bishops from their sees at the same time as him (Eutyches).

In the year 41 of the emperor Theodosius, the head of John the Baptist was found at Emesa.

Theodosius died at the age of fifty. (After him) Marcian reigned for seven years, in the year 762 of Alexander.

He married Pulcheria (Qloudhiqiyah), sister of Theodosius the Younger, who felt resentment towards Dioscorus because he had exiled the bishop of Constantinople along with all the bishops and others whom he had excommunicated at this council; she started to press the emperor to be avenged for them. |158

Then the emperor and the empress wrote a letter to Leo, bishop of Rome, and to all the bishops, where they ordered them to meet to examine the theological questions and the conduct of Dioscorus at the second council of Ephesus. They expressed the desire that the council should take place at Nicaea, so the emperor ordered that the council met at Chalcedon because of the distance to Nicaea and in the vicinity of Chalcedon. It was in the year 2 of the emperor Marcian, the 25th of the month of Tichrin I (October), in the year 763 of Alexander, that the council met there. There were 630 bishops there.

They excommunicated Dioscorus and wrote many canons. They declared that the Son took a nature without hypostasis, because nature differs from the hypostases; that there was one hypostasis and two natures; that he is endowed with two substances, two actions and two wills; but that the hypostasis is single and that the substance of God does not have three hypostases.

After having reigned for seven years, Marcian died at the age of sixty five and named Leo emperor, who reigned for sixteen years, in the year 769 of Alexander.

In this first year, Peroz, son of Yezdegerd, started to reign over the Persians and he reigned for twenty-seven years. |159

In the same year, in Antioch, a town of Syria, there was an earthquake, and several places there were levelled.

After having governed for twenty-two years, Leo, (bishop) of Rome, died. Hilarius (Ilarous) succeeded him for seven years; after him was Simplicius (Simblous) for sixteen years

In Antioch, after Paulinus (? Basil) who sat for three years, there was Acacius for five years; after him Martyrius came.

At Constantinople, Anatolius which sat for twenty and one years, Gennadius succeeded him for fifteen years.

At Jerusalem, to Juvenal who sat for forty years, Anastasius succeeded.

In the year 9 of the reign of Leo, there was an eclipse of the sun and the stars appeared (in broad daylight). In the year 10, in the East, a great food shortage happened and there were many locusts.

In the year 12 of his reign, the Persians moved against Amida, besieged it and devastated it. |160

In this same year, Balas started to reign over the Persians and reigned for four years. In the year 16 of the reign of Leo, Qabad, son of Peroz, started to reign over the Persians and reigned for twenty one years

Martyrius, bishop of Antioch, sat for thirteen years and had Julianus as successor for four years; Peter the Fuller succeeded him, who was later excommunicated and exiled.

In the days of Leo, Simeon the Stylite died; he was the first who went up on a column.

Zeno reigned for seventeen years, in the year 785 of Alexander.

We will tell the history of Peter the Fuller. This Peter had retired from Chalcedon into a convent, and he was the superior of it. Zeno made war against the emperor Leo; he attached Peter to his person, made him his companion and went with him to Tarsus, a town of Cilicia. When Peter had entered there, he said to the bishops of the country: "Leo sent to me to you with Zeno so that you can make me bishop of Antioch; if you want to attract his favour, make me bishop before Leo orders you to." The population approved his words and made him bishop without the knowledge of the emperor. On this news, Leo excommunicated him and sent him into exile. |161

Then, in Antioch a rebel appeared who was called Basiliscus. He restored Peter to his rank by force, without asking the assent of the bishops who were in the country; he wrote a letter in which he confirmed him in his episcopal dignity, ordered the bishops to receive it and to countersign the letter with their hands. As the bishops did not agree to this, he ordered them put to death. Then part of the bishops and many of the monks fled and hid in the church of Mar Thomas which was in Antioch. Peter sought for them; he found them and killed them all.

After the rebel had been killed and Zeno had become emperor, he wrote to the bishop of Rome and to all the bishops and informed them of the business of Peter and his crime. Learning this, the bishop of Rome excommunicated him, he and all the bishops who shared his ideas.

Then Zeno sent him into exile to Euchaita. This Peter altered the Sacred Books by interpolations; he rejected the word of John the Evangelist, where he said: "Everything is in his power and without him there is nothing." he also rejected the word of he that said: "He was crucified for us."

After the excommunication of Peter, at Antioch, John succeeded him for six years; then Calandion was (bishop) in Antioch for three years. |162

Then the emperor Zeno wrote to all the bishops to consult them: "Is it permissible to restore Peter to his rank; if you believe it possible, do it." When Peter had learned that the emperor had written about this business, he returned, without any permission, to his see and occupied it again for five years.

At Jerusalem, Anastasius, who occupied the episcopate for eighteen years, had Martyrius as successor for eighteen years. After him Sallustius governed for eight years.

Zeno died at the age of sixty one, and Anastasius reigned for twenty-seven years, in the year 806 of Alexander.

In the year 6 of his reign, the sixth millenium since Adam came to an end.

After nine years of episcopate, Felix, (bishop) of Rome, died, and Gelasius succeeded him for five years; after him came Anastasius for one year, then Symmachus for fourteen years.

At Alexandria, to Peter Mongus who occupied the seat for nine years, Athanasius succeeded for four years; after him, came John the monk for six years; after him, John the hermit for seven years; after him, Dioscorus the younger for two years; |163 after him Timothy for fourteen years

After the sixteen years of the episcopate of Acacius, Euphemius was bishop of Constantinople for seven years. The emperor exiled him into an island of Pontus. Macedonius succeeded him for fourteen years, and the emperor Anastasius sent him into exile, because he had criticised him and had said to him: "You are a Manichaean and you share the ideas of the Manichaeans." Timothy succeeded him for six years; and after him John was (bishop) for two years.

At Jerusalem, to Saul (Sallustius) who occupied the seat for eight years, succeeded Elias for twenty years; after him John governed for fourteen years.

In the first year of his reign, Anastasius killed the children of several women as well as some boys, who were studying reading and the writing.

In year 3 of his reign, the town of Dara was built, which was above Nisibis, at the place where Darius, (king) of Persians, had been killed. |164

Then the emperor Anastasius wanted to remove from the creed and the church the phrase: "You were crucified for us." All the population of the city rose up and took up rocks to stone him. This business frightened him; and, being afraid of them, he removed the crown from his head and said to them: "I will act according to your order in all that you wish." Then the people left him alone.

In year 11 of the reign of Anastasius, in the country of the Greeks there was a cruel famine and it came from many locusts which devastated all their harvests. The same year, there was a violent earthquake.

In this year, James, bishop of Batnan was famous, who composed some treatises on the famine, which happened in the country of the Greeks at that time. Then Marinus the monk, who came from Apamea also flourished, who composed many works at Emesa. |165 

In the year 22 of Anastasius, in the month of Hazirân (June), at midday, there was an eclipse of the sun.

At that time, Severus, bishop of Antioch appeared who wrote several books against his adversaries; and he shared the ideas of Dioscorus, patriarch of Alexandria.

Then Justinus reigned for nine years, in year 829 of Alexander; he was originally from Rome. He reconciled all the churches, drove out the gentiles and freed the bishops of the East.

In the year 7 of his reign, the Greeks and Persians fought a battle on the bank of the Euphrates, and many Greeks drowned.

In this year, there was heavy snow and a hard frost, which destroyed the trees and the vines. In year 8 of this reign, the rains become rare, the harvest was small, and water lacking in the brooks. Then many locusts came and a terrible plague which lasted for six years.

The same year, the emperor sent a delegation to Mondhar, king of the Arabs, to make peace with him, because he had raided the Greeks, destroyed their houses and taken the population into captivity. |166

In this year, the Persian, i.e. Chosroes the Persian, made an expedition against Edessa where he killed many people.

A comet appeared in the sky and remained for forty one nights.

The emperor Justinianus (Justinus) associated with himself in the empire a man who was also called Justinianus; he was the son of his brother and he reigned for thirty nine years.

There was a violent earthquake, and several places were levelled.

A disagreement broke out between the followers of Severus and the followers of Julian, (bishop of Halicarnassus). Julian said that the body of Christ is corruptible. The followers of Severus said that this is impossible and can never be.

In year 3 of the reign of Justinianus (Justin) and his associate, the Arabs attacked the Greeks.

At this same time, some causes of great misfortunes occurred between the Greeks and Persians; many Greeks perished and a great number of them |167 drowned in the Euphrates. The war between them lasted for four years. The head of the Greek forces was called Basilides (Belisarius).

The Jews of Palestine revolted and rose against the Greeks, and chose a king for themselves. The Greeks marched against them and killed both them and their leader.

Then the emperor Justinianus ordered that pagans should no longer be allowed in the Greek empire; they should be made to be baptized and convert to Christianity; if they refused, they would be killed and their goods confiscated. Many of them converted.

In the fifth year of his reign, he ordered that the bishops in favour of Severus and of Dioscorus should hold a council in Constantinople. When they were gathered, he exhorted them with authority and requested them to accept the doctrines of Leo, bishop of Rome, and the council of Chalcedon, namely that the Lord Christ has one person and two natures. But they did not accept his proposal. Severus, patriarch of Antioch, who was present, and all the Eastern bishops shared the same doctrines, said that the Divinity is identical with the hypostases and that the Lord Christ is only one person and only one nature of formed two persons and two natures, --- one divine, the other human. |168 So the bishops of Severus did not accept the proposal of the emperor, who returned them to their sees laden with honours.

In year 6 (of his reign), the Persians attacked (the Greeks) and conquered (their country). The same year, Qawad (Qabad), king of the Persians, died, and the Greeks made peace with the Persians.

The same year, the Samaritans revolted. Justinianus sent against them soldiers who fought against them and killed a very great number of them.

In year 8 of his reign, there was an eclipse of the sun, the 29 of Nisân (April), at two o'clock in the afternoon.

In this year the barbarians captured Rome.

John, patriarch of Rome, died, after having governed the Church for three years, and Agapetus succeeded him.

At that time, Epiphanius, patriarch of Constantinople, died, after having occupied the see for seven years; Anthimus succeeded him for ten years

In Alexandria, Timothy who had sat for seventeen years, was succeeded by Gaianus for three months, to whom Theodosius succeeded. |169 

In this year, there was an eclipse of the sun which lasted for one year and two months, in all fourteen months. This was in the year 846 of Alexander. The sun only gave a weak light; the astronomers and all the people said that an accident had happened to it which would never cease, and that the sun would never return to its first state.

In this year, locusts appeared throughout the country. In the same year, the winter was rigorous and with much snow, and many people died in it. In the year 10 of Justinianus, an extraordinary sign appeared in the sky; the heat of the sun was cooled, and the fruits did not mature that year.

In this year, Sergius of Ras`ayn was celebrated, who was a philosopher, translator and interpreter of books, author of many works, and moreover a doctor. He came to Ephrem, patriarch of Antioch, and remained (some time) with him. Then Ephrem sent him to Agapetus, bishop of Rome, about the matters which had happened to him over there. Sergius died in Constantinople. |170 

The same year, on the order (of the emperor), 72 bishops met in Constantinople and condemned Petrus and Origen and their books.

The same year, a sign, similar to a lance of double size, appeared in the sky and remained for forty days.

In this year, Chosroes, son of Qawad (Qabad), marched against Antioch, took it and took its inhabitants into captivity whom he led to Babylon, for them built a city that he named Antioch, known today under the name of Al-Makhuz Al-Djedid, and settled them there. Thereafter he treated them with benevolence and protected them. They paid him tax so that he would leave them alone. After that he marched on Rakkah and captured it.

However the Greeks had business with the Barbarians (Berbers) and the Slavs (Saqalibah), located on the borders of the empire. When they had finished fighting with them, they turned against the Persians, and this war lasted without stopping for four years. |171

In the year 16 (of his reign), a great plague occurred throughout the earth, which lasted three years. Ulcers appeared on people in the armpits, buttocks and kidneys, and a very great number of them died suddenly.

In this same year, Belisarius, commander of Justinianus, made an expedition against the Persians.

The same year, an Arab, Harith-ibn-Gabala, marched against the Persians. While Chosroes was struck with these ulcers, Harith attacked the Persians with his forces and put them to rout, destroyed several of their cities and took many prisoners. But one of the satraps of Chosroes then went out against the Arabs, defeated them and recaptured all the prisoners.

At that time, a sign of fire, the shape of a sword, appeared in the sky and was transported from the East towards the West; it remained (visible) for all the winter.

In the year 17 of Justinianus, Chosroes, son of Qawad, went up against Kafartoutha and Ras`ayn. But Basilius (Belisarius) went out with some Greek forces against the Persians and pushed back Chosroes before he had captured these cities. |172

In year 18 of Justinianus, Chosroes went up against Edessa, besieged it for two months and, unable to take it, returned home.

In the year 20 of Justinianus, a great famine prevailed in the East, so much so that the bushel (modius) was sold for 13 dirhams.

In the year 26 of Justinianus, a great plague occurred which killed many people.

The oxen were also affected, so that men plowed with asses or horses. War was declared between men, who did not cease to kill one another, and many left their native land.

In this year Justinianus ordered Theodore and his books to be condemned; also the chapters composed by Theodoret and that the chapters composed by Cyril, patriarch of Alexandria, should be accepted. 164 bishops met and condemned Theodore, Theodoret, their books and their doctrines, and Hiba, bishop of Edessa, and his doctrines. But Vigilius, bishop of Rome, refused to affix his signature to this judgment and said: "Anyone who died without being excommunicated cannot properly be excommunicated after their death." But Justinianus insisted; then Vigilius excommunicated them and signed their condemnation with all the other bishops. |173

In the same year, there was a violent earthquake, which destroyed several localities.

In the year 28 of Justinianus, the Greeks made peace with the Persians, and peace between them lasted until the sixth year of Justinus the Younger.

The same year, there was an earthquake in Constantinople, in the month of Kanun I (December), and a great plague occurred in Rome and in the surrounding countries.

In the year 35 of his reign, Justinian wrote to all the bishops ordering them to celebrate Christmas on the 24th of Kanun I (December) and Epiphany on the 6th of Kanun II (January), because many people had celebrated Christmas and the Epiphany together, on the same day, i.e. on the day of Epiphany, 6th of Kanun II.

In the year 39 of Justinianus, a sign, like a lance of fire, appeared in the sky and remained for four months and started to move from one place to another.

At that time John the grammarian was illustrious in Alexandria. He was a philosopher and wrote many books on grammar, philosophy, logic, religion, etc. |174 He shared the ideas of James and Severus; he then abandoned them and claimed that the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are three hypostases and three natures but only one substance.

In that time, the followers of Julian of Halicarnassus announced themselves. Some said that the body of Christ had not been created, but that it was descended from heaven with him; others said: "On the contrary, the body was created, but it is subtle and spiritual. Christ could not undergo sufferings unless he was associated with sin; but Christ was never involved with sin; he was thus not really crucified, he did not suffer, he did not die; all that was only seemingly."

Then the emperor Justinianus died, after reigning alone for nine years and with Justinus, his associate, for thirty-nine years. After these thirty-nine years, Justinus, his associate, reigned alone, in the year 788 of Alexander. |175

In the first year of his reign, there was an eclipse of the sun, on Sunday the first Ab (August).

In year 8 of his reign, a sign of fire was seen in the sky, which began in the north and remained in all the sky.

A darkness occurred which wrapped the whole world for nine hours of the day until the night, so that nothing could be seen; and it fell from the air like wisps of straw and ash.

In this year, the emperor sent one of his lieutenants to Apamea to take from there the cross of Our Lord Christ that Helena had placed there. The population rose and refused to let him take it. The lieutenant wrote to the emperor to inform him of the events; then the emperor ordered the cross divided into two, to bring half to him and to leave the other in the city; the lieutenant did so.

In year 3 of Justinus the Younger, the rains became rare, and the winter was similar to the summer. There was a violent earthquake and a great plague.

In the year 6 of his reign, a column of fire appeared in the sky, in the area of the West, and remained for the whole year. |176

In the year 7 of his reign, the king of Persians marched against (the fortress) of Abaran, plundered it, set fire to Apamea, captured the wood of the Cross which was there, and sent it to Persia.

The same year, a sedition broke out in Constantinople, and there was discord between the Armenian patricians. They wrote to the emperor Justinus to request him to send somebody to them who would put them in agreement. The emperor sent (somebody) who reconciled them.

In year 8 (of the reign of Justinus), Chosroes, king of Persians, made a expedition against Dara, besieged it for a few months, but could not take it. Then he sent (one of his generals) to Antioch, who invaded its neighbourhood and returned to Apamea. The population of Apamea, relying on the peace which reigned between the Greeks and Persians, opened the gates of the city. The Persians entered and spread out. Then their leader ordered them to put the inhabitants to the sword; and they plundered the city and killed a very great number of its inhabitants. It was while he besieged Dara that Chosroes sent one of his marzbans (satraps) to capture these places; the latter returned to him with many prisoners, riches and horses. Chosroes besieged Dara for six months and captured it on the 11th of Tichrin (II) (November). |177

Then Justinus prepared to make the war on the Persians, but he became dangerously sick, fell into insanity, and the campaign did not take place.

In this year, there was a violent and great plague in all the country and particularly in Constantinople. A strong disease struck the people, and many of them became blind.

Justinus recovered from his illness; he was cured, and his reason returned to him. He gathered his patricians and the leaders of his forces and proclaimed as Caesar to reign after him a man named Tiberius, who belonged to the notables of the empire and was always close to the emperor.

In year 11 of Justinus, the Samaritans revolted. The emperor sent (an army) against them which fought them, plundered their country and killed a very great number of them.

Tiberius reigned for four years, (from) year 889 of Alexander; he was heir apparent to the empire for six years. |178

During his reign, the truce which had been concluded between the Greeks and Persians expired, and a violent war broke out between them. Tiberius, emperor of the Greeks, wrote to the king of Persians to ask for peace or tell him to declare war. The king of Persians refused to make peace with the Greeks and promised Tiberius to come to fight him in a place that he indicated to him. The Greeks gathered for the battle and arrived in this place, where they awaited the Persians. But Chosroes tricked them and did not come to the agreed place. The Persians attacked Ras`ayn, Al-Khanurin (?) and Kitharizon (?). Then Tiberius sent against them forces under the command of one of his patricians named Maurice, who met Persians and put them to rout. Then Tiberius rejoined Maurice and his troops, made 40,000 prisoners whom he deported and settled in the island of Cyprus.

In this year, there was a violent earthquake in Antioch which overthrew two towers on the walls. In the same year, the summer was very rainy and very cold. The atmosphere tarnished and was darkened; many locusts appeared which devoured the harvest of grain, grasses and vegetables. There was a great plague. |179

At that time there were found some people who worshipped idols; and they were killed.

The 4th year of his reign, Tiberius gave his daughter in marriage to Maurice, the most remarkable of his generals, and proclaimed him (Caesar) to succeed in future. Tiberius died and Maurice reigned for twenty years, (from) year 894 of Alexander.

Maurice was a good man, with a gracious manner, and very charitable; he gave food sixty times a year to the indigent and poor; ignoring their status, he and his wife served them food and drink and gave them abundant alms.

In year 4 of Maurice, a great plague prevailed at Constantinople and carried off 400,000 of its inhabitants.

In year 11 of his reign, Maurice ordered the banishment of the Jews who were in Antioch, and they were driven out of the city. This is why: a Christian had rented a house to live there. When he left it, an image of Mary was left behind there; after him, a Jew rented this house, |180 and when he entered there, he found this image and urinated on it. This matter came to the emperor, who ordered the expulsion of the Jews of Antioch and made them shave the middle of their heads so that they could be recognized by this mark.

In year 6 of Maurice on the 29th of Tichrin I (October), there was an earthquake at Antioch which devastated the whole city; the great temples, most of the walls and markets and all the houses were toppled.

It is said that it was there a merchant originating in Apamea, who, for all its life, had helped the indigent and the poor and was very charitable. The night of the earthquake, he went out to seek in the streets and the markets of the city someone to help; but he did not find anybody. He then went out to look outside of the city and saw two angels. When he saw them, they told him that they would overturn the city, and warned him to leave there, he and his family. He did so in all haste and escaped safe and sound with his fortune.

In this year, the Persians attacked Mayafariqin and captured it.

The same year, the Greeks of Syria revolted and put at their head one of their own. Maurice then wrote to Gregory, patriarch of Antioch, to request him to pacify the Greeks. The patriarch succeeded in this, and all the Greeks accepted the governor whom the emperor had sent to them, |181 and departed for Mayafariqin; but they found that the Persians had already captured it; being unable to retake the city, they built a village close to it which they called Maurice, and camped there, while waiting to capture the other, and killed the Persians who were there.

At that time Qourya (Qoura) the philosopher, author of many works, was illustrious.

In the year 8 of Maurice, the Persians attacked Hormizd (Hormiz), their king, put out his eyes and then killed him. They divided into two parties: one was for his son Chosroes, the other for a marzban (satrap) named Bahram. The party which was for Chosroes, son of Hormizd, took the initiative and proclaimed him king. But Bahram the marzban was conducting a war with the Deilemites and was absent when Chrosroes was proclaimed. The war with the Deilemites finished, and he wrote to Chosroes: "I do not know you. Give up power or take this as a declaration of war!" Bahram had many soldiers. Chosroes, son of Hormizd, was young; he was afraid to enter into combat with Bahram and thought of asking help from the emperor of the Greeks. |182

Then he called one of his private servants and announced his resolution to him. When the latter heard the words of the king, he left in secrecy and set out for the camp of the Greeks; he entered, met an Arab chief named Djafnah, who had asked protection of the Greeks, and informed him. Djafnah went along to Constantinople and acted so that he came to the emperor.

The emperor exclaimed and said to him: "What do you want?" Djafnah answered: "I want to communicate to the emperor a secret that I possess, and I will thus share with him something extraordinary." The emperor feared that Djafnah might wish to do him harm, and ordered his clothing removed. Djafnah was thus presented in front of the emperor in trousers only and said: "O emperor! I want to be sent to the king of the Persians so that he submits and obeys you." The emperor said: "I believe that you are insane." Then Djafnah brought out the letter that Chosroes had written. The emperor read it, understood it and was delighted at it.

Then the emperor ordered him to make Chosroes come to him so that he could give him all he needed, and help him against his enemies. (At the same time) Maurice wrote a reply to the letter of Chosroes. Djafnah took it and returned with the servant to Chosroes; he gave the letter to him and told him of the good disposition of the emperor towards him. |183

When Chosroes read the letter, he left his kingdom, disguised as a beggar and so traversed the empire of the Persians; he passed by Nisibis and arrived at Edessa, where he entered. He presented himself before the governor and told him who he was. The governor embraced him, treated him with distinction, provided him all the necessaries and wrote to the emperor about him.

Then the emperor wrote to Chosroes to tell him to go to Menbidj and to await there the arrival of the troops with all the necessaries. There, he would be close to his empire and could strike at his enemy, before he had captured his kingdom. Chosroes felt great joy on reading this letter by Maurice.

Then he sent a letter to him thus: "To the blessed father, Master of the victorious sword, Maurice, son of the Master, on behalf of Chosroes, son of Hormizd, his son, greeting. I inform the emperor that Bahram and his followers, slaves of my father, did not recognize my authority, united against me, their Master, forgot the benefits from my father, revolted against me their lord, and wanted to kill me. Then I decided to have recourse to you, to seek protection near your grace and to submit myself to you, because to submit oneself to a king like myself, although he is an enemy, is better for me than to fall into the hands of rebellious slaves; to die at the hand of kings is nobler for me than to die by the hand of another; I regard that as less ignominious. I take refuge with you, trustful in your kindness, in the generosity that |184 God has inspired in you, and in your clemency. I ask you to have pity on me, to show me mercy, to treat me with kindness, since I have recourse to you and humbly I beseech your help. I am come into your empire to place my fate between your hands. Hasten to help me and to help me; be not insensitive to the fate of a king like yourself, whom slaves overcame and drove out of his kingdom. If you have acted thus in my connection, I will be to you a docile and obedient son, with all my family, my entourage and the subjects of my kingdom, if this pleases God Almighty."

Having read this letter, Maurice gathered the commanders of the Greeks, the patricians, the warriors and the leaders of the city and had it read to them. The reading finished, each one required his opinion of his neighbour. The emperor took note of their answers, and he found himself alone in his opinion. He decided to answer favourably him that had taken refuge with him, and to help him who had beseeched his help. He ordered the troops to prepare to go on campaign and to take with them the money necessary (to Chosroes). The army, to the number of 40,000 soldiers, departed to Chosroes with the materials of war and much money.

Maurice wrote the following answer to him: "From Maurice, servant of Jesus Christ, may he be glorified! to Chosroes, king of the Persians, my son and my brother, greeting. I have read your letter and I learned from it the conduct |185 of the slaves who raised themselves against you, their disobedience, the contempt which they made of the benefits of your fathers and your ancestors, and their rebellion against you whom they have driven out of your kingdom. I have felt more sorrow at this than I can express, and sympathy leads me to feel sorry for your fate and to help you, as you ask. Since you say that it is preferable to hide under the wings of an enemy king and to be put in the shade of his protection, than to fall into the hands of rebellious slaves; that to die at the hand of the kings is better than to die at the hand of the slaves; but that you prefer a very noble friendship and that you beseech it from us, we believe your words and approve your language; we will strengthen your power, will achieve your desire and will satisfy your needs; we support and approve your finer feelings. We thus send troops and money to you, because you are thrown down and dispossessed of your rank and your dignity. I make you my son and I will be your father. I will not be niggardly of my money nor my troops and I will not refuse to send them to your help. Take the money, may it profit you, and go with the blessing and the help of God. Also take the troops, and feel neither distress nor fear! Quickly run to your enemy, without negligence or slowness! Hope that God will give you the victory over your enemy, will throw him |186 at your feet, will make his tricks useless and will restore you in your rank, if God so wishes."

When the troops and the letter of the emperor had reached Chosroes, son of Hormizd, and he had accepted the money, he marched against the enemy. Bahram, learning of Chosroes' flight to the Greeks, had allied to Al-Makhuzah, had seized the riches contained in the treasury, the weapons and effects, had burned the whole city, destroyed the palaces of Chosroes and had prepared for war. Chosroes, son of Hormizd, went to their encounter with the Greek troops and met him between Al-Madain and Wasit. Bahram was put to flight; all his men were killed and his riches and his camp delivered over to plunder. Chosroes returned to his kingdom where he went up (on the throne), and all the people gave oath to him.

After a short rest, he called the Greeks, loaded them with presents, returned them to their Master and turned over to the emperor Maurice twice the money and gifts that he had received. He started then by restoring Dara to the Greeks, taken seventeen years before by the Persians, and similarly Mayafariqin from which he transported all the Persians elsewhere. Chosroes |187 kept with him a troop of Greeks and charged them with keeping his treasures, built two churches for the Christians, one, at Al-Madain, dedicated to St. Mary, and the other to St. Sergius the martyr; then he arranged for Anastasius, patriarch of Antioch, to come who dedicated them and established priests and deacons there. Chosroes rewarded him largely, and he (Anastasius) returned from there. That occurred at the end of the 902nd year of Alexander.

In this year, there was a great plague among men; then a powerful disease struck them. The following year, which was the 903rd year of Alexander, in the month of Adhar (March), in the middle of the day, there was an eclipse of the sun, and the same day an earthquake occurred. In the year 14 of Maurice, excessive heat burned the trees, grapes, vines and all the greenery. In the year 16 of his reign, the rains were so abundant that many cities with their population and their cattle were drowned in water. Then there was a swarm of locusts such as had never been seen and which remained all year to devour and to destroy (the harvest). In year 17 of his reign, there was a strong earthquake and much snow fell.

At the end of the 20th year of Maurice, the magnates and patricians of the Greeks |188 were assembled in the town of Heraclea. Among them was a patrician named Phocas whom they wanted to proclaim emperor. But they had previously intended to proclaim Petrus, brother of Maurice, when Maurice, after concluding peace with the Persians, had removed them from leading the troops and had removed their (names) from the role. They let Petrus, brother of Maurice, know that they wanted to make him king, but he fled from them and left for Constantinople.

Then Maurice fled to Chalcedon. The Greeks caught up with him, as he was dressed in rags like a beggar, and killed both him, his sons and his followers, and proclaimed Phocas emperor. Phocas reigned for eight years, from the year 914 of Alexander; he did not belong in any way to the imperial family.

Chosroes, on the news of the murder of Maurice, cancelled the treaty concluded between him and the Greeks, broke the peace which linked them, marched on Dara and captured it.

In year 8 of Phocas, a sign appeared in the sky similar to a large resplendent star of which the rays looked like blood which was coloured the major part of the sky and the air; and this sign remained (visible) from the month of Tichrin I (October) to the month of Nisan (April). |189

In the same year, a great misfortune occurred in Syria. Here is the cause: the Jews which were there and in Mesopotamia, intended to kill the Christians in all the cities and to ruin their churches. While they were preoccupied with this, they were denounced to the authorities. Then the Christians threw themselves on them and killed a great number of them. Learning this, Phocas was annoyed with the Christians and laid heavy taxes on them at Antioch, Laodicea and in all of Syria and Mesopotamia.

The same year, the Persians went up against Amid and captured it; then they turned against Qinnesrin and returned to Edessa.

In this same year, two rebels rose against Phocas, emperor of the Greeks: one of them was Heraclius, other Gregory in Africa; they sent troops with two of their followers and ordered them, i.e. Heraclius, son of Heraclius, and Nicetas, son of Gregory, their followers, to kill Phocas. They agreed between them that the empire would belong to the first to arrive in Constantinople and kill Phocas. Heraclius, son of Heraclius, went by sea and found it favorable and calm, and Nicetas went by land. Heraclius preceded Nicetas, entered the city and killed Phocas. Heraclius reigned thirty and one years and five months, from the 922nd year of Alexander. |190

In the first year of his reign, Heraclius sent ambassadors to the king of the Persians to make peace with him; but he refused completely. When the Persians learned that Heraclius had ascended the throne, they attacked Antioch, killed its patriarch and took along his population into captivity. Then Nicetas, son of Gregory, left for Alexandria and captured it. The Persians went up against the Greeks and took Antioch; then they turned against Apamea and captured it; then they went to Emesa (Hims) and captured it. All this took place in the month of Tichrin I (October). The Greeks assembled and fought the Persians close to (the river) of Halys; but the Greeks were put to flight and many of them drowned in the river. Then the Persians captured Caesarea.

In this year, among the Greeks, there was a great famine, so that men ate corpses and the skins of animals.

Then Nicetas, son of Gregory, went out against the satrap (marzban) called Kesrou`an, who had captured these cities, fought him and put him to flight; and on the two sides there were 20,000 dead.

In this year, many locusts appeared. |191

In year 4 of Heraclius, the Arabs began their conquests, i.e. in year 935 of Alexander.

In year 5 of Heraclius, the Persians left Caesarea, set out to march on Jerusalem and captured it. In year 8 of Heraclius, the Persians took Alexandria and the surrounding countries, striking as far as Nubia, attacked Chalcedon and captured it.

In year 10 of Heraclius, the Arabs set out to move on Jathrib, in year 931 of Alexander.

In year 15 (of Heraclius), the Persians made a raid against Rhodes and captured it. In this year, Chosroes, son of Hormizd, ordered the marble of the churches in all the cities which it had captured to be taken, and carried to al-Madain and al-Makhuzah; and this caused great suffering to men and animals. |192

In this year, Heraclius made war on the Persians, captured the town of Kisri, took many prisoners and departed. Three years afterwards, he made peace with the Persians, i.e. in year 17 of Heraclius.

At that time, there was an eclipse of the sun, and this eclipse lasted from Tichrin I (October) until Haziran (June), i.e. for nine months; half of the disc was eclipsed and the other was not; and only a little of its light was visible.

In the year 18 of the emperor Heraclius, Chosroes, son of Hormizd, king of Persians, was killed, after reigning thirty-eight years; then Qawad (Qabad), his son, succeeded him; he made peace with the Greeks and restored the cities to them which his father had taken. In year 19 of Heraclius, Qawad, sons of Chosroes, died, after having reigned one year, and Ardechir, his son, succeeded him. Then the satrap Chahrabaz who had made all these conquests, killed him, made peace with the Greeks and restored to them the cities that he and the others had taken, as far as Dara, which was located beyond Nisibis.

In this year in the sky a comet appeared, in the area of the west.

Then Heraclius ordered the Greeks to leave the country (of the Persians) |193 and to come into the country of the Greeks, because the Greeks and Persians had made peace. Chahrabaz ordered all Persians to return to their countries, each one to his city and family, and not to sow disorder in the country. But they did not accept his words. At the end of year 20 of Heraclius, the Persians made a raid on the banks of the Euphrates, and Chahrabaz made captive many troops of Greeks; a great number of the leaders of the Persians (of the Greeks?) and their followers were killed.

In the year 21 of Heraclius, Chahrabaz, who had usurped power over the Persians, died, and Bouran, his daughter, began to reign and made peace with the Greeks; then she died, and her sister succeeded her.

In this year, the fame of the Arabs spread and terrified many among the Greeks and Persians.

In the year 22 of Heraclius, the Greeks met with the Arabs on the banks of the Yarmuk; and the Arabs killed such a quantity of Greeks that (their bodies) formed a bridge on which to pass. That took place in year 943 of Alexander.

(In that time), Abou-Bekr-`Atiq, son of Abou-Qouhafah, was recognized as their leader; he remained in Yathrib in the country of Farous (Qarous?) and he sent troops in all directions under the command of four generals: |194 one (was sent) into the country of the Persians, another to Aleppo and Damascus. A Greek patrician, whose name was Sergius, resided at Caesarea and was governor for the Greeks. He met the Arabs who put him to flight and killed his men.

In this same year, there was a violent earthquake and a sign appeared in the sky, in the shape of a column of fire, which started to move from the East to the West and from North to South and then disappeared.

Heraclius sent his brother, who was at Edessa, against the Arabs; but he did not dare to oppose them; then Heraclius went to Constantinople, left Syria and sent against the Arabs some troops which put them to flight and plundered their camp.

In this same year, Omar, son of Khattab, moved towards Syria and arrived at Jerusalem. The patriarch went out before him and admitted him into the city. Omar looked at the city and the temple which was there, and prayed there. After remaining there for forty days, he arose and went to Damascus where he remained a long time; then he returned to Yathrib.

Heraclius, emperor of the Greeks, died, after reigning thirty one years and five months.

In this same year, the Arabs captured the town of Caesarea, and Palestine. |195

Then Constantine, son of Heraclius reigned for four months, in the year 953 of Alexander, and was killed. (After him) Heraclius, son of Heraclius, and his son reigned together for eight month; then they were dethroned. Then Constans reigned for twenty-seven years from the year 954 of Alexander.

In year 6 of his reign, the Arabs took Cyprus and conquered it. In year 7 of his reign, the Arabs and the Greeks divided the island of Cyprus into two halves. At the end of the twenty-seventh year of his reign, the Greeks killed him, i.e. Constans, in the bath, in Sicily.

From Adam to the flood there were 2,242 years; from the flood to the construction of the tower, the confusion of languages in Babel and the time of Ar`u, 650 years; from the confusion of languages until the birth of Abraham, 413 years; from the birth of Abraham to the exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt, 506 years; from the exodus of the Israelites out of Egypt until the first king, Saul, reigned over them, 696 years; from the reign of Saul until Nabuchodonosor took them into captivity, set fire to the Temple and destroyed the city, 505 years; from Zahab (Zedekiah), |196 king of the Israelites, lieutenant of king Nabuchodonosor, and the kings of the Persians to Alexander, 2,239 years; from Alexander until the kings of the Greeks started to reign, 280 years and five months; from (the beginning) of the empire of the Arabs until now, i.e. until the 1,273rd year of Alexander, there are 330 years and eight months 28

We will report the years of the Arabs and their kings, king by king, and how long each of them reigned, as far as possible, if Great God wills.

History of the Arabs.

In the year 933 of Alexander and year 11 of Heraclius, king of the Greeks, and at the end of the 30th year of Chosroes, son of Hormizd, the Arabs were stirred up in Yathrib and established as their leader a man who was called Mohammed, son of `Abdallah. He became their leader and their king and governed them for ten years. His family, his parents and his tribe gathered around him, |197 and he made them believe in only one God who has no associate; he made them reject the worship of the idols and to worship only one God. He ordered to them to practise circumcision, not to drink wine, not to eat pig, nor animals that have been strangled, nor blood; to pray and to pay the tax (zakat). He who accepted this was safe and sound; and if somebody refused and made opposition, he made war on him. He killed several Arab chiefs of his tribe and others and captured many cities of the neighbouring peoples.

The Arab Christians and the others came to him, and he protected them and gave them safe conduct. All the people who did not agree with him, i.e. the Jews, the Magi, the Sabaeans and the others, did the same thing; they gave oath to him and accepted his protection, with responsibility to pay a poll-tax and a tax on land.

He ordered his people to accept the prophets and the apostles and what God had revealed to them; to believe in Christ, son of Mary, and to say that he is the messenger of God and his Word, his servant and his spirit; (to believe) in the Gospel, paradise, hell and the day of the last judgement. He said that in paradise there is food and drink, marriage and rivers of wine, milk and honey, and black-eyed girls (houris), untouched by men or genii. He prescribed the fast and the five prayers and other things of which I will say nothing for fear of being too long 29. |198

In the first year of his reign, Chahrabaz, satrap of the Persians, went against the Greeks, besieged Ancyra, and captured, killed or made captive all the inhabitants. He also captured, at the end of this year, the island of Rhodes and took its inhabitants into captivity.

In year 2 of his reign, Chosroes, son of Hormizd, tyrannized the populations of his kingdom who did not share his religion, because he was seized by pride and vanity because of the many conquests which he had made, and because of the extension of his power. He imposed heavy taxes on them, doubled their contributions and ordered the demolition of the churches of Syria and Mesopotamia and the marble from them to be carried off into his kingdom, as we already mentioned above, with all the vessels of gold, money and wood.

In year 3 of Mohammed, son of `Abdallah, in the year 14 of Heraclius and year 35 of Chosroes, son of Hormizd, Chahrabaz directed a expedition against Constantinople with a numerous army of Persians and besieged it; then he made an assault on the city, but could not take it and withdrew, after a long siege.

This same year, Chosroes persecuted those of the inhabitants of Edessa who held to the doctrines of the Melkites, and ordered them to follow the doctrines of the Jacobites. |199 This is why: There was a Jacobite man called Younan, who was a doctor for Chosroes, son of Hormizd. He was a relative of an inhabitant of Edessa named Qourrah, who was a Jacobite. Chosroes, son of Hormizd, had charged Qourrah of levy the land tax in Edessa. The inhabitants of Edessa hated him, denounced him to Chosroes and calumniated him to him, so that he was relieved. When Chosroes' doctor had seen the conduct of the inhabitants of Edessa towards Qourrah his relative, he felt anger at it. One day when he was alone with the king, he said to him: "O king! The inhabitants of Edessa should not be allowed to keep their religion, because they are bad people. But oppress them, as long as they remain in your empire, because their faith is that of Heraclius and of his followers and their doctrine on God is similar to his doctrine. They are in correspondence with him and they are sent messages. Order them to embrace the doctrines of the Jacobites or Nestorians: if they embrace one of the two doctrines, enmity will ignite between them and the Greeks; but if they believe as the Greeks, they will be always in favour of the Greeks."

Chosroes approved his words and wrote to the satrap, the governor of Mesopotamia, and ordered him to go to Edessa with his troops, to force the population to embrace the doctrines of the Jacobites or Nestorians and to put to death whoever refused. When the letter of Chosroes |200 reached the satrap, he set out to march and arrived at Edessa; he assembled the inhabitants in a church and said to them: "You are the enemies of God and enemies of Chosroes. You are spies who keep his enemies informed of his business. Now choose one of these two things: make yourselves Jacobites or Nestorians. If you embrace one of the two doctrines, (you will remain) in your native land with your manner of living; if you refuse, I will put to you to death and I will send you to the court of the king with your families, your goods and all your fortune. I grant to you for this a delay of a few days: reflect on this subject, before misfortune comes to assail you."

Then they said among themselves: "Let us choose one of these two things: to either eat the strangled ox or the swollen ass." They meant by the strangled ox Nestorianism and by the swollen ass Jacobitism. The people chose Jacobitism and did not leave their homes and native land. All the inhabitants of Edessa became Jacobites and took for leader a man called Isaiah.

A few months afterwards, Chosroes ordered the inhabitants of Edessa transported into Persia and wrote on this subject to the governor of the city. The governor, who was a merciful man, gentle and benevolent, |201 delayed in carrying out (this order) and did not deport them all in one go; but he sent them little by little; he hoped that the heart of the king would in the end have pity on them, and he hid their wrongdoings. On these events the emperor of the Greeks attacked the Persians and invaded Iraq. Chosroes forgot the inhabitants of Edessa, and the remainder of the inhabitants escaped captivity. Nobody appeared to resist Heraclius; he killed, took into captivity and returned to Syria.

In year 7 of Mohammed, son of `Abdallah, there was an eclipse of the sun, and the stars appeared in full daylight.

Chahrabaz camped before Constantinople up to that moment; then he recognized emperor Heraclius of the Greeks, and made obeissance to him. The cause of this was that certain people had denounced Chahrabaz to Chosroes and had said to him that he was little by little decreasing the royal power and said: "It is I who made all these conquests;"; (it was said) that he attacked the king, scorned him, he and all his men, and that he affirmed that, without him, the empire of Chosroes would not exist. Chosroes was irritated and wrote to the satrap — there was a man called Mardif which was with Chahrabaz — and ordered him to seek to cut the head of Chahrabaz and to send it to him; and he charged him to take command of the troops and to continue the war. |202

When the envoy of Chosroes was travelling to the army of Chahrabaz, the Greeks captured him, when he arrived at their borders, and presented him to the emperor Heraclius. That took place after the return of Heraclius from Persia. The emperor took the letter and imprisoned the envoy.

When he had read the letter, he sent a message to Chahrabaz and requested him to come to him; he said to him to fear nothing for his person, goods and family and let him know that he wished him well. Chahrabaz entered Constantinople and presented himself at the court of the emperor Heraclius. The latter had the letter of Chosroes read to the satrap and brought the envoy to him, whom was put before him. Chahrabaz recognized him, spoke to him and questioned him about this business, and the envoy told him.

When he understood the business clearly, he immediately took an oath to Heraclius. Then he composed a letter on behalf of the emperor, gave it to Mardif and ordered him to read it to all his chiefs and satraps; and he wrote to the satrap: "Do you believe it possible to do this?" Then the satraps and the nobles were full of irritation and anger against Chosroes; they thus came to Heraclius, took an oath to him and made obeisance to him. Heraclius ordered that those who were in their troops should be allowed to depart freely into Persia, without causing them any nuisance. And they left with their Master.

Then Heraclius prepared for war against Persia and sent to |203 Khagan, king of the Khazars, a letter where he asked him to send auxiliary troops to him to the number of 40,000 riders, and that he would take him as his son-in-law and would give him his daughter. Heraclius left for Syria, and started to take, one after the other, the cities which belonged to the Persians, and established governors in them.

When Chosroes learned of the conduct of Chahrabaz and his companions, their submission to Heraclius and the preparations for an expedition that Heraclius made against him; when his situation and the conquests of Heraclius were confirmed to him, he was frightened and disturbed and repented of what he had done. All the troops of the Persians were dispersed in Syria and Mesopotamia, and Heraclius, in his triumph, destroyed them, one after the other.

Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia and Armenia belonged to the Persians. Then Chosroes ordered one of his satraps, called Rouzbahan, to take some Persian troops and to go against Heraclius, emperor of the Greeks. Rouzbahan left and arrived in the area of Mosul. Heraclius had already conquered Armenia, Mesopotamia, Egypt and Syria; he had beaten all the Persian troops which were in these countries, and the majority of the inhabitants and majority of the Armenians had given oath to him.

Heraclius set out on the march with 300,000 soldiers, and 40,000 men |204  arrived from the Khazars. When they had advanced as far as Azerbaidjan, Heraclius sent a letter to them in which he ordered them to remain there until he came to join them. After capturing Armenia, Heraclius continued his march, arrived at Nineveh and halted on the great Zab. Rouzbahan went before him; the two armies met and fought a tough battle in which Persians were put to flight; they lost there more than 50,000 men, and Rouzbahan their leader was numbered among the dead. Heraclius delivered their camp to plunder.

Chosroes, at the news of the disaster to Rouzbahan and his troops, fled to al-Makhuzah and al-Madain. Heraclius arrived there, captured him, seized the treasures of the king and carried off everything there. Then he set fire to al-Madain, destroyed the surrounding villages and took the inhabitants into captivity.

Chirouyah, son of Chosroes, had been imprisoned by his father. He came out of the prison, sought his father and, when he found him, put him to death and reigned after him. Chosroes had reigned thirty-eight years. His son Chirouyah started to reign in year 7 of Mohammed, son of `Abdallah, year 18 of Heraclius and the 940th year of Alexander. |205

Then Heraclius retraced his steps and camped at a village which was called Thamanin. This is the village where the ark stopped at the time of the flood, in the time of Noah. He climbed the mountain which is called al-Djoudi, examined the place of the ark, looked at the world, while turning to the four cardinal points, and went then over to Amid where he remained for all the winter.

Chirouyah, son of Chosroes, sent messengers to Heraclius to ask for peace. Heraclius accepted his proposals, provided that he restored all the cities to him and all the villages his father (Chosroes) had captured and which had belonged to the Greeks; and Heraclius would return to Persia all the Persians who were in his empire.

In that time, among the philosophers Stephanus was illustrious, a sage of Egypt and of Alexandria, who was the disciple of the philosopher Olympiodorus and of Theodore, a philosopher of Constantinople.

Then Heraclius resolved to leave for Mesopotamia and Syria; he ordered his brother Theodore to come to him and ordered him to allow the Persians who were anywhere in Mesopotamia and Syria, to leave his |206 empire and go to Persia. Theodore left with the vanguard, and Heraclius visited successively each city, established his governors there, omitting none and returned then into his kingdom to Constantinople. Concerning Theodore, brother of Heraclius, he arrived at Edessa and ordered the Persians who were there, to leave there and go into Persia. But they refused to obey this order and said: "We do not know Chirouyah, son of Chosroes, and will not leave our fatherland." Then he drew up against them machines of war, put stones in them and launched them on them; he launched thus on them more than 40 stones and killed many of the inhabitants. Seeing themselves too weak to resist, they made submission; he granted mercy to them, and they left the city and went away into Persia.

Theodore ordered that the Jews who were in Edessa should be killed, because they had helped the Persians to persecute the Christians. When he started to massacre them, one of them left, came to Heraclius, told him what occurred, and requested him to forgive them and to be benevolent towards them. Heraclius agreed to this request and sent to Theodore a letter where he ordered him to save the Jews and to close his eyes to their faults. When the letter came to him, he did not trouble them any more.

Then, Heraclius arrived at Edessa and ordered the Christians who were there, to embrace the Melkite doctrines again. |207 Then they abjured Jacobitism, except for some families, who have remained faithful to the Jacobite doctrines to this day.

Heraclius passed a whole year at Edessa and exiled Qourrah, bishop of Edessa, to the island of Cyprus, because he realized that Qourrah could not read the Gospel very well. Then he said to him: "O man, how did you become a bishop, if you cannot read the Gospel very well! Go now to this island, fix yourself over there and learn to read and the other questions of the church."

Chirouyah, son of Chosroes, died, and Ardashir succeeded him. But Chahrabaz killed him. Here is how: After the death of Chosroes, Chahrabaz and several satraps employed a ruse, escaped from the camp of Heraclius and arrived in Persia because of the letter that Chirouyah, son of Chosroes, had sent to them. Then Chirouyah died, and his son Ardechir succeeded him. But Chahrabaz killed him and gathered troops of the Persians. Mardigan (Mardif) also gathered many troops, and the Persians were divided in two parties.

We have already reported that after the conversion of the emperor Constantine with his mother Helena to Christianity, the latter marched on pilgrimage to seek out the tree of the Cross in Jerusalem. She gathered the Jews and oppressed them until they produced the Cross; and she found it broken into two halves. |208 She took one half which she placed at Apamea, and brought the other to Constantinople. The Greek emperors wanted to take the other half which was in Apamea. But the inhabitants opposed this and only gave them part of their part . . . 30 At the time of Justinianus, the Persians made war against the Greeks, plundered . . .  31 to Apamea, took [the remainder] of the tree of the Cross and carried it [into Persia]. Heraclius requested Chahrabaz to return it, and [Chahrabaz] agreed to his request and sent the Cross to him. Heraclius took it and carried it to Constantinople, [added it] to the remainder of the Cross and covered it with gold. The Cross has been there until the present day.

In this year there was a violent earthquake, and the sun was darkened . . . 32

[Mohammed being dead, Abu-Bekr] succeeded [him and reigned for two years. . . He sent] four generals . . .  with troops: [one in Palestine, another] in Egypt, the third in Persia and the fourth against the Christian Arabs. |209 As for the one that Abu-Bekr sent to Palestine, he met a Greek patrician named Sergius, killed him with all his companions and plundered their camp. The other three (generals) were victorious and returned to Yathrib.

In year 3 of Abu-Bekr, there was a violent earthquake in Palestine; for thirty days the ground trembled. In the same year, there was a strong epidemic in various places.

Abu-Bekr died; and after him reigned Omar, son of Khattab, for twelve years, from the 946 year of Alexander and the thirteenth year of the Arabs.

In the first year of his reign, he sent troops against al-Balqa, captured Basra, many cities and large fortresses and then returned to Yathrib.

In year 2 [of his reign], Khalid, son of al-Walid, [went] with many troops on al-Balqa and . . . 33 in Persia. Khalid encountered . . .  troops of the Greeks and destroyed them. . . . (Heraclius) went out from Menbidj and |210 sent . . .  against Khalid and he killed . . . Arabs. . .  Damascus. Then Heraclius left Menbidj .. . .  Souriyah, which is Syria (ach-Cham), and learned with certainty that the Arabs had conquered it.

In the year . . .  of Omar, the Arabs left Damascus with Khalid, son of al-Walid. The Greek patrician, who was at Antioch, learned of the sortie of Khalid with the Arab troops. Fear and disquiet seized him, and he gathered many troops and marched on Damascus with 70,000 warriors. Then Khalid moved towards Damascus and captured it by granting quarter to the inhabitants, and he went against all the cities of Syria which he took and to which he showed mercy.

Sa`d-ibn-Abu-Waqqas left Yathrib, marched into the desert of Qadas and arrived [at Qadisiyah (Kadisiyah). . . ..] Koufah at the distance of five parasangs and remained there. When [Yezdegerd learned] of the invasion of the Arabs, he gathered many troops and sent. . . . (The Persians) camped on the Euphrates opposite Koufah. Then they met and [engaged in combat to] Qadisiyah (Kâdisîyah); and the Arabs put the Persians to rout and pursued them [to al-Madain], the town of Chosroes, which is on the Tigris.

Then Yezdegerd left with his satraps and his warriors, took position |211 on the Eastern bank of the Tigris and engaged in combat with the Arabs there. The Arabs threw themselves in the water, passed through with their horses, charged the Persians and put them to flight; then they captured al-Madain, [the town of Chosroes], and its surroundings and they removed the treasures of the king and other things. . . . Yezdegerd [fled to] Holwan where he gathered many troops. The Arabs [pursued him, caught up with him] at Holwan, put him to rout and killed all his soldiers. [Yezdegerd] fled and arrived at Nihavend; but the Arabs pursued him and put him to flight. (After that) Yezdegerd fled to Khorasan.

When Heraclius, who was [at Antioch], saw the rout of the Greeks and learned what the Arabs had done to the Persians, he was seized with anger and indignation and was very upset. He wrote to Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia and Armenia, ordering them not to engage in more combat with the Arabs or to oppose more the will of God; he informed them that Great God had sent this misfortune on men, that he was not opposing himself to the will of God, [who had promised] Ishmael, son of Ibrahim (Abraham), that several kings would come from him.

Sa`id and Amrou, son of al-`Asi, marched on Egypt and entered there. Cyrus (Qourrah), bishop of Alexandria, [went out to meet them] and made peace |212 with them on condition that he paid [each year] 200,000 dinars; their troops would not enter [Egypt and] would not pass its borders; he was preparing the money and would send it to them. . . (Sa`id and Amrou) made a pact with him on these conditions. And Cyrus, bishop [of Alexandria], did not cease to govern firmly for three years, and none of the Arabs entered there.

[Then], a certain number of inhabitants of Egypt [went] to the emperor Heraclius and accused Cyrus [of taking] the money of Egypt and giving it to the Arabs. . . and giving them the tax on land from Egypt that he [should give to the emperor].

Heraclius [was irritated] at this and sent to Egypt a patrician [named Manuel], ordered him to relieve Cyrus of the administration of Egypt, to invest himself (Manuel) with the administration and to defend its inhabitants.

The following year, when the Arabs, according to custom, [came] to Egypt to ask for gold, they found Manuel encamped in Egypt with Greek troops. They were captured and brought before him. Manuel asked them for the purpose of their mission, and they made it known to him. When he heard that they were asking for gold, he drove out them with great anger and sent them back with scorn, saying: |213 "I am not the bishop Cyrus who gave you gold from fear of you, because he is a monk dedicated to the worship of God, but I am a man of arms and war and courage; you must understand that by seeing me. I have only contempt and scorn for you. Leave the country and do not return here any more; if you do, I will kill you. What has happened previously is considered excused."

The envoys returned to their Master, and told him this. Then Amrou-ibn-al-`Asi arose, advanced and arrived in Egypt where he met Manuel. Amrou put him to rout and killed almost all his soldiers; (after that), Manuel arrived at Alexandria with the remainder of his troops. Then the Arabs captured Egypt.

At this news, Heraclius wrote Cyrus, bishop of Alexandria: "Some people calumniated and wrongfully accused you to me. Hurry to agree to the request of these Arabs and grant to them what they ask. You know already that they are sent like a plague on men; that God promised Abraham concerning Ishmael that several kings would come from him; that the promises of God are true and that one cannot be opposed to them nor to evade them. If you can pacify the Arabs and get them away from Egypt by any possible means, do so; if you can make them accept the first conditions that you dictated to them, and make them accept, do so. |214 I put you at the head of Egypt and confide to you its government. Do as well as possible for its interests!"

The letter of the emperor Heraclius came to Cyrus, and he said: "How can I move the Arabs away? I already pass for a liar among them; and above all, they have already captured Egypt. However I will do all that I can and then I will await events." Cyrus went out from Alexandria and went to the camp of the Arabs. He was presented to Amrou-ibn-al-`Asi and, after having made excuses before him, made known him that he was not the cause of the transgression of the treaty which existed between them, but that the emperor Heraclius had treated him with violence and had made him change direction on this subject; he thus requested him to make peace again on the terms of the first treaty.

Amrou-ibn-al-`Asi answered him that under no circumstances would he accede to his request. "I do not have confidence in you," he added, "because you have misled me once; moreover, you request an impossible thing, because we conquered Egypt by our weapons and we will never give up it." Cyrus thus returned to Alexandria, without having obtained anything.

Then Omar-ibn-al-Khattab removed the command of Syria from Khalid-ibn-al-Walid and named in his place Abu-`Obeidah-ibn-al-Djarrah. This was in year 15 of the Arabs and 26 of Heraclius. |215

Omar started from Yathrib, arrived in Palestine and camped there. Sophronius, patriarch of Jerusalem, went out to meet him and obtained from him safety for Jerusalem and all the towns of Palestine. Omar gave him safety and passed an act for him, and in this act it was specified: every Jew that we find in Jerusalem will be deprived of the protection of the laws, as from this day; the Jew that we find there will be punished for it in his hair, his appearance and his money.

Then Omar entered Jerusalem and prayed there; then he entered the very large temple that Solomon, son of David, had built, and ordered a mosque built there where the Moslems would make their prayers. Then the patriarch, having seen that the woollen clothing of Omar was dirty, requested him to accept of him (other) clothing. But Omar refused. The patriarch persisted. Then Omar said to him: "Do me the honour, please, to take these clothes, give them to the launderer and lend me these clothes that you brought to me, so that I can wear them until my clothes are washed; then I will return them to you." The patriarch did so, took Omar's clothes and gave them to the launderer; after washing, he brought them back to him. Omar put them on and returned his clothing to the patriarch. |216

Then Omar left Jerusalem, went to Yathrib, and invested Abu-`Obeidah with the command of Egypt and Syria. Abu-`Obeidah sent `Abbad-ibn-`Asim with many troops to go through all the towns of Syria; and he gave them safety and occupied them all. Then he returned to Mesopotamia, captured all the cities and gave them safety, after they had treated with him, stipulating that they would pay him each year 100,000 dinars, and that no Arab would pass the Euphrates, for whatever reason, so long as the treaty was closely adhered to. Then the inhabitants of Mesopotamia brought to `Abbad-ibn-`Asim the annual tribute. This (treaty) was concluded by the patrician Paul who was the governor of Heraclius, emperor of the Greeks, over Mesopotamia.

On this news, Heraclius, emperor of the Greeks, relieved Paul, sent him into exile in Africa and named (in his place) in Mesopotamia a man named Ptolemy, one of the patricians.

Then the Arabs captured Antioch and took the inhabitants of its suburbs and fields into captivity. |217

Then Omar removed the command in Syria from Abu-`Obeidah and named Mo`awia-ibn-Abu-Sofyan in his place. That took place in the year 6 of Omar, year 18 of the Arabs and year 29 of Heraclius.

`Abbad crossed the Euphrates and marched on Edessa, because the Edessans had not brought in the second year what they had promised to him. When he arrived there, the inhabitants went out to meet him and asked him for mercy for them and for Ptolemy, their governor and patrician. `Abbad entered Edessa, made Ptolemy leave and returned him to Greece; in a few days, he then made them pay 100,000 dinars.

`Abbad then left Edessa and arrived at Mawzan, because this city had not capitulated yet like all the other towns of Mesopotamia. When he arrived there, the Greeks who were there, resisted him. He was irritated at this, drew up balistas against the city and remained at this city with the (besieged) Greeks, until he had captured it; and he killed the Greeks who were there. `Abbad made the towns of Mesopotamia capitulate, to which he gave the aman, except for Dara; he took it by storm and killed the Greeks who were there, named governors over all the towns of Mesopotamia and returned Mo`awia-ibn-Abu-Sofyan who was in Syria. |218

Then Omar ordered his governor to hit all the regions of his empire with a tribute. The rolls were drawn up and the tribute was imposed on each area, each province, each city and each village; this tribute consisted of corn and money.

Heraclius, emperor of the Greeks, died, after reigning thirty one years. He died Sunday, February 7, year 952 of Alexander, 19 of the Arabs and the 7 of Omar. Constantine, son of Heraclius, reigned after him for four months. One of the women of his father killed him, and Heraclius, son of Heraclius, reigned for eight months.

In this year, Mo`awia captured Caesarea, a town of Palestine, and massacred 7,000 Greeks there.

The Greeks augured ill for the reign of Heraclius, son of Heraclius; they deposed him. Then Constans, son of Constantine, grandson of Heraclius, reigned twenty-seven years, from the year 954 of Alexander.

In year 10 of Omar-ibn-al-Khattab, the Arabs attacked a town of Cilicia, captured it and took many prisoners from there into captivity. |219

In year 11 of Omar, the sun was darkened, on Friday 1, Tichrin II (November).

In year 12 of Omar-ibn-al-Khattab, a man named Abu-Loulouah went to Omar and did not cease observing him with attention, while he prayed; and when Omar bowed deeply, he struck him several times with a knife and killed him. Omar died after reigning twelve years. Othman-ibn-`Affan reigned (after him) eleven years, from the 958 year of Alexander and the fifth year of Constans.

In this year Gregory, the Greek patrician who was in Africa, revolted.

The Arabs attacked Alexandria where Manuel, the Greek patrician, was. He fled with his soldiers; they left by sea and arrived in Greece. The Arabs captured Alexandria and destroyed its walls; they occupied this city and the coast between Alexandria and al-Farama (Pelusium). Then, the same year, they invaded Africa and fought a battle there with Gregory, the Greek patrician; they put him to flight and massacred his troops. Gregory arrived in Greece and made peace with the emperor. |220

In this year there was a violent wind: large trees were uprooted; harvests and vines were destroyed, and many towers (of the stylites) collapsed.

In year 3 of Othman, Mo`awia took to sea, arrived at Cyprus and captured it. He was accompanied by 1,700 ships full of weapons and riches. He took a great number of people from this island and neighbouring islands into captivity. Then when he learned that Greek troops had been sent against him, he returned to Syria and besieged Aroud (Aradus), employed all his efforts there, but could not take it. He then sent a bishop called Thomas who asked the inhabitants of the town to leave the island and to go away to Greece, so that the Arabs could settle there. When the bishop arrived there, they imprisoned him, did not let him return to Mo`awia and did not pay any attention to his message. Then Mo`awia returned to Damascus, because winter was arriving and that it was to the sea.

After the winter and at the beginning of spring, Mo`awia returned to the island of Aroud with troops stronger and more numerous than the first. He besieged it and treated the inhabitants with harshness. |221 When the inhabitants of Aroud saw the difficult situation in which they were, and the troops that were pressing them, they asked for mercy on condition of leaving for Syria and of establishing themselves where they liked. Mo`awia-ibn-Abu-Sofyan agreed to their request, and they left the city. After they left, Mo`awia ordered the destruction of its walls. They were destroyed, set on fire, and burned.

In this year, Othman-ibn-`Affan sent his son Sa`id with many troops to the pursuit of Yezdegerd, king of the Persians, who was in that time in Sedjestan. Having learned that Sa`id was coming to seek him, Yezdegerd fled from Sedjestan to Merv where he remained for two years. Sa`id took all the towns of Khorasan, and giving the aman, established there his governors and arrived at Merv where Yezdegerd was. When Yezdegerd learned of his arrival, he feared that the population, i.e. the population of the city, might hand him over; he thus left in the night and hid in a mill which was on the river, to the gate of the city. The owner of the mill recognized him, cut off his head and carried it to Sa`id. Sa`id captured Merv; he took the crown and the head of Chosroes, who was called Yezdegerd, and carried them to his father. Othman-ibn-`Affan put (the head) on a pillar and placed the crown in the Kaabah where it is to this day.

Constans, king of the Greeks, sent ambassadors to Mo`awia to ask peace of him. Mo`awia was in Damascus and the envoy Manuel, |222 who was in Egypt, was sent with a certain number of Greeks. Mo`awia agreed to his request provided that a certain number of the members of his house would be left with him as hostages.

In year 4 of Othman, the inhabitants of Armenia revolted against Constans, emperor of the Greeks, and submitted themselves to the Moslems. Their governor, one of the Greek patricians named Pasagnathes, wrote to Mo`awia and sent his son as a hostage to him. Learning that the Armenians had revolted and risen up, Constans left with Greek troops and went to Caesarea in Cappadocia to go into Armenia. While he was on the way, this news came to him and saddened him; he had intended to recover Armenia, but then he returned from there, despairing of recovering it.

Then Mo`awia sent troops to the island of Rhodes, who captured it, reorganized the administration there and made it an observation post for the Arabs. In this island, there was a statue which had been standing for approximately three hundred and sixty years. Its height was fifty cubits. The Arabs removed it and threw it into the sea. That took place in year 8 of Othman. |223

In this year, the (Arab) leader entered Armenia with many troops, captured it and killed all the Greeks who were there.

In this year, Othman-ibn-`Affan directed the pilgrimage.

It is necessary that you know, for the reading of our book, that the years of the Arabs do not agree with the non-Arab years, because there is a difference between them: thirty-two non-Arab years make thrity-three Arab years; but I will not omit to make the agreement; I will give this (33rd) additional year, as the Arabs count it; I will add it to the Arab years to keep their calendar in line with that which was already in use before their reign.

Then, in year 9 of Othman, 34 of the Arabs and 13 of Constans, emperor of the Greeks, Mo`awia-ibn-Abu-Sofyan prepared a expedition by sea against Constantinople. Mo`awia equipped many ships in the town of Trabulus (Tripoli) located at the seaside and embarked a great quantity of weapons there. When the ships were ready and that he was thinking of going on campaign, there were two brothers in Tripoli, (sons) of a man named Boukinator, who were in the service of the Arabs. Having seen the preparations of Mo`awia, they were seized with irritation and anger; they came to the prison, opened it and released all the Greeks who were there; they threw themselves on the governor of the city and killed him; |224 then they set fire to the ships and to the military equipment, went on a vessel and arrived in the country of the Greeks.

Learning this, Mo`awia equipped many troops against the Greeks, who captured the country of Bazantiyah and of Malatia, pushed to Hisn-al-Mourrah near the gate of Malatia and made 100,000 of its population prisoners. (At the same time Mo`awia) sent a man named Abu'l-`Oud with many troops; he entered Phoenix which is on the coast of Lycia, and entirely devastated it.

Then Constans marched against him with Greek troops and sent his brother Yaqout (Theodosius?) by sea with many ships. (The Greeks and Arabs) met and came to battle. In the first shock the Greeks were put to rout, and Constans was about to drown; he was saved because so many people died that the sea was turned bloody. Then the Arabs returned victorious and Constans returned to Sicily.

In that year, the inhabitants of Egypt and Iraq went to Othman-ibn-`Affan, surrounded him on all sides and killed him on Friday 19th of the month of Zou'l-qa`dah. |225

The same year, `Abdallah-ibn-al-Abbas directed the pilgrimage.

In that year, Talhah and az-Zobair went out from Mecca in the month of Rab'i II and agreed to march against Basra. Then `Ali-ibn-Abu-Talib went out from Medina to fight them, moved towards Feid and left Sahl-ibn-Hanifah in Medina as his lieutenant. He wrote to him then ordering him to rejoin him and conferred the administration of Medina on Abu-Hasan-al-Mazani. (The two forces) met and engaged in combat, and, near Basra, `Ali gained the victory. He prevented his troops from massacring the fleeing or maltreating the casualties; even he who had closed his gates, would be in safety. After remaining at Basra for fifteen days, `Ali went to Koufah and left `Abdallah-ibn-al-Abbas in Basra as lieutenant.

`Ali conferred the administration of Egypt on Qais-ibn-Sa`id (Sa`d) who resided there and governed it, but Mo`awia intrigued against him and had him relieved. Then Mo`awia and Amrou-ibn-al-`Asi went to Mohammed-ibn-Hazifah (Houzeifah) who was in Egypt and whom `Ali had made governor. They deceived him and made him go out to `Arich. Then `Ali named Hakam-ibn-as-Salt in Egypt. Mo`awia and Amrou went against him and drew up balistas against him; then he went out against them with thirty of his companions, and they killed him. |226 After that `Ali sent Qais-ibn-Sa`id to Egypt (as governor) (for the second time). Hasan-ibn-`Ali took the oath in the year 41 of the Arabs. Then Mo`awia went to Iraq, and Hasan-ibn-`Ali [followed him there]34. They met at Meskin in Sawad, a province [of Koufah], and made peace in writing, on certain conditions and in front of eyewitnesses.

Mo`awia went into [the mosque and] preached there, and the population took oath to him. Then, he left as lieutenant at Koufah [Mogair-ibn-Chou'bah and left for] Syria where he established Fadalah-ibn-`Abd as judge. Hasan-ibn-`Ali went to Medina. It was said to him: "What have you done?" He answered: "I have . . .  taken in hate the inhabitants of Koufah, in which nobody can have confidence: my father had met . . .  but he had not been able to get any profit at all from them, and they are good for nothing. . . . . `Atabah-ibn-Abu-Sofyan." 35

The power of Mo`awia was reaffirmed; he dominated from Yathrib to Damascus and captured the whole world, after being sole ruler for twenty years. That took place in year 972 of Alexander, 41 of the Arabs and 19 of Constans, emperor of the Greeks. |227

(In that time) was born the sect of the Harourites . . .  36 ; (they claimed that they were the best) of all the Moslems, that their adversaries were in error and that they were entitled more to the empire than anybody. The master of the power, Mo`awia preferred the inhabitants of the West to those of the East because of the submission which the inhabitants of the west showed and because of the antagonism of these . . . 

In year 8 (of his reign), a raid of Alans came out of Armenia, where the Greeks had suffered a terrible defeat. The leader of this campaign was Bechr-ibn-Artat who killed a great number of patricians. The Moslems made captive and plundered. . . . They were the first prisoners that they took. . . .  37

Mo`awia gave the government of the sea to . . . - ibn-Marwan . . . . ibn. . . . and he invested him with power over all . . .  and was called Bechr-ibn-Artat. In this year, he named . . .  and conferred the role of judge on `Abdallah-ibn . . .  In this year, Bechr-ibn-Artat went . . .  Rahman and Qathim, sons of `Abdallah-ibn-al-Abbas-ibn-`Abd-al-Mouttalib . . .  Abu-Laila the rebel in the . . .  suburb of Koufah.

In that year, `Outbah-ibn-Sofyan directed the pilgrimage. |228

In year 3 of Mo`awia, Bechr-ibn-Artat made for the second time a raid against the Greeks and took many prisoners. The Greeks fled to Constantinople.

In this year, Mo`awia ordered Marwan-ibn-al-Hakam to take the direction of the pilgrimage. The festival arrived, and he directed it.

In this year, [Amrou-ibn-]al-`Asi died in Egypt the day of the ending of the Fast, after ruling Egypt [under the caliphate of Omar-ibn]-al-Khattab for four years, under the caliphate of Othman for three . . .  years and ten months ... two and a half years. (After his death) Mo`awia named (in . . .  Egypt) his son `Abdallah-ibn-Amrou-ibn-fal-`Asi]. . . God. . . to Mo`awia . . .  `Abdarrahman-ibn[- Khalid-ibn-al-Walid . . .  he pushed as far as] Aklouniyah . . . (Koloneia) in the country of the Greeks and returned. . . . Marwan-ibn-al-Hakam. . .  38

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. . . The eunuch (Andreas) cut off the testicles of (Sergius) and ordered them attached to the end of a lance with this inscription: "This is the revenge of Andreas, the eunuch of the emperor, on the envoy of Sabour the rebel." |229

Learning how the eunuch had treated the rebel envoy and that the troops of Mo`awia went to his help, Constans sent a patrician named Nicephorus with Greek troops to make war on Sabour, who was at Awdina. Sabour learned of the approach of these troops and each day went out to practise for the combat. One day he went out as usual and arrived at the door of the city, and he gave a blow of the whip to his horse which bucked and was carried off. Sabour ran his head against the gate of the city and fell down unconscious; he remained ill for a few days and died. Mo`awia had sent many numerous forces to him. When they arrived at Malatia and they learned of his death, (their leader Fadalah) stopped in Malatia and told Mo`awia, requesting him to send reinforcements to him so that he could attack the Greeks. Mo`awia ordered his son Yazid to take the Arab cavalry and to join the army. Yazid hurried there; thus increased, the Arab troops arrived at Chalcedon which they plundered and from where they took many prisoners and much spoil.

In this year, there was a strong rising of the waters of the Tiger, the Nile and Euphrates; all these rivers overflowed and ruined several places; the rising of the river of Edessa especially was such as to flood the city, demolish its walls and drown many people and innumerable animals. |230

In year 9 of Mo`awia, Constans, emperor of the Greeks, was killed after his return from the expedition against the Slavs. He had gone to the bath in Sicily where he had his residence. This is why he had fixed himself in Sicily: he had transferred the seat of the empire from Constantinople to Rome, after the murder of his brother, because he feared the fury of people indignant against him because of this crime. So he had transported himself to Rome and from there to Antakiyah (?); then he had established himself in Sicily, an island of the sea, and resided there with his generals and soldiers. He then sent to bring his family to him. But the inhabitants of Constantinople did not allow them to go to join him and said: "They are our emperors; and we will not allow our emperors to leave us." When Constans entered the bath, one of his servants took a vase with a handle in which he mixed mush with soap, and then poured it over his head. The emperor had the eyes full of mush and soap and he could not open them. Then the servant took the vase, struck him on the head and killed him; he left the bath in all haste and fled, without anybody seeing him.

However the servants waited for the emperor to come out; they waited a long time; time passed and (the emperor) did not leave; then they entered to the bath, found him unconscious and carried him out; he was still alive that day and died, after reigning twenty-seven years. |231

Then the Greeks met and made Mizizi(us), emperor an Armenian by origin. He was wise, robust and courageous.

When the son of Constans learned at Constantinople of the death of his father, he embarked and left for Sicily. He arrived, captured Mizizius and slaughtered him; then he seized those who had taken part in the murder of his father and had proclaimed another emperor; he killed the first, imprisoned the others and sent others of them into exile. Then he returned to Constantinople. Constantine and his brothers reigned for sixteen years, from the year 981 of Alexander and year 50 of the Arabs.

In that year, the Arabs made an expedition against the Greeks in Africa and took 100,000 prisoners.

In that year, much snow fell and there was a rigorous frost; and many people and animals perished.

In year 12 of Mo`awia, Bechr-ibn-Artat made a campaign against the Greeks; he killed (many) of them and took a great number of them into captivity.

In year 13 of Mo`awia, there appeared in the clouds a complete rainbow. Fear and credulity overcame the people, and many (of them) said that the hour of the end of the world had come. |232

Mo`awia took several ships, attacked the Greeks, and killed them and took prisoners.

In this year, the plague prevailed among the populations of Egypt and Palestine

In the year 14 of Mo`awia, the Arabs made a campaign by sea against the Greeks and arrived in Lycia. Three patricians went to meet them and caught up with them, and the Greeks killed 30,000 Arabs; the survivors embarked there. When they were on the open sea, a Greek found them with his ship, threw fire on their fleet which was completely burned. That year the Greeks were favoured with victory. They were the first to make use of (Greek) fire, and they usually made use of it.

In this same year, rats were numerous in Syria, and a great famine resulted from this.

In year 17 of Mo`awia, the Greeks equipped a fleet, took to the sea, arrived at the shore of Tyre and Sidon and unloaded there; then they captured the mountain of Lebanon where they established themselves. The people called them al-Kharaniqah. The Greeks, masters of the mountain of Lebanon, |233 stretched from the holy mountain to the black mountain. Constantine had stationed them there to divert the Arabs from their raids.

In this same year, there was an earthquake in Beisan, and Qatnan, one of the villages of Seroudj, subsided and its walls and all the houses collapsed. A similar thing occurred in Edessa where several localities were damaged. Mo`awia ordered that they should be restored and the churches of Edessa which had fallen rebuilt. He acted thus because he had remained in Edessa while going to fight `Ali-ibn-Abu-Talib.

Then Mo`awia died, after reigning for twenty years and being before that emir for twenty more years. He died Sunday 6th of the month of Iyar (May) (the year) 991 of Alexander and was buried in Damascus. After him Yazid-ibn-Mo`awia reigned three years and five months.

In the first year of his reign, a council of bishops, 189 in number, met by order of Constantine, in Constantinople. This is what is called the sixth council. Agathon, bishop of Rome, wrote to expound the agreement of his doctrines with that of 120 bishops who did not attend the council. |234 Canons were written which the Melkites alone accepted, to the exclusion of all the other Christian communities.

Then Constantine dispossessed his brothers of the empire and reigned alone. The Greek patricians gave him their approval, because he had satisfied them. However a patrician named Leo did not approve of him, showed dissatisfaction and said: "It is wrong that the people who reigned over us for so long have been dispossessed." Then Constantine ordered that his tongue, hands and feet be cut off, and exiled his brothers to an island of the sea.

Then Yazid-ibn-Mo`awia died. Already before the death of Yazid, Mouhtar the deceiver had appeared in Koufah; he claimed that he was a prophet, and he gathered (around him) many people. Yazid died without having an adult son to succeed him, and disorders broke out and the Arabs divided themselves into many parties. Those who were in Yathrib, in Iraq and in Mesopotamia proclaimed `Abdallah-ibn-az-Zobeir; those of Syria and Palestine remained faithful, by spirit of party, to the family of Mo`awia and spoke for them. Then Dhahhak-ibn-Qais gathered many troops, arrived at Damascus and declared that he would make war on `Abdallah-ibn-az-Zobeir. However the Arabs of Mesopotamia had already spoken for `Abdallah-ibn-az-Zobeir; |235 each one thus started to have a province which he was defending and for which he made war. Mouhtar was victorious at Koufah.

Then Marwan-ibn-al-Hakam left Yathrib, took his children with him and marched on Damascus. On the news of his arrival, the children of Yazid-ibn-Mo`awia were assembled, with their followers and those of the Arabs and the freed (maoulah) who wanted to subject themselves to his rule. Marwan said to them: "O people! I am an old man; my body is weak and shrivelled; my bones are broken; but when I learned your discord, my heart engaged me to expose my life and to use my credit to make peace between you. I thought that it would be neither worthy nor right before me, nor before God to abandon my people, when I see them divided, not to pacify him, not to calm their discords, not to engage to recognize as leader one of them, to obey him and to subject ourselves to him. If you approve of me, do what I say to you: Go and seek three arrows, write the names of three men among you; then give them to a foreign man at this assembly and order to him to scramble them well. Then draw one of them and give it to the assembly; he whose name comes out, will reign over us."

The people, hearing these words, approved them; they accepted his counsel and consented to his judgement. Thus Hasan-ibn-Malik was chosen, of the family of Mo`awia, one of their leaders, who was a governor of Palestine and the Jordan. |236 He agreed to this and accepted. Then Marwan-ibn-al-Hakam, Amrou-ibn-Sa`id-ibn-al-`Asi and other Qoreichites met and wrote their names on three arrows which were given to Hasan-ibn-Malik. He took them in his hand and stirred them up much; then he took one of them and launched it into the middle of the assembly. On inspection it bore the name of Marwan-ibn-al-Malik. Then the empire was given to him

When Dhahhak-ibn-Qais had learned that Marwan-ibn-al-Hakam was king, he went in disguise with a troop of his tribe and his followers and entered the army of Marwan to inform himself about him. When he was in the middle of the troops, one of the companions of Hasan-ibn-Malik recognized him and made him come to Marwan, to whom he gave oath unwillingly. When night fell, he fled and rejoined his troops. In the morning he was pursued, but it was impossible to catch him. Then Marwan left with his troops against Dhahhak and met him in a meadow (mardj) called Mardj-Rahit. The combat began, and Marwan killed Dhahhak with a very great number of his companions; the remainder took an oath to Marwan.

Then he returned to Damascus where he was based; he married a wife of Yazid-ibn-Mo`awia and lived in his room. Then Marwan resolved to go to Egypt to the inhabitants take an oath to him. |237 But a disease seized him, and he died, after reigning nine months. His son `Abd-al-Malik-ibn-Marwan reigned after him for twenty-two years, from the year 65 of the Arabs, year 996 of Alexander.

In this year, the people were struck by a great famine and plague.

The same year, `Abd-al-Malik made peace with the Greeks.

The same year still, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, died, and Justinianus reigned after him for ten years.

Then `Abd-al-Malik wrote a letter to ask peace. Justinianus agreed to make a ten years truce: he engaged to recall the Greeks who were in the mountains of Lebanon and make them return to the Greek country; on his side, `Abd-al-Malik would pay every day to Justinianus a thousand dinars, a horse and a slave in exchange for the recall of the Greeks who were in the mountains of Lebanon; the island of Cyprus would be divided in half between the Greeks and the Arabs. . .  39

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. . .  to Khagan, king of Khazars, and all were drowned. Khagan, on this news, sent to Justinianus a letter where he said: |238 "O dimwit! If you had sent a person in your confidence to me, I would have sent your wife to you and the son that she gave you. That would have been better than to make all these people who drowned perish. Or could you have believed that I send them only after a war or a battle, that I would be miserly towards you and would deprive to you of her? If you want your wife and your son, sends a messenger, and we will give them to him." Justinianus read the letter and sent a servant who brought back his wife and his son for him. He called his son Tiberius and made him reign with him. This was in the year 22 of `Abd-al-Malik-ibn-Marwan. Tiberius reigned for seven years.

In this same year, `Abd-al-Malik-ibn-Marwan died, and Walid his son reigned after him for nine years and six months, from the year 1018 of Alexander.

The first year of his reign, he started to destroy the churches of Damascus, and especially the great church; he demolished it and built in its place a great mosque. He ordered that Greek should no longer be used in correspondence in his offices, but Arabic, because all the Arabs who were in Syria (ach-Cham and Souriyah) were writing in Greek.

In the second year of Walid, Maslamah-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik made a raid against the Greeks and entered the town of Tyana where he remained nine months. |239 A Greek patrician went out against him and fought him. The Greeks were put to rout and lost 40,000 dead. The Arabs ruined the town of Tyana, took the inhabitants captive and burned them.

This same year, Abbas-ibn-al-Walid made a expedition and brought back many prisoners from there. The same year, Othman-ibn-Hayan made a raid into Cilicia, forced many fortresses there to capitulate and took the inhabitants into captivity in Syria.

This same year, a Greek patrician named Philippicus, who was on an island of the sea, revolted. Justinianus then sent a certain of his patricians to fight him; but when he had arrived there, the latter took an oath to him and joined with him. The emperor, learning the news, went towards the coast of the sea of Pontus. The rebel Philippicus and his followers arrived at Constantinople where the Greeks accepted him and proclaimed him emperor. Tiberius, son of Justinianus, and his patricians were killed. Then Philippicus made the troops march to pursue Justinianus; they caught up with him. Justinianus was killed and his head was brought to Philippicus. That took place in year 93 of the Arabs, year 7 of Walid.

In this same year, Maslamah-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik made a raid against the Greeks and captured the town of Amasea and many other fortresses. |240

In this same year, Philippicus, emperor of the Greeks, ordered that all the Armenians be driven out of his empire into Armenia. They left and ventured themselves among the Arabs. Walid installed them in Malatia and Samosata.

In this same year, Abbas-ibn-al-Walid made a raid against the Greeks, captured Antioch (of Pisidia) and took the inhabitants into captivity.

In that year, there was a violent earthquake, during which many dwellings were destroyed in Antioch.

Then the Greeks threw themselves on Philippicus their emperor, put out his eyes, dethroned him and proclaimed Anastasius emperor. Philippicus had reigned for three years.

In year 7 of Walid, Maslamah made a raid against the Greeks and took many prisoners.

Walid died and Soleiman reigned after him for two years and four months.

In the first year of his reign, Maslamah made a raid against the Greeks, penetrated into Galatia, captured many fortresses and took the population into captivity.

In this same year, Anastasius, emperor of the Greeks, sent troops |241 against the enemies who surrounded him. The Greeks threw themselves on his patrician, killed him, and proclaimed another emperor. Anastasius, on this news, feared that he would be attacked by the population of Constantinople and went away to Nicaea. Then he sent messengers to Maslamah, requesting him to ask Soleiman to help him with Arab troops. The rebel learned that the emperor Anastasius was in Nicaea, and marched against him. On his arrival, Anastasius left in his place a patrician to bar the way to him. But the rebel entered Constantinople where the inhabitants accepted him and proclaimed him king. . . . 40 Then the emperor ordered him sent into exile on an island of the sea, after one year and seven months of his reign.

In year 2 of Soleiman, Maslamah directed a expedition against Constantinople; he established Soleiman-ibn-Ma`adh and Bakhtari-ibn-al-Hasan as commanders of its vanguard with many troops, which went by land. He (also) sent `Amr-ibn-Houbairah with many ships; he himself came then and took many prisoners at Nicaea.

Then a patrician, named Leo, went to Soleiman-ibn-Ma`adh and promised him to help him to enter Constantinople. |242 Soleiman introduced him to Maslamah, who made many promises to him. Leo went out and went to Nicomedia. Theodosius, emperor of the Greeks, sent troops against him; Leo put them to rout and killed the son of the emperor Theodosius. Then the Greeks consulted to make the rebel Leo ascend the throne and proclaimed him king. He gathered troops, attacked Constantinople and captured the empire, after Theodosius had reigned for one year and seven months.

Leo began to reign over the Greeks, and Maslamah awaited the accomplishment of his promises throughout the summer. Learning that Leo had already become emperor of the Greeks and that he had tricked him, he moved towards Constantinople and besieged it for a whole year. When he learned of the death of Soleiman, he ceased making war and remained in his place.

On the death of Soleiman, Omar-ibn-`Abd-al-`Aziz succeeded him and reigned for one year, four months and six days. He wrote ... to Maslamah-ibn-Mohammed. . .  41

In this same year, there was a violent earthquake, and many places were damaged.

Omar-ibn-`Abd-al-`Aziz showed his devotion and fear of God; he drove out of his empire corrupt people, forbade the Moslems . . .  (wine?) and fermented drinks and showed exemplary conduct. |243 He wrote to the emperor Leo in order to get him to become a Moslem; and in his letter he attacked the Christian religion. Leo answered him by refuting his arguments; he proved to him the perversity of his doctrines and showed to him the light of Christianity by the evidence drawn from the revealed Books, of the laws of reason and the testimonies of the Koran.

Then a certain Greek patrician sent to the exiled emperor Anastasius a letter where he disparaged the emperor Leo and said that the empire should not belong to him; "the empire should belong to you more." He said that this letter expressed the unanimous feeling of the inhabitants of the empire on the advent of Leo and the exile of his rival; that Anastasius should act accordingly and look for ways to return. Anastasius read this letter and was seduced. Then (the patrician) wrote to him in the name of other patricians, requesting him to come back. Then Anastasius fled during the night, arrived at the king of the Bulgarians, claimed his protection and asked his help. The Bulgarian (Nubian) helped him with many troops. (Then Anastasius) left and arrived at Constantinople. But the Greeks would not accept him at all. When the Negros (= the Bulgarians) saw that the Greeks did not accept him, they delivered him to the Greeks and to Leo their emperor, who put him in irons and imprisoned him in perpetuity. After that, the Nubian (= Bulgarian) troops returned to their king. Then Leo killed Anastasius and the patricians. |244

. . .  Omar-ibn-al-`Aziz died in the seventh month of the second year. Yazid-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik started to reign, in the year 1025 of Alexander.

In the first year of his reign, a man named Yazid-ibn-al-Mohallab, revolted in Iraq, and the Eastern Arabs gathered around him; Maslamah-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik then went out against him, put him to rout and killed him with his followers.

In this same year, there appeared a man from the inhabitants of Mardin. He said to the Jews that he was the Messiah. (This man) had been a Christian and then had converted to Judaism. He claimed to have come to deliver them and he collected much money. He had learned many juggleries and magic tricks; and he arranged for them to see them and to fascinate them. Yazid-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik learned this and killed him.

In this same year, Leo, emperor of the Greeks, started to convert to Christianity the tribes of his empire which were of a different religion and opposed to Christianity. He made the Jews embrace the Christian religion and the . . .  and they were called new Christians. |245

In this same year, Abbas-ibn-al-Walid made a raid against the Greeks; he entered Paphlagonia, devastated it, took into captivity 20,000 inhabitants and captured there a fortress which is called . . . 

Then Yazid-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik died, after reigning four years. After him, Hicham, his brother, reigned for nineteen years, from the year 105 of the Arabs.

He inventoried the great revenues of the majority of the towns of his empire, caravanserais, cabarets, small houses, villages and hamlets. He was the first to appropriate the goods of the Arabs. He diverted the water from many abundant rivers into canals and diverted the course of the river which was above al-Raqqah. He made plantations of every kind in Mesopotamia and Syria. And his revenues exceeded the land tax in his empire.

In this year, Kethir-ibn-Rabi`ah made a raid against the Greeks. But the Greeks massacred his soldiers, and Kethir was only able to save himself together with a few people. |246

In this same year, Leo ordered the images of the martyrs to be removed from the churches, houses and convents. Gregory, patriarch of Rome, learning this, was irritated and forbade the inhabitants of Rome and Italy to to pay tax to him.

In year 3 of Hicham, Maslamah made a raid against the Greeks; he captured the town of Neocaesarea and took its inhabitants into captivity.

At that time there was a violent plague in Syria, and people were struck with various buboes and ulcers.

In this same year, Mo`awia-ibn-Hicham made a raid against the Greeks, but he did not succeed. In year 4 of Hicham, Mo`awia-ibn-Hicham made a raid against the Greeks; he captured many fortresses and took many prisoners.

In this same year, the son of Kagan, king of Khazars, went out against Azerbaijan and invaded many provinces. Djarrah, governor of Armenia, met him. (The son of Khagan) fought him, put the Arabs to rout, killed approximately 20,000 souls and made twice that prisoners. |247

In year 5 of Hicham, Maslamah made a raid against the Khazars. But they put him to rout, killed a very great number of his soldiers, and Maslamah sought safety in flight.

Then Mo`awia-ibn-Hicham went against the Greeks, captured many fortresses and took many prisoners.

In year 8 of Hicham-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik, Maslamah went against the Turks and arrived at the Gate (= defile of Derbend), which was between them and the Arabs; being unable to cross it, he agreed a peace and moved away.

In this same year, Leo, emperor of the Greeks, made alliance with the king of Khazars of whom he asked the daughter for his son, and the marriage was concluded the same year.

In this year, Mo`awia went against the Greeks; he entered Paphlagonia, captured the city of ... took its inhabitants into captivity and . . .  set fire to it.

In this year, Hicham-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik sent Marwan-ibn-Mohammed as governor of Armenia.

In year 10 (of Hicham), Mo`awia made a raid against the Greeks and captured a great number of fortresses.  |248

In this same year, there was a violent plague in Palestine and Egypt.

In this same year, at the month of Tichrin I (October), in the sky there appeared the figure of a sword on fire.

In year 11 of Hicham, Mo`awia made a raid into Asia (Minor) where he took many prisoners. Then he made a second expedition and took more prisoners; but he went out one day, fell from his horse and killed himself.

In this same year, Marwan-ibn-Mohammed went against the Khazars and in their lands took many prisoners.

In year 12 of Hicham, Soleiman-ibn-Hicham went against the Greeks; he arrived in Asia, captured a fortress called Soudour and took the inhabitants into captivity.

In year 13 of his reign, Maslamah-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik made a raid against the Greeks. When he besieged Ancyra, Hicham went to Malatia and, after remaining there for a few days, returned to Damascus. Maslamah captured Ancyra and took many prisoners there. |249

In this same year, Zeid-ibn-`Ali-ibn-al-Housein-ibn-`Ali-ibn-Abu-Talib revolted in Koufah; he attacked people, killed them and took prisoners in many places.

In this same year, the inhabitants of Africa revolted and massacred their governor and all the Moslems who were there.

The same year, Soleiman-ibn-Hicham went against the Greeks. The Greeks put him to rout, massacred his troops and took more than 20,000 Arabs into captivity.

In this same year, in Constantinople, there was a violent earthquake; most of its houses collapsed, and water started to run off the mountains.

In this same year, Leo, emperor of the Greeks, died, after reigning twenty-three years and three months and half. Constantine his son reigned after him for thirty-four years, from the year 1042 of Alexander.

In year 12 of Hicham, Soleiman-ibn-Hicham made a raid and besieged one of the fortresses of Asia. The plague broke out in his ranks, and many soldiers died; the famine prevailed; the Greeks massacred a great number of them; most of their horses perished; a very great number of them took refuge with the Greeks and became Christians because of the misfortune which had happened to them. (After that) Soleiman returned, fleeing. |250

In this same year, the Greeks marched against Malatia, plundered and devastated all the surrounding country. The Greeks took those who were there, and brought them into the country of the Greeks.

In this same year, a rebel named Artabaz (Artavasde) revolted against Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, entered Constantinople and assumed the imperial power. Constantine was absent. Constantine, on this news, returned to punish him; and they came to blows. While they fought, Soleiman made a raid against the Greeks and entered Paphlagonia. Nobody resisted him, because the Greeks were occupied with making war on each other; and Soleiman massacred 50,000 men.

Then Hicham-ibn-`Abd-al-Malik died and Walid-ibn-Yazid succeeded him and reigned for one year and two months. In the first year of his reign, he greatly maltreated the people of the family of Hicham.

Then Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, dispatched an envoy to Walid with many presents. Artabaz the rebel also dispatched (an envoy) to him.

Then, in that year, the rains failed and the springs and rivers were lowered. There was a great famine and many and frequent earthquakes. |251

In that year, in Yemen, the monkeys attacked men, who were leaving their houses; and they killed several of them.

In this same year, the rebel Artabaz left Constantinople to find the emperor Constantine. They met, and the rebel was put to rout, and all his followers perished.

In this same year, Omar-ibn-`Abd-al-`Aziz made a raid against the Greeks; he killed and took prisoners.

In the month of Haziran (June), a large sign appeared in the sky, under the aspect of columns of fire which burned and remained motionless. This was a first sign. Then, in the month of Eloul (September), another appeared, similar to a tongue of fire, and it extended from the East to the west.

Walid-ibn-Yazid deported the Cypriots from their hearths and their country in order to install them at al-Mahour (?) which is located at the seaside, between Tyr and Sidon.

The same year, in the month of Kanoun II (January), there appeared another sign in the shape of the moon; and the atmosphere was dull and dark.

Walid-ibn-Yazid was killed at Tadmor. The cause of his murder was this: Yazid, nicknamed the Simple, from the tribe of Bedr, went in secrecy to Damascus. He gathered his followers of the tribe of Bedr, and they captured the city and plundered the royal treasures. |252 Then he sent many troops against Walid under the command of `Abd-al-`Aziz-ibn-al-Hadjadj, and the latter killed Walid, who made war on an Arab tribe and had arrived at Tadmor. After the murder of Walid-ibn-Yazid, Yazid the Simple captured Othman and Yazid, son of Walid-ibn-Yazid, and imprisoned them. When `Abd-al-`Aziz-ibn-al-Hadjadj returned, carrying the head of Walid, Yazid ordered it put on a lance, sprinkled with wine and paraded in the city with this inscription: "Here is a head which likes wine!" The Arabs, on the news of the murder of Walid, were thrown into great disorder; their opinions divided them and they split into groups; discord and division broke out among them; the roads were cut, consternation dominated everywhere and misfortune took up residence among men. Soleiman-ibn-Hicham, who was in prison, went out and arrived at Damascus, where his soldiers took an oath to Yazid-ibn-al-Walid.

Marwan-ibn-Mohammed, who, as we said, was in Armenia, did not recognize Yazid. He left Armenia to go into Mesopotamia; he moved towards the Arabs of this country who took an oath to him. Then he resolved to pass the Euphrates and to go against Yazid the Simple, to fight him and avenge on him the blood of Walid.

Then Yazid the Simple returned home the Cypriotes that Walid had deported from their country. |253

There appeared in the sky a fire which flamed.

Yazid died, after reigning five months, and his brother Ibrahim succeeded him. The people took an oath to him, except Marwan-ibn-Mohammed and the inhabitants of Emesa who were in favour of Marwan. Then Marwan passed the Euphrates with many troops and made people believe that he was going to deliver the two sons of Walid who were imprisoned at Damascus, and to make them reign in the place of their father. When `Ibrahim learned of the arrival of Marwan, he sent `Abd-al-`Aziz-ibn-al-Hadjadj with many troops against the inhabitants of Emesa, because they had not given oath to him; and (at the same time) he sent Masrour his brother with many troops to Haleb (Aleppo) to Bichr, who lived there. `Abd-al-`Aziz arrived at Emesa, besieged it and engaged in combat against its inhabitants who awaited their rescue in the arrival of Marwan. However Marwan had marched on Damascus and, capturing Haleb, had made captive Bichr and Masrour, sons of Hadjadj. `Abd-al-`Aziz, learning that Marwan had captured Haleb and had made captive his two sons, started from Emesa during the night and returned to Damascus.

Then Marwan went to Emesa, and the inhabitants of this city went out to meet him and took an oath to him. Then he marched on Damascus against Ibrahim. Ibrahim, learning that he was approaching, sent Soleiman-ibn-Hicham with an army to the encounter. Soleiman left Damascus and arrived in a village between Loubnan and Tell-Gara. |254 Marwan marched against him and met him; but he pretended then to move towards the Jordan and prepared for his enemy a ambush on his rear. He thus pretended to move away and Soleiman with his soldiers went in pursuit. When his army was divided and its order broken, the ambush came out behind and massacred them. (The soldiers of Marwan) threw themselves on the troops and the riches which they plundered, and they killed all they could.

Soleiman and his troops, having learned the news, were discouraged and took flight. Marwan and his soldiers threw themselves on them and killed them. That day about 12,000 men perished. Soleiman-ibn-Hicham escaped with a small number of his followers. Ibrahim took the riches of Damascus and fled from this city with Soleiman-ibn-Hicham. `Abd-al-`Aziz-ibn-al-Hadjadj entered the prison and killed the two sons of Walid-ibn-Yazid; then he returned home, but the inhabitants of the city attacked him and set fire to its house which was burned.

Then Marwan marched on Damascus; its inhabitants opened the gates to him, and he entered there. The Arabs were assembled and took an oath to him. Then he camped at the distance of three miles of Damascus, (in a village) called `Aliyah. He removed Yazid the Simple from his tomb and hanged him. |255 Then he made the Arabs of the tribe of Bedr appear and inflicted on them an exemplary punishment: he cut off the hands and feet of some, hanged others; he massacred some and sent others into exile. Marwan ordered the royal treasures brought into his treasury, which was carried out. Ibrahim presented himself to him and obtained pardon of him. As for Soleiman, he went into the desert of Phoenicia and hid there for some time.

In this same year, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, entered Constantinople, captured the rebel who had revolted against him and put him to death; after that he occupied the throne. That occurred in the year 1040 (?) of Alexander, 127 of the Arabs.

The Arabs of the desert, who are called Kelbites, gathered around Soleiman and marched on Tadmor which is in the desert, to the East of Rousafah.

In that year, a comet appeared.

The same year, a rebel named Thabit revolted in Palestine; he gathered many troops and captured Syria. The same year still, in Koufah and Deir-al-`Aqoul, Dhahhak-al-Harouri revolted; |256 he captured most of Iraq, marched against Marwan and, when he was in his vicinity, he sent a delegation to him, took an oath to him and accepted safety from him. When Dhahhak had given oath and Marwan-ibn-Mohammed had ordered him to return to his country, Marwan passed the Euphrates and went against Thabit the rebel of Palestine. Thabit, learning of the arrival of Marwan, went to Tabariyah (Tiberias). When Marwan passed by Emesa, a man of its inhabitants revolted: he gathered the Kelbites and was master of Emesa. Marwan attacked him, captured him and killed him with all his followers whom he hanged, and he exiled all the Kelbites from Emesa; he then made a large breach in the wall of Emesa.

However Thabit had marched on Tabariyah. The inhabitants of the city, informed of his arrival, made sorties every day to fight him; they killed approximately 10,000 of his men and plundered his riches. Thabit then with his sons and a certain number of his followers moved towards Moultan (?), where he remained wandering and fugitive. Marwan arrived in Palestine and learned how the inhabitants of Tabariyah had treated Thabit, and he showed himself very satisfied at this; he treated the inhabitants of Palestine well and appreciated their help. He halted and sent troops to the pursuit of the rebel Thabit who was . . . rejoined in the mountains of . . . ; the troops captured him and the followers who accompanied him, and brought them to Marwan who ordered Thabit's right hand and left foot cut off. |257  Marwan then left Palestine and went to Damascus where he had Thabit killed.

Then Marwan went from Damascus to Raqqah, with the intention to go down into Iraq. Soleiman-ibn-Hicham sent a delegation to him to ask for peace; Marwan granted it to him, and (Soleiman) presented himself to him. Marwan left for Raqqah, and Soleiman asked him for permission to go to Rousafah and to remain there for a few days. Marwan allowed him to, and Soleiman departed. When Marwan was at Qirqisiyah, Soleiman-ibn-Hicham revolted and gathered the Arabs of Syria; most of the Arabs who were with Marwan took the part of Soleiman who resolved to march on Harran. Marwan, informed of these events and knowing that Soleiman had made many recruits, gave up the intention which he had formed, went to Raqqah and transported himself from one place to the other, in making war. Soleiman met him, and they came to blows. Soleiman was overcome, and 7,000 men of his followers were killed. Soleiman escaped, got to the desert of Phoenicia and went to Tadmor. Marwan ordered that the fields of Hicham which were on the Euphrates and in other places should be devastated. Then a certain number of the followers of Hicham fortified themselves in a fort which was located on the Euphrates, opposite Rahbah, and put themselves to insult and to injure Marwan. |258 He sent troops against them and reduced them. Their heads were cut off. They were approximately 400 men.

The inhabitants of Emesa then revolted against Marwan; they killed `Abdallah, his governor at Emesa, and repaired the breach that Marwan had made in the fortress. The Kelbite Arabs took the part of Yazid-ibn-Hicham, arrived at Damascus and besieged it. In Palestine, the sons of Thabit rose, made themselves masters of the region and made war on those who remained faithful to Marwan. Dhahhak-al-Harouri acted at the same time in Iraq and gathered many troops against Marwan.

Surrounded on all sides with misfortunes and encircled with enemies, Marwan sent his son `Abdallah with troops to Nisibis, because he had learned that Dhahhak was going there; and (at the same time) he sent troops with Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah to Qirqisiyah. Marwan gave them, both of them, his recommendations and said to them: "Dhahhak has risen; one of you fight him; the second will thus have free movement, he will go down into Iraq, will occupy the country and will capture it!" Marwan moved towards Emesa. The inhabitants, informed of his march, sent against him a man named Mo`awia with troops to make resistance; they then chose Sa`id-ibn-Hicham and put him at their head. Soleiman-ibn-Hicham was complicit with them. Having arrived at Qinnesrin, Marwan learned that Mo`awia was moving against him; |259 he went to meet him, found him, put him to rout and killed him and most of his men; he then went against Emesa and besieged it in the spring; he sent messengers to the city, promised safety to the inhabitants, addressed them and promised forgiveness to them. But they refused to submit themselves. Seeing that, Marwan drew up the balistas and waited with patience.

However Dhahhak-al-Harouri marched on Mosul, killed Marwan's governor who was there, then arrived at Nisibis and besieged it. On this news, Yazid went down to Iraq, killed all the followers of Dhahhak and the members of his family which he found and maintained order throughout the East.

Marwan sent Abu'l-Ward with many troops into Palestine. He found there a son of Thabit which he put to rout, made captive and brought him to Marwan who was at Emesa. The siege of Emesa continued and the inhabitants refused to open the gates to Marwan; he then ordered his troops to traverse the province and the villages of Emesa and to devastate them. The inhabitants of Emesa, at this sight, wrote (to Marwan) and asked for the aman. Marwan granted this to them, except for Sa`id-ibn-Hicham. (The inhabitants of Emesa) then opened the gates.

While the people underwent this misfortune, the emperor of the Greeks made a raid into Syria and arrived at Delouk. Learning that Marwan had captured Emesa, he feared attack and returned to Constantinople with many prisoners. |260

In this same year, there was thick darkness which was prolonged for five days in the month of Ab (August); the atmosphere was dull and obscure; the sun resembled blood and its light was weak. It was not an eclipse of the sun, but a great darkness in the sky.

Marwan destroyed the walls of Emesa and Ba`lbek; then he returned to Harran and camped there; then he arose to go to Nisibis to the encounter with Dhahhak-al-Harouri. Dhahhak, informed of the arrival of Marwan, left the city and went to meet him. Soleiman-ibn-Hicham had already taken the part of Dhahhak. Dhahhak arrived at Kafartoutha and besieged it. Marwan arrived at Ras-`Ayn and left there against Dhahhak, which he met between Ras'ayn and Kafartoutha. The battle began between them and many people succumbed on both sides. Dhahhak and his followers took flight; Marwan pursued them, caught up with them and killed them all with Dhahhak.

After the death of Dhahhak, the Harourites took as leader a man named Khaibari. This Khaibari disguised himself and penetrated the camp of Marwan; he traversed it and arrived at the tent of Marwan. Then he suddenly attacked Marwan and his followers. Marwan and his followers were overcome. Marwan himself would have perished, except that his son `Abdallah and a group of Arabs of his companions who returned after their rout, attacked the Harourites and drove them out of their camp. |261

Then the Harourites met again and elected as leader a man named Cheiban, who raised an army and marched to Niniveh. Marwan went against him and halted in the vicinity. The war between them continued little by little and was prolonged for two months. Then the troops of Marwan attacked the Harourites, put them to rout and pursued them as far as Azerbaijan. (Marwan) then sent Amrou-ibn-Sanarah with many troops to the pursuit of the Harourites. Then Marwan in flight returned to Harran and remained there.

At that time, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, made a raid into Syria (ach-Chamat and Souriyah), attacked several places and returned from there.

In the month of Kanoun II (January), there was a violent earthquake on the coast of the sea of Palestine. Many places were devastated, and many people perished, especially in Tiberias, where more than 100,000 men succumbed.

The people were swamped with these misfortunes and these wars, when a man named Abu-Muslim revolted in Koufah and Deir-al-`Aqoul; he conferred confidentially with the population and made them share his ideas; the people answered his call, and he and his followers put on black clothing. There were with him 14 men of the Shiites. |262 They made professions of abstinence, mortification and attachment to the family of Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah who had been the origin of the empire of the Arabs, and they let their hair grow. Many people of Khorasan joined them and formed a great party. When they were a very significant party, they took an oath to Ibrahim-ibn-Mohammed . . . 42 he arrived in the fortified camp of Harran and massacred the principal leaders of the Arabs and Khorasanians.

Then this news came to Marwan, who was overcome with sadness. He wrote to Amrou-ibn-Sanarah who was at that time in Iraq, and ordered him to go against Ibrahim and to fight him. Abu-Muslim had captured Djordjan, Ray, Qirmisin (Qirmanchah) and most of the cities of Khorasan and had constrained the inhabitants to take an oath to Ibrahim-ibn-Mohammed. Amrou-ibn-Sanarah marched against him and met him at Ispahan. The inhabitants of Khorasan put him to rout and killed him and his followers.

Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah was a governor on behalf of Marwan-ibn-Mohammed over all the East. After the death of Amrou-ibn-Sanarah, Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah gathered troops from Iraq and camped near Madain. When Abu-Muslim saw this, he attacked him there and Yazid fled before Abu-Muslim and made a halt between the two rivers, i.e. between the Euphrates and the Tigris. Then Abu-Muslim the Khorasanian went against him, |263 and (Yazid) fled (again), entered Wasit and fortified himself there. Abu-Muslim delivered his camp and his riches over to plundering. Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah had already collected at Wasit the riches and the goods which he needed.

Then Abu-Muslim went to Deir-al-`Aqoul, met there a man of his party and asked his advice on what must be done. The family of Ibrahim-ibn-Mohammed was worried in that time at Koufah. Marwan had sent (troops) against Ibrahim, had captured him, had put him in prison at Harran; and all his brothers had taken flight. Ibrahim died in prison, after having designated as successor his brother `Abdallah called Abu'l-Abbas. Then Abu-Muslim went to find `Abdallah in his retirement, made him come out and proclaimed him king with all Khorasanians who were with him.

When `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed had become king, he sent a man called Abu-`Aoun, with the troops of Khorasan, against Mosul; he sent Hasan-ibn-Qahtabah with troops against Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah who was in Wasit. At this news, Marwan sent his son `Abdallah with many troops to Mosul; he also sent his other son `Oubeidallah to Qirqisiyah. Abu'l-Abbas sent his elder brother to Wasit against Ibn-Qahtabah, charged him with command of these troops and ordered him to make them take an oath. He (also) sent his uncle `Abd-allah-ibn-`Ali to Mosul against Ibn-Abu-`Aoun, conferred the administration |264 of this city on him and ordered him to administer an oath to the western troops and others. `Abdallah-al-Mansour, when he arrived at Wasit, found that Hasan-ibn-Qahtabah was besieging it and avoided the battle. Then he ordered his troops to prepare for combat. The two parties met, and engaged in combat and the battle lasted a few days.

Then Marwan-ibn-Mohammed assembled the troops of Syria, Egypt and Mesopotamia and marched on Mosul. `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali, who had arrived with troops from Khorasan, made a halt on the Great Euphrates at Mosul. `Abdallah-ibn-Marwan also arrived there and halted on the western side, opposite `AbdalIah-ibn-`Ali; but they did not start the battle, waiting for the arrival of Marwan. When the letters (of Marwan) reached his son where he was enjoining to him to pass (the river) of Zab, to camp on its Eastern bank and to surround his camp with a ditch, `Abdallah carried out these orders; he built over the Zab a bridge, prepared his soldiers for battle and equipped the cavalry and the infantry.

At the first meeting, Marwan found that the Khorasanians were brave, that they did not yield in the battle (and were) like blocks of stones unaffected by either iron nor fire; that they were courageous and valiant. The war between the two parties was prolonged, and every day they sustained losses that God alone knows; soon the soldiers of Marwan lacked ardour and lost courage, while the |265 Khorasanians remained firm and quickly decided the victory. The Syrians felt weakness; (the Khorasanians) attacked them with so much force that they put them to rout; (the Syrians) fled and piled up on the bridge, one on another; the greatest part fell into the Euphrates and drowned; others died trodden underfoot and crushed; the remainder perished in the battle or were made prisoner.

And Theophilus the astrologer, from whom we drew this information, tells us: "Myself, I was all the time an eyewitness of these engagements, I noted many things and nothing of what relates to them has escaped me." Theophilus composed on this subject several books from which we extracted this summary, and we have included what we believe should not be overlooked, but we have avoided being so long, as far as we could. 43 |266

Let us return to our account. When `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali had gained the victory and Marwan and his soldiers had been completely demolished, Marwan and his son `Abdallah ran away to Harran. Marwan rejoined his family and his clients, gathered as much wealth and weapons as he could, crossed the Euphrates and went towards Ascalon to await there what the Khorasanians would do. Then `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali, at the head of his troops, went against the troops of Marwan, captured the wealth, weapons and other things which were there, and brought back the whole to `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed, who was at Koufah. After the flight of Marwan-ibn-Mohammed, the Arabs of Syria and Mesopotamia, as well as the non-Arab inhabitants of Mesopotamia, took an oath to `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali. The battle between `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali and Marwan-ibn-Mohammed took place on the Euphrates on Saturday, the 21 of Kanoun II (January), in year 133 of the Arabs.

On that day, the empire passed from the Omayyads to the Hashemites. Abu'l-Abbas-`Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed began to reign and his brother Mansour succeeded him.

`Abdallah-ibn-`Ali went to Harran with troops of Khorasan and ordered the castles of Marwan which were there to be ruined. He made all trace of him disappear and entrusted the government of Mesopotamia to Mousa-ibn-Ka`b of Khorasan; then he went to pursue Marwan. |267

When Walid, who was at Damascus, learned of the arrival of `Abdallah-ibn `Ali, he fortified himself and prepared for battle; Marwan had ordered him to do this. `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali arrived and besieged Damascus. He prepared scaling ladders and set them against the wall, in complicity with some inhabitants of Damascus; but those who were for Walid fought the troops of `Abdallah and did not let them go up, so that battle began between them. Then one of the enemies of Walid ran and opened the gates of the city. The soldiers of `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali there entered and gave (the inhabitants) to the edge of the sword; for three hours, they did not cease cutting off heads in the markets, in the streets and in the houses and seizing riches. At midday, `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali ordered an end to the massacre. Walid was among the dead; a great number of Christians and Jews had perished. `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed sent his uncle Salih-ibn-`Ali with many troops to pursue Marwan and ordered him to go by the way of Qadisiyah and to move towards Egypt to rejoin his brother `Abdallah; then to join with him to set out together to pursue Marwan.

`Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed-al-Mansour remained still near Wasit, to fight Yazid-ibn-Houbeirah. The situation of Wasit had become very difficult, and the inhabitants asked Yazid to leave; they said to him: "If you refuse (to depart), we will help your enemies." Then Yazid entered into talks with Mansour about safety; and Mansour promised safety to him and its soldiers. |268 On these conditions they went over to him; but he ordered his head cut off and to demolish the wall of Wasit; after which, he returned with this news to his brother Abu'l-Abbas.

Then Abu'l-Abbas built for himself a city where he would settle. The city was built for him on the Euphrates; he called it al-Anbar and he settled there.

When Marwan learned what `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali had done with the body of Walid and that the inhabitants of Damascus had taken an oath to Abu'l-Abbas, he lost hope and fled with haste with a small number of his clients and members of his family, who moved towards Egypt; then he took the route of the Nile and arrived at the borders of Nubia. But he dealt with Salih-ibn-`Ali who had preceded his brother `Abdallah. This last had been delayed under the walls of Damascus, then had entered the city and had halted there.

When he arrived in Egypt, Salih-ibn-`Ali sent one of his followers, named `Amir-ibn-Isma`il, with troops to seek Marwan-ibn-Mohammed, who he found camped on the Nile. Then he attacked by night; the followers of Marwan abandoned him, and he remained alone. He took refuge on a hill which was there, and ceased fighting only when it fell; he was killed, and his two sons, `Abdallah and `Obeidallah, fled under a disguise |269 with all the people . . .  who were on the Nile. Then `Abdallah left `Obeidallah . . . in Mecca. `Obeidallah marched to . . .  on the way; and he died. `Amir-[ibn-Isma`il] gathered. . . the riches which were with him, and returned to Salih-ibn-`Ali who was in Egypt. He put the corpse of Marwan on a cross and embalmed his head, which he brought to Abu'l-Abbas, the son of his brother.

Salih-ibn-`Ali was his lieutenant in Palestine; approximately 70 men of Omayyads gathered to come to him and approached reading the Koran and reciting the words, and thinking that this would dispose him to pardon them. He had already promised safety for their life and property, when one day he ordered them to present themselves at his castle. He placed next to each of them two men of Khorasan who held in their hands a pointed bludgeon. While they were addressing him, he made a sign with his eyes to the Khorasanians who massacred these Omayyads with the bludgeons. Salih took their heads and sent them to Abu'l-Abbas; then he seized their property, set to pursue the remainder, and he persecuted them in Palestine with so much eagerness that he destroyed them.

The Arabs of Syria repented what they had done, when Abu'l-Abbas exposed them to shame and the domination of strangers who lived their houses and seized their property; they were disturbed and agitated by this and refused to take an oath. [Habib-ibn-]Mourrah, of the tribe |270 of Qais ... 44 who lived in Ramlah and his province and Abu'l-Ward. . .  its surroundings and Mansour-ibn-Mohammed. . . they were thrown into disorder and there was a sedition. . . . Hashem. . .  Then .. the Arabs. . .  and they captured it.

Abu'l-Ward gathered a great number of Arabs and marched against `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali. `Abdallah left Palestine for Emesa; he camped in Merdj, to the east of Emesa, and ordered his troops to prepare for battle. Abu'l-Ward arrived. `Abdallah seeing the many troops of Abu'l-Ward, was frightened a little. The battle began and many fell on both sides; finally Abu'l-Ward and his troops fled. `Abdallah took the inhabitants of Syria and returned to Damascus, where he met Habib-ibn-Mourrah and killed him and his followers. After that he made the inhabitants of Damascus and all the cities of Syria take an oath.

Then Ishaq-ibn-Muslim revolted in Samosata, and the leaders of the tribe of Qais took his part. He had already put an Arab at the head of most of the towns of Mesopotamia, at Qirqisiyah, Ras'ayn, Tell-Maouzen (Maouzala), in Kafartoutha, Thamanin, Amid, Mayafariqin and other towns. Harran recognized the power of Mousa-ibn-Ka`b who was there. |271

Then the Arabs of Mesopotamia gathered, marched on Harran and fought Mousa-ibn-Ka`b. When the Arabs learned that Abu'l-Ward had been killed, they were divided and took flight to the last man. At this news, `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed sent `Abdallah-al-Mansour with many troops into Mesopotamia to make peace with the population of their cities and to fight those who would not take an oath. When he arrived at Qirqisiyah, he named one of his followers as governor there and went to Harran. As for `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali, he made the inhabitants of Syria (Chamat and Souriyah) take an oath and for the winter marched on Samosata. Then he returned, marched against Ishaq-ibn-Muslim and Mansour-ibn-Dja'ounah, promised safety to them, and they came to him. Then he captured Samosata and made its inhabitants take an oath. Also `Abdallah-al-Mansour captured all the cities of Mesopotamia and made the population take an oath. The misfortunes did not stop for nine months.

While the people were in these wars, the emperor of the Greeks attacked Malatia, captured it, made captive the inhabitants and returned home.

In this same year, Kousan (Kouchan), the leader of the Armenians, took most of the inhabitants of Armenia and deported them into the country of the Greeks.

Then `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed went to Harran and transported to |272  Anbar the royal treasures of the Omayyads. Then he named Salih-ibn-`Ali as governor of Egypt and the neighbouring countries; `Abdallah-ibn-al-Mansour as governor of Mesopotamia and Armenia; Yahya-ibn-Mohammed as governor of Mosul and his province. When he arrived at Mosul, Yahya-ibn-Mohammed ordered that the Arabs of Mosul and their heads meet in the Great Mosque, and he massacred them all at the same time; their children and their wives perished (also). The Arabs were then seized with grief and covered with shame and humiliation. The Hashemites multiplied their exactions against everyone, whom they crushed with taxes, and they seized the wealth of all the Arabs.

Then a man of the Qoreichites named Habib revolted in Africa; he captured and killed the governor.

Then `Abdallah-al-Mansour entered Armenia, imposed the capitation on the nobles, confiscated their wealth and made them undergo all kinds of vexations.

Then `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed wrote to Abu-Muslim who was then in Khorasan to order to him to come to find him; (he also ordered) `Abdallah-al-Mansour to return to him in haste. When they had arrived, he ordered `Abdallah to go to Mecca and to direct the pilgrimage, and he ordered Abu-Muslim to accompany him. (At the same time) he secretly ordered his brother |273 to take the head of Abu-Muslim if he could. They thus both left together, at the head of many troops of Arabs and Persians. Then (`Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed) wrote to `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali to order to him to make a expedition; he thus attacked the Greeks, but did not gain any success and returned.

`Abdallah-al-Mansour entered Mecca, attended the festival and returned; however Abu'l-Abbas-`Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed died. His death took place on Sunday 7th of Haziran (June), year 136 of the Arabs; his reign had lasted four years and ten months. He bequeathed the caliphate to Abu-Dja`far-`Abdallah-al-Mansour and then to his cousin `Isa-ibn-Mousa.

In this same year, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, gathered a council of approximately 300 bishops at Constantinople concerning the images which were in the churches. They examined and considered whether they should be venerated or not. Then they agreed with the emperor that they should not be venerated and could not be allowed for any other purpose; they brought testimonies of the Sacred Books of the Old and New Testaments and treatises of the Fathers. They anathematised Jyannis (Jean), son of Mansour, of Damascus, and Gregorius (Georgius) of Cyprus and wrote many canons. This is what is called the seventh council. |274

`Abdallah-ibn-`Ali learning of the death of `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed and seeing that `Abdallah-al-Mansour and Abu-Muslim were far away, avidly wanted the empire and ordered the Arabs and Khorasanians which were with him to take an oath to him. They took an oath to him, except for his brother Salih-ibn-`Ali, who refused. (`Abdallah-ibn-`Ali) had projected a raid (against the Greeks); but when he aspired to the empire, he renounced the idea and threw himself on Mesopotamia. There was then, in Harran, a man called Mouqatil and called al'akki, with many troops that `Abdallah-al-Mansour had established to keep his place until his return from the pilgrimage. Harran remained firm and did not take an oath to `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali. The latter arrived there, drew up balistas against the city with which he fought the inhabitants for forty days. Then they asked him for the aman, which he granted to them; and the gate of the city was opened to him. Harran taken, `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali arose to go into Iraq. He preferred the Arabs to the Khorasanians, chose them for high dignities, and he started to kill Persians and to confiscate their wealth to give to the Arabs.

Then `Abdallah-al-Mansour returned from Mecca with Abu-Muslim and entered Koufah. He spoke in the pulpit and asked the caliphate for himself; and the people took an oath to him. Before his arrival, `Isa-ibn-Mousa had already gathered the Arabs of the East and the Khorasanians, had read |275 the will of Abu'l-Abbas to them, declared to them that `Abdallah-al-Mansour succeeded him, and by exhortations and promises had led them to take an oath to `Abdallah-al-Mansour. On his arrival, Mansour found troops which were subjected to him; the empire was assured to him and his power was consolidated.

He then ordered Abu-Muslim to go with many troops from Mosul to the meeting of `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali who was in this moment with Qirqisiyah. `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali learned that Abu-Muslim had already left Anbar and had taken the road to Mosul. `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali, who was camping on the Euphrates, took the (river) road of Khabour, moved towards the confluence of the Hirmas and Khabour, then skirted the course of Hirmas and arrived at Nisibis, which he besieged. But Abu-Muslim pretended to move towards Ras'ayn; then `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali went to pursue. Abu-Muslim, learning that, left the road of Ras'ayn, detoured, returned by another way and arrived at Nisibis where he camped and put himself thus between `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali and the city. Having learned that Abu-Muslim had captured Nisibis, `Abdallah was frightened by this somewhat and, each time that he was transported from one place to the other, he started by surrounding his camp with ditches and guards and spiky hedges. Then the two forces approached; each day was marked by some combat, and on both sides the losses were considerable. |276

In the sky there appeared a sign like a lance of fire which extended from the east to the west and sometimes grew, sometimes decreased. During all this time, the war of `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali dragged on.

Then Abu-Muslim, in one of his attacks, beat `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali, who took flight before him with its followers. (The soldiers of Abu-Muslim) massacred the followers of `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali and plundered their camp. `Abdallah fled, hid in an unknown retreat and remained thus unknown until he arrived at Basrah, to his brother Soleiman-ibn-`Ali.

Then Salih-ibn-`Ali sent Abu-`Aoun from Egypt to Palestine with many troops; he pursued the tribes of the Arabs, massacred them and killed them to the last man. Their goods and their herds were plundered. Then `Abdallah-al-Mansour sent to Qirqisiyah a man named Djaouher, at the head of troops of Khorasanians; he entered the city and killed there 20,000 Arabs. He (also) sent with him Houmeid-ibn-Qahtabah to Mosul. He had learned that `Abdallah-ibn-`Ali had in fact arrived at Harran and in other towns of Mesopotamia. He (al-Mansour?) was thus the head of all the Arabs of Mesopotamia and Syria, after they had despaired and lost hope of preserving life.

Then Abu-Muslim returned from Harran while passing by Mosul; |277 then he left the way to Koufah and Anbar, took the road to Helwan, between Azerbaijan and Iraq, and decided not to return to Abu-Dja`far. Abu-Dja`far, learning that Abu-Muslim had left for Khorasan, knowing his intentions, sent against him `Isa-ibn-Mousa. This latter rejoined him and did not cease showing him benevolence and softness, making him promises, softening him by flattering and crafty words. He did enough to divert him from his intentions and renounce them. Then `Isa-ibn-Mousa came with Abu-Muslim to Abu-Dja`far-al-Mansour, who ordered him killed as soon as he arrived, as he was coming in.

There was one of Abu-Muslim's leaders named Cheibah, who was also a Magus, whom Abu-Muslim had approached in person and who was in Azerbaijan, where he was awaiting the arrival of Abu-Muslim. When he learned of his death, he revolted and decided to avenge his blood. Then it came to Ray and perverted the ideas of the Magi, the Deilemites, the Indians and others, who took his part. This news came to Abu-Dja`far, who sent against Cheibah a man called Djaouher. The latter arrived at Ray and attacked Cheibah the Magus who took flight. Djaouher put to death all those of the Magi who had taken his part, to the number of approximately 50,000; he captured their families and their goods and forced the inhabitants of Ray to take an oath to Abu-Dja`far-al-Mansour. Having done that, he remained there and did not return to Mansour. Then Mansour sent against him Ibn-al-Ach`ath who overcame him and killed him with all his men. |278 Then Mansour ordered his cousin Salih-ibn-`Ali to establish Abu-`Aoun as governor of Egypt and to send Cheibah to Syria and to the coastal country. Mansour then sent Mousa-ibn-Ka`b to Sind and its district where he met a rebel named Asbagh-ibn-Davoud; he overcame him, killed him with his followers, forced the Arabs and the other inhabitants to take an oath, established a governor on the country and returned. That took place in year 137 of the Arabs.

Then Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, attacked Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis), captured and took into captivity its population. Salih-ibn-`Ali made a raid against the Greeks with troops of Arabs and Persians; then he returned without success; but he took the Armenians and Alans which the Greeks had brought from Armenia with Kouchan their patrician, and settled them in Syria. Since that day, the kings of the Greeks have prohibited any of the Armenians from settling in their empire, and especially in places near the border.

At that time, `Abdallah-al-Mansour rebuilt Malatia, ruined by the kings of the Greeks and established hostels to be used as dwellings for the soldiers.

In Mesopotamia Harouri called Moulabbid revolted. |279 A great number of Khorasanians took his part. That frightened `Abdallah-al-Mansour and this matter impressed him a lot. When (the rebel) arrived in Mosul, `Abdallah-al-Mansour sent Hazim-ibn-Houzeimah against him who overcame him, killed him with his followers and returned. `Abdallah-al-Mansour named as governor of Khorasan a man called `Abd-al-Djabbar, who revolted against him. That took place in year 140 of the Arabs.

In this same year, a son of `Ali-ibn-Abu-Talib revolted and was called Mahdi. Part of the Arabs took his part. `Abdallah-al-Mansour sent against him someone who killed him and killed his followers.

In this same year, Ach' ath made a expedition against Africa; he conquered it and made its inhabitants take an oath.

In this same year, `Abdallah-al-Mansour ordered the rebuilding of Qaliqala (Theodosiopolis), ruined by the kings of the Greeks, to establish a garrison and to open the roads.

In this same year, (`Abdallah-al-Mansour) named his son Mohammed governor of Khorasan and sent with him leaders and troops. `Abd-al-Djabbar the rebel was in Merv. Then a rebel called Hasan-ibn-Harran also revolted in Djordjan. This country is surrounded by seas and mountains; the Deilemites are to the west of it; Azerbaijan to the south. The defiles are difficult and the roads narrow, which makes access difficult. Its length, following the shore of the sea from the east to the west, |280 is forty parasangs, and its width, from north to south, is twenty parasangs. There are there vast, large and broad meadows, abundant springs, thick trees and many fruits. Five cities are met with there; each city has two or three walls; a great number of fortresses are placed on the top of the high mountains. Its people have delicate bodies, of a very beautiful hue; they are very skilful in the various trades; they are a numerous people. Isbehbedh, which was in that time, was called Kourchib.

Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah-al-Mansour sent messengers to him; he overpowered him with taxes and increased the tribute on him; he ordered him to pay them to him or to come out against him and declare war. The ambassador that he had sent to him was Abu-`Aoun with some companions. When the ambassador had presented and read the letter, Isbehbedh treated him well and sent to Mansour a letter thus designed: "I am a man who compares matters one with another; and my land is small and narrow. When I think of war, the misfortunes, testing times, calamities, sorrows and affliction which are involved with it, I become wise again and I restrain myself. For what I have said, I am ready to give my wealth. With this I will preserve my honour and my life and will deliver it to him that can come and get it. |281 What I have paid to others who preceded you, all that will be given likewise to you . . .  45.  Take it!"

When the ambassador had accepted the answer [of Isbehbedh and] had left, Isbehbedh hastened to put in safety, in his fortresses, his wealth, weapons and carpets and fortified himself. His letter came to Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah. The reading filled him with anger and fury, and he sent against him Abu-`Aoun with all the troops of Khorasan. They entered Tabaristan, dispersed among its villages and fields and lived there; they attacked the inhabitants and caused great devastations. Isbehbedh with his family were safe in the fortresses which they had fortified. Seeing the many troops which arrived in his country, he understood that he could not resist them. The troops attacked one fortress, captured it and there found great wealth, effects, carpets, precious stones and other objects. When Isbehbedh saw that, he decided to go out to fight the troops. He thus went out against them with his soldiers; but the troops overcame him; he fled and went to the Deilemites. Then he gathered on their premises troops of men and returned against his enemies; but they inflicted a new defeat on him; then he passed to the Deilemites for the second time and remained there until his death. Then the enemies attacked these fortresses, captured the wealth, the weapons and the carpets and made captive the inhabitants; |282 then they conquered the whole country, took everything and withdrew. Then Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah departed from Ray and arrived at Nisabour (Nichapour) which is located at the distance of . . .  parasangs from Djordjan and at a distance from 70 parasangs from . . . 

In this same year, a comet [appeared]. It was in Aries, in front of the sun, when the sun was in Taurus. It went on until it came beneath the rays of the sun; then it went behind and remained for forty days.

Towards the end of that year, Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah returned from Khorasan and directed the pilgrimage with `Abdallah-al-Mansour. Then `Abdallah-al-Mansour built a city on the Tigris above Madain, and called it "city of peace" (Baghdad). He settled there and set up his court.

Then he sent his Mohammed son into Khorasan and ordered him to settle at Ray. He departed and, having arrived there, he built beside it another city which he called Mohammediyah.

In year 9 of `Abdallah-al-Mansour, in Medina, a rebel of the family of Fatimah called Mohammed revolted; he was descended from Hasan-ibn-`Ali-ibn-Abu-Talib. The people took an oath to him. Then `Abdallah-al-Mansour sent against him his cousin Isa-ibn-Mousa and Houmeid-al-Tousa with many troops. |283 (`Isa) killed him with his followers, took his head and brought it to Abu-Dja`far. `Abdallah had already left his city and marched on `Aqoul where he had camped, when he learned of the death of the rebel and received his head. He had only acted so because he feared a revolt of the inhabitants of Roufah who had already like those of Basra and the neighbouring cities taken an oath to the rebel called Ibrahim. The latter, when he arrived at Basra, made the inhabitants take an oath and decided to make war on `Abdallah-al-Mansour.

When he learned that his brother had been killed, he rose with many troops, marched against Abu-Dja`far and approached `Aqoul. He was separated from Abu-Dja`far only by a distance of fifteen parasangs approximately. Then `Isa-ibn-Mousa went out against him with many troops. (`Isa) overcame him and killed most of his followers. Ibrahim fled and was not killed in the battle. Then `Isa-ibn-Mousa pursued him, caught up with him and, after having killed him, brought his head to Abu-Dja`far. After the death of Ibrahim the wars calmed down and the misfortunes stopped.

Then the Khazars made a raid against Haroun (?), Laziqah and all the Gates of the Alans and made captive 50,000 Arabs with great wealth and herds. Mousa-ibn-Ka`b went to battle them. |284 But the . . .  Khazars overcame him and killed most of his soldiers.

In this same year, `Abdallah-ibn-Mohammed-al-Mansour violated the oath to his cousin `Isa-ibn-Mousa that the people had taken to him and according to which they had agreed to make him king after `Abdallah-al-Mansour. Then the people took an oath to Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah and proclaimed him heir to the empire of the Moslems.

Constantine took an oath to his son Leo and made him heir to the Greek empire. In this same year, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, built several cities and settled there Armenians and other populations.

In year 10 of `Abdallah-al-Mansour, the Arabs captured a city, in the country of India, which is called Kabul.

In this same year, in Khorasan, there was a violent earthquake, which moved mountains and left untouched neither trees nor stones. When the ground trembled below, the trees and the stones shattered and disappeared.

In the year 14 of `Abdallah, the Magi revolted in Khorasan and shook the authority of `Abdallah-al-Mansour for this reason:

In a city of Khorasan which is called Far`is (?), there was a mountain from where much silver was taken. 30,000 workmen dealt specifically |285 with the exploitation of this mine and the purification. The workmen were Magi to whom the mountain had been ceded. A very rich mine was discovered there. The Sultan wanted to take the mountain from them and give it to others. They were opposed to the implementation of this project, and the Sultan struck a Magus. Then they threw themselves on him and killed a great number of his soldiers. After that, the Sultan wrote with Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah-al-Mansour who was in Ray, to tell him what had occurred. The latter sent to him 34,000 soldiers who formed his vanguard; then he went out, himself, against the Magi, at the head of 30,000 soldiers. The people who formed the vanguard arrived at the mountain where the mines and the Magi were; they started the battle, but the Magi overcame them and made a very great number perish. Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah, learning of the defeat of his soldiers, remained at the place where he was and sent a letter to `Abdallah-al-Mansour in which he made known to him the fate of his troops and the business of the mine. He was then at the place which is called Arfasir(?), and he spent the winter there.

After winter had passed, he sent against the rebels a man called Hazim at the head of 40,000 soldiers. When he arrived near the rebels, (his soldiers) attacked them, overcame them, killed more than 20,000, made captive the survivors whom they sent to Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah who was on the Tigris, opposite Baghdad. |286

In year 15 of Mansour, the inhabitants of Africa rose and killed Amrou-ibn-al-Mouhallab and his troops. Then Yazid-ibn-al-Mouhallab went against them with many troops, made 30,000 men perish and returned.

Then Mansour left with all his troops and went to Mesopotamia where he remained some time; he then crossed the Euphrates and arrived in Palestine. He oppressed everyone, caused them more sorrows and misfortunes that any of the kings his predecessors; he treated them with such harshness that there was nobody, not a worker, or a servant, or a camel driver, or a grave-digger, or a farmer, or a charitable man, or any other class of people whom he did not subject to the tax and whose goods he did not confiscate. People were reduced to such a degree of misery that some dug up tombs, dragged out the corpses, cooked and ate them; others killed dogs, roasted them and sold them in the markets. Money disappeared from the hands of people. An unimaginable distress seized them, and to fill up their misfortune, the plague started to break out among them.

While they were thus in misfortune, Mansour died, after reigning twenty and one years and three and a half months. |287

In this same year, Constantine, emperor of the Greeks, died, after reigning thirty-four years and three months.

Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah-al-Mahdi, son of Mansour, started to reign in year 158 of the Arabs. He ordered the prisons opened and that all those whom his father had shut up there freed.

Leo, son of Constantine, reigned over the Greeks for five years, from the year 1084 of Alexander. He freed all those which were in his father's prison, and recalled all those whom he had exiled.

In year 2 of Mohammed-ibn-`Abdallah-al-Mahdi, Abbas-ibn-Mohammed made a raid against the Greeks and arrived at Ancyra, a town of Galatia; he entered it, but did nothing there.

In this same year, four rebels revolted in the East: one in the country of Sa`id, another in Sedjestan, the third in Bahrain and the fourth beyond the river.


1.  The events at the beginning of the second part are also recounted at the end of the first part, but in a different version to that in the Florence manuscript.

2.  Genesis 49:10.

3.  Daniel 9:24-27.

4.  See Jos. Flav., Ant., XVII, VIII, 189. τήν τε Γαυλωνῖτιν καὶ Τραχωνῖτιν καὶ Βαταναίαν καὶ Πανιάδα Φιλίππῳ.

5.  Three lines are illegible here. They might be filled up using Michael the Syrian, I, 143, 2.

6.  Completed using Michael the Syrian.

7.  Text filled out using Michael the Syrian.

8.  Jos. Fl. Ant. Jud. XVIII, III, 63-4. See Michael the Syrian, I, 143-145.

9.  Eusebius, H.E., I, x, 1-2. Jos. Fl. Ant. Jud. XVIII, ii. 33-35. Michael the Syrian, I, 142-143, 145.

10.  Some words are unclear here.

11. Rom. 16:14.

12. Dan.9:27.

13. Simoni deo sancto.

14. Gen.49:10.

15. Dan. 9:26-27.

16. Cf. Matt. 24; Mark 13; Luke 21.

17. Josephus, Jewish War, VI. 9.

18. Josephus, Jewish War, VI, 5:3.

19. Phil. 4:3.

20. Iren. Haer. I. 26; III. 3; Eus. HE III. 28:6.

21. Βασιλικόν? βασιλική?

22.  Text restored from Michael the Syrian I, 181.

23. A certain Scuthinos is mentioned in other texts as the master of Bardesanes in the study of the occult, the precursor of Mani the author of four books. See R. Duval, La litterature syriaque, 2nd ed., p. 242, n. 1.

24.  Possibly it should read Quitous, i.e. Geta, Caracalla's brother.

25.  Perhaps the sun and the moon?

26.  On Oudhi (Αὐδαῖος) and his followers, the Audians, see Epiphanius, Panarion, I, 70 (PG 42 col. 339 f.)

27.  Aphrahat.

** The first fascicle of part 2 ends on page 135; the second fascicle begins on page 139.

28.  Here, in the margin of the manuscript, we read: "This is wrong". There is indeed a mistake, because the 1,273rd year of Alexander (= 961AD) does not correspond to the 330th year of the Hegira (= 941-942). Instead of 1,273, it should be 1,253 (= 941). On the other hand, we know that Masudi, who wrote his Tenbih in 945, already knew the work of Mahboub (Agapius). Kitâb at-Tanbîh wa'l-Ischraf auctore al-Masudi. Bibl. geographorum arabiÂ-corum, ed. of Goeje, VIII, Leiden, 1894, 154. Maçoudi, Le Livre de l'avertissement et de la revision, B.Carra de Vaux, Paris, 1896, 212.

29.  Cf. Georgii Elmacini Historia Saracenica, ed. Thomae Erpenii, Leide, 1625, p. 2-3. Elmacinus abridged the account of Agapius. Michael the Syrian, II, 403-405.

30.  Folios 89v-90 are very deteriorated.

31.  This relates to the war with Chrosroes in AD 540, and the capture of Apamea in the same year.

32.  The following four lines are illegible. A few words can be read, suggesting that they concern the death of Mohammed and the transmission of power to Abu Bekr. Cf. Elmacinus, 9-10, 15.

33.  The following six lines are illegible. A translation is given of whatever can be read.

34.  The start of each of the next eight lines is illegible.

35.  The text of this passage is damaged and illegible.

36.  Some words here have been damaged.

37.  The remainder of folio 97v is almost illegible.

38.  The remainder of fol. 98 is illegible. The next four pages, consisting of folios 98v, 99, 99v and 100 cannot be read. These leaves are stuck to each other because of damp and so cannot be read.

39.  Apart from the first two words, folios 104v, 105, 105b and 106 are stuck together and illegible.

40.  A damaged line here.

41.  Two damaged lines follow.

42.  A number of words are probably missing here.

43.  This interesting source used by Agapius is Theophilus of Edessa, son of Thomas, a distinguished astronomer, who lived under the Caliph al-Madhi and died in 785 AD. He was the author of works, today lost, which included a history and a Syriac translation of the Iliad and the Odyssey. Bar Hebraeus mentions and praises him (Historia dynastiarum, 98 (63), 40 (26), 228, (147-148), ed. Salhani 98. 40, 219-220; Chronicum Syriacum 134). His name is also found in Michael the Syrian, II, 358: " Theophilus of Edessa, who was a Chalcedonian and considered hatred of the orthodox as his heritage, left fraudulently to one side all the histories in which he found record of us . . .  We borrowed from his Chronicle some of things which are not found in better sources." See W. Wright, A Short History of Syriac Literature, London, 1894, pp.163-4.

44.  Five lines are damaged here.

45.  Three damaged lines here.

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