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Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon (1971) Notes. pp. 76-252. Ed. C. Umhau Wolf.


Latin Preface By Jerome



1. Ararat, Armenia. Genesis 8:4; Klostermann. Das Onomasticon der biblischen Ortsnamen(1904) (hereafter K.) 2:23 (page#:line#), cf. 38:11; Legarde. Onomastica Sacra (1966) (hereafter L.) 232:25 (page#:line#).

Ararat is suspect as an entry in the original manuscript since it is a mountain and is out of the region of Palestine as well. The inclusion of the long quotation from Josephus' Antiquities, (I, iii, p. 5ff.) is repeated in the text of Procopius 285A & B. Eusebius refers to Ararat also in his Preparatio Evangelica, (viii, p. 10f.) and Jerome, in his Commentary on Isaiah 37:36ff.). In Interpretation of Hebrew Names (60) Jerome translates "mountain of taunting."

The referents in Josephus are largely third century B.C., e.g. Berosus, Musseas. However, Nicolas was a contemporary of Josephus and a biographer of Herod the Great. The location has persisted in tradition as in the present Kurdistan areas, between Armenia and Parthia in ancient times.

Leaetai is used by Eusebius fairly consistently for written sources, most frequently the Bible. Cp. Genesis 8:4, II Kings 19:37, Jeremia 51:27. On the other hand, phasin (dicuntur) reflects an anonymous oral tradition.

The text of Eusebius and Jerome vary only slightly in the quotation of Josephus. The translation of the quotation is that of Thackeray from the Loeb Classic Library (used with permission). The textual variants are all minor.

2. Achad. Genesis 10:10; K. 4:26; L. 233:54.

Textual variants: Achab (Greek); and Archath, Achar, and Acath (Latin).

Achad as the above Ararat also is not in the region of Palestine. Its size is recognized by the use of polis (Greek) and both urbs and civitas (Latin). Jerome in Hebrew Questions notes "it is now called Nisibis." In another entry he notes it is in Edessa. The date referred to by Latin was 363 A.D.

3. Aggai (Ai). Genesis 12:8; K. 4:27; L. 233:55.

The location of Ai is still a complex archaeological puzzle. Judith Krause-Marquet and Pere Abel felt that Eusebius must have had et-Tell in mind because of the words topos eremos used also for Ainan (K. 8:13) and Galgala (K. 66:4). Procopius 320A records Eusebius: "Aggai now is a deserted place not far west of Bethel" (cp. Joshua 7:2, 8:1). This would be on the road to Bethel which leaves the main road at the 12th milestone (cf. K. 40:20). Bethel is often used as a referent in the Bible and is so used in the text (see Appendices).

Jerome also notes a church had been built at Bethel (Commentary on Genesis 28:19) probably by Constantine (Epistle 108:12). For other churches added in Jerome's account see Mambre (K. 7:20), Bethany (K. 59:18), Gethsemane (K. 75:19), and Sychar (K. 165:3-4).

Ailia (Aelia) is Jerusalem. Neapolis is 36 miles from Jerusalem according to the Deut. Table but other texts have 30 miles (Itin. Ant. 200:1). On the Madaba Map it is a large walled city with a basilica. In Eusebius it is a point of reference and according to K. 150:2 distinct from Shechem. Shechem was destroyed in pre-Christian times and Neapolis built there by Vespasian. This Neapolis is present day Nablus near Mt. Garizin. A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea. A basilica was erected there by Justinian according to Procopius (Buildings, V, viii, 1) after time of our text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names (61) Jerome translates "inquiry or gaiety."

4. Astarōth Karnaein. Genesis 14:5; K. 6:4; L. 233:61.

Textual variant: Asarōth (Greek).

There are many attarah in the region of Palestine. The names and spelling in both the Masoretic Text (hereafter MT) and Onomasticon are confusing. In this entry no positive location is given. Only a general area. Procopius 332C wrote, "It is now the city of the blessed Job in the Batanaia. Two villages between Adaron and the city Bibles, nine miles distant from each other, are so-called" (cf. K. 112:3 and K. 142:3 for "home of Job").

Abela (K. 32:15) Is the present Tell abil. Adra (K. 84:7) in Syriac Manuscript is indicated as dari 'at or der'at the present Syrian border town with Jordan. The Batanaia is also called Batalona (K. 12:12). All was part of the land of Bashan (K. 44:9).

The two villages are best located at Tell 'ashtarah and Sheih Sa 'ad. The former is a large tell suitable for the Old Testament Ashtaroth (cf. K. 12:11). Perhaps the latter succeeded as chief administrative city of the district of Karnaeim (cf. K. 112:3). However in the Bible, Astaroth is merely identifying the site of a battle which took place near the city. If so, then Karnaeim added to the name gives the district in which the battle took place (cf. Biblical Archaeologist Dec. 1962, p.109). Eusebius seems to look for two sites.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome has four entries on Astaroth with several interpretation repeats: sheepfold, manger, blackened hall, or make an investigation (61, 85, 90, and 98).

5. Arbō. Arboc. Genesis 23:2; K. 6:8 and 7:11; L. 233:65.

Textual variants include: Arboch (Greek), Arbee (Latin), Arboq. Another variant seems to identify Arbō Chebrōn and the terebinth. The entire entry has been inserted out of biblical order by a late editor.

The terebinth is located at six stadia from Chebrōn by Josephus (Wars, iv, 553). In (K. 76:1) Mamrē also locates the terebinth in the vicinity of Chebrōn (cp. K. 170:25). In K. 26:16 it is located two miles from Bethanin (cp. K. 68:21, 94:21 and Eusebius' De Vita Constantini, iii, 51f., Demonstratio Evangelica V 9). Also see Kariatharbō K. 112:18 where Genesis 23:2 makes the equation.

The location in general is present day Hebron, el kalil, and this is the spot Eusebius locates clearly. It was never a strong Christian city. Ancient site is probably at Jebel er-Rumeide where Roman and Byzantine remains are also found. Jerome notes a church has been built there (cf. K. 7:3 and note for other churches). It is difficult to tell if Jerome refers to the Church of Mamrē (Ramet el Khalil) or the church of the graves of the patriarchs.

Jerome in Hebrew Questions writes "For Arbee the LXX has 'field' with Chebron located on the mountain. The city is also called Mambra is named after the friends of Abraham" (44), cf. Genesis 18:1, I Chronicles 2:42, Joshua 14:13f, 20:7, 21:11, II Samuel 2:1 etc.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translated "Arbee, four or fourth" (61) after the four great men: Abraham, Isaac, Jacob and Adam (cf. Hebrews Questions, p. 28, Epistle 108:11, 46:3, Commentary on Jeremiah 31:15, Zacharia 11:4, Matthew 27:33, and Ephesians 5:14.

6. Ailam (Ailath). Genesis 14:1; K.6:17; L. 234:75.

In the Vulgate we find Ailath, Elath, and Aila for this same site.

Palestine is the southern part of Syria. This word is missing in the Vatican Manuscript. Technically the southern limits of the Onomasticon should be Ailam (Ailath). The ruins are inland about one mile from Aqabah but not as far inland as Tell el Kbeleifah which is probably the older Ezion Geber (K. 36:l, cf. K. 34:23, 62:13, Josephus Antiquities, IX, 12, 1).

It was the end of the road going north to Damascus and the terminus of the overland road west to the Mediterranean. In Jerome's time it was a very busy port (Vita Hilariaris, 18, and cf. Commentary on Ezekiel 47:18). Eusebius does not indicate its size but it may be inferred that it was a polis. A bishop was present at Nicea.

Eusebius uses some army source and the text is useful for noting the deployment of the Roman legion. The Tenth is located here. The Notitia Dignitatum (73:18f.) verifies this entry. The Tabula Peutinger, 820 has a Haila 83 miles from Petra and 150 miles southeast of Gaza which fits this site at el 'aqaba.

The city in II Samuel 10:16 is in northeast Transjordan. The Syriac text notes it is a city of the Philistines. The Greek allophulos usually means Philistines but once or twice we cannot be positive, so in this present translation the general term "foreigners" has been preferred, especially when Jerome does not have Filistine. He has Filistine in K. 7:15, K. 21:2, K. 3:25, K. 119:3 but more often uses transliteration allofylorum (see Appendix I).

7. Adama. Genesis 14:2; K. 8:4; L. 234:82.

The Sodomite Pentapolis is not clearly located by Eusebius. He generally locates them beside the Dead Sea (cf. Sodoma K. 150:10,) K. 153:16 suggests a tradition did exist for Segor but it is also not precisely recorded. The most exacting attempt is for Bala in K. 42:1f.

In Hebrew Questions Jerome translates "dirt, ground or earthen"(61).

8. Asasan Thamar (Asasonthamar). Genesis 14:7; K. 8:6; L. 234:84.

On the Madaba Map there is a Thamara located as suggested by Eusebius here. Tabula Peutinger has a Thamaro 52 or 53 miles from Jerusalem while Ptolemy's list (V, 15, 5f) has a Thamaro about 55 miles distant. The Notitia Dignitatum (74:40) has a Tarba and (74:46) a Thamarra both of which have a garrison.

Alt found a fort at Qasr el Juheiniye and he is followed by many locating the fort there and the village at 'ain el 'Arus. Aharoni more recently (TEJ, 1963, p.30ff) suggests 'Ain Husb which is about a day's walk (32 km) from Kurnub which is generally identified with Mapsis (cf. also Avi-Yonah) and has a large Roman fort as well as Nabatean and Iron II sherds.

The Madaba Map using Jerome's spelling has located properly Mampsis. Many Nabatean, Roman-Byzantine levels excavated at Kuroub. It shows a revival in the fourth century A.D. as also does Oboda (Avdat, 'Abda, and K. 176:9).This may be indicated by "village" in Greek and "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25).

II Chronicles 20:2 identified Thamar with En Gedi or at least locates it in the district of En Gedi (86:16). Jerome in Hebrew Questions says, "his city which we now call Engaddi, is rich in balsam and palms since Asason Thamar translated into our language is city of the palms'" (18) (cf. Judges 1: 16, Ezekiel 47: 29).

9. Aloua (Allus). Genesis 36:40; K. 8:10; L. 234:89.

Textual variants: Alloyd (Greek), Gōla (LXX), and Alloys (Syriac). Hebrew has 'Alvah or 'Aliah.

Petra (cf. K. 142:7) is often called the capital of ancient Nabatean or the capital of the ancient Arabs. It has been suggested that Udrub, 14 km east of Petra may retain the tradition of this site since it is the Arabic synonym for the Hebrew.

The relation of Idumaea and Edōm to Gebalēnē is uncertain. They are connected here as well as in K. 62:8 and K. 102:23, etc. In his Commentary on Obadiah 1 Jerome has Gebalēnē on the border of Eleutheropolis and apparently includes part of the Daroma (K. 26:10) but generally it is lying east of the Dead Sea (K. 100:4).

10. Ainan (Aenam). Genesis 38:14; K. 8:12; L. 234:91.

Textual variants: Aenam (Greek), Aeinam (Greek), and Enan (Greek).

Ainan is one of three deserted places in the Onomasticon (Aggai K. 4:27 and Galgala K. 66:4). This phrase may indicate ruins noted by Eusebius or an editor. The location "near" (cf. Appendix V) is quite vague and could be adjacent or as far as 15 miles. It probably indicates it is within the region of a city at the editor's time. Geographers are uncertain about the Old Testament site. It is difficult to determine a location from Eusebius but Noth suggests kefr 'en. Procopius 463C has an accurate Latin translation of this entry.

Several times the Greek quotes only the biblical location as here "on the way to Thamna" (cf. K. 8:17, K. 10:15, K. 90:3). Thamna is on the Madaba Map (cf. K. 96:24) and near to Diospolis at Kh Tibne.

Eusebius has "large village" for 32 existing towns. There are others called "large city." Thamna is probably off the main Roman road from Jerusalem to Diospolis. Many road into Diospolis and it is frequently a reference point for the text (cf. K. 20:16, K. 24:24, K. 28:10, K. 48:23, K. 68:6 etc). Tabula Peutinger has Luddis 12 miles from Azotus and Emmaus. It is on the Madaba Map with a church near modern Lydda and perhaps is Old Testament Lod (I Chronicles 8:12). Acts 10:22 shows its Christian character. Its new name was given by Hadrian c. 136 A.D. In about 200 Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. The identity is made by St. Paula "Lydda which was changed into Diospolis near Arimethea" (PPT I p.4 cf. Jeremiah Epistle 108:8). It suffered heavily under the Diocletian persecutions of 303 (cf. Eusebius Martyrs of Palestine). There was a bishop in the 4th century.

Here we have evidence of the flourishing of the pagan cults in the 4th century in spite of Constantine's efforts. Avi-Yonah suggests a temple and spring at the source of Wadi Ri'a may be the Aena of Jerome.

11. Ailōn Atad (Areaatad). Genesis 50:10; K. 8:17; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Textual variants: 'Ainan Atad, 'Alona Atad (Greek) and Areaatat, Areaatath (Latin).

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican Manuscript and so Lagarde does not print it. Klostermann here and elsewhere emends the Greek on basis of Procopius and Jerome.

In a few places, Eusebius gives mileage from two points (cf. K. 12:13, K. 14:1, K. 24:16) without clearly indicating a road. Both the scriptures and the Onomasticon seem confused about Atad or Abel-mizraim. It seems preferable to locate in the southwest of Palestine rather than across the Jordan or in the Jericho region.

Eusebius and Jerome only have a "place" not a village. The Madaba Map uses both Alōn Atad and Bethegla with the mosaic of a church there near the Wadi Qilt. Procopius 512B accurately reproduces the text. Apparently a secondary Christian tradition transferred the site from across the Jordan to the location southeast of Jericho. It probably is the present 'ain and deir hajla (cf. K. 48:19, K. 52:8).

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names translates "Atad, evidence or twig" (62) and Bethagla as "his house of jollity" (91).


12. Ailim (Aelim). Exodus 15:27; K. 8:22; L. 234.97.

After this entry in the Vatican Manuscript 1456 there is a different hand which may be an attempt to locate the site in relation to a monastery. Lagarde and Klostermann both omit the entry in a new hand, probably because it is rather unclear. Also inserted are division "Numbers and Deuteronomy" in a different hand.

These stations are for the most part not within the provenance of the Onomasticon. It is probable that a later editor inserted these into Eusebius' text. This of course would account in part for the manuscript confusion at this point.

13. Ailous (Aelim). Numbers 33:13; K. 10:1; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

This entry also is not in the Greek Vatican Manuscript and is inserted from the Latin by Klostermann. As above, the list of stations in the desert is suspect.

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "fermented or mixed, as the Greeks say phurason, mixed" (79).


14. Aserōth. Numbers 12:1; K. 10:4; L. 234:100.

Summary of biblical information (Numbers 12:1, Deuteronomy 2:23).

Jerome has two entries on Aseroth in Interpretation of Hebrew Names: "majestic or beautiful house" (78) and "Aseroth is house or entrance court, if it is written with a heth and tzade. But if correctly written with alef and sin it means beautiful" (86).

For Gaza see K. 62:22 below.

15. Asemōna. Numbers 33:29; K. 10:7; L. 234:3.

Textual variant: Asemōnas (Greek). Out of order and a station list added later.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translates "his bone, from bone, not from mouth" (79).

16. Aētharim. Numbers 21:1; K. 10:9; L. 235:5.

The textual variants from Aquila and Symmachus are frequently recorded. Since the Hexapla was compiled by Origen in Caesarea, Eusebius must have had easy access to it. One medieval text confuses AK as an added syllable to the place name. One manuscript also has synodos for odos which does not make sense.

In Hebrew Names, Jerome translates Atharim "spies" (78).

17. Aiē or Achelgai. Numbers 21:11; K. 10:12; L. 235:8.

Eusebius and the LXX have trouble with Hebrew double names, so we find Achelgaei, Nachal Gaei.

The location is vague and uncertain in both the Bible and Onomasticon. Areopolis was an autonomous city in the Roman Province of Arabia. According to Procopius' Buildings V, viii, 1, under Constantine this became Palestina Tertia. It is probably Ar Moab, the present Rabba (cf. below and K. 124:15)." Ptolemaus has it 65 miles from Philadelphia (16:15). This identity goes back at least to the third century A.D. The Madaba Map has an Aia at that location. In K. 36:24 it is identified with Ariel and is a pagan shrine (cf. Jeremiah 49:3; LXX 30:3).

There are a number of texts where the Greek has alternate names. The most familiar is Ashdod Azōtos (K. 20:18, K. 22:11). But also K. 36:7,24; K. 48:11; K. 25:27; K. 58:3; K. 64:6; K. 90:10; K. 132:8; K. 160:19; cf. K. 40:7 Babel.

18. Arnōn. Numbers 21:13; K. 10:15; L. 235:11.

This entry is not an original. It is a river or wadi, not a city. It is called a topos, and locus, "place." It has been considered the southern border of Transjordan. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 16:2 notes, "it is the border between Amorites and Moabites." Procopius 857A paraphrases the Onomasticon: "formerly the land of the Amorites. The Arnon is said to be the border separating it from the Moabites" (cf. Numbers 21:23ff).

Areopolis is called a city of Arabia or Moab (cf. above and K. 124:15). Arabia is the name of the Roman province established in 106 A.D. whose southern border was the Dead Sea and the Arnon. Other Nabatean towns given autonomy in Provenance Arabia were Esbus, Medeba, Charachmoab and Petra. In 200 A.D. Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. According to the Tabula Peutinger it is 62 miles from Philadelphia. There was a Roman garrison at Areopolis according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:17) and other posts around the wadi (Notitia Dignitatum 81:34, 82:35). A polis such as Areopolis may by its very name include a general region with all its dependent villages.

The name Arnon has obviously survived to the fourth century. In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome translates "heap of gloom or praise"(78).

19. Ar. Numbers 21:15; K. 10:25; L. 235:21.

Textual variant Êr (Greek as in LXX)

This place is related to the previous two entries. If it, as well as "deserted place" could mean "ruin," then perhaps there was a rebuilding by the time of Jerome. The word oppidum usually is not an indication of size of city or village but, if Pliny is to be believed it is a Roman settlement around a shrine or sanctuary, or it is a heavily fortified town (see Appendix I).

Jerome in Hebrew Names translated, "he stirred up or wakefulness" (78).

20. Aēsimōn. Numbers 21:20; K. 10:27; L. 235:23.

Textual variants: Aisimōn and Asēnōn (Greek).

The third in a series of four "places" at this point in Eusebius.

21. Abelsattein (Abelsattim). Numbers 33:49; K. 10:28; L. 235:24.

LXX has Abetsatteim and Setim.

Eusebius does not locate this "place" very well. Many feel it is the Byzantine Abile at Kh Kefraim but Eusebius does not make this identity. Jerome in his Commentary on Joel 3:18 suggests it is near Livias (K. 48:15) 6 miles from Dead Sea. In Hebrew Names he translates mourning of the bank or of the shore" (79).

The difference in direction may not be as great as it seems. Eusebius has west and Jerome south, but most directions refer to a quadrant, so southwest could fit into either quadrant. Possibly out of order or suspect.

22. Azōr (or Iazer). Numbers 21:24; K. 12:1; L. 235:25.

Textual variant for contemporary sites, Zazer (Latin).

A confused text is probably responsible for this entry. The relation of this with Iazēr (K. 4:13) is unclear. For biblical Hazor see 20:1, a different site.

Probably Ptolemy's (V, 15,6) list of a Gazōros is the same town as K. 12:3 and K. 104:13. Josephus Antiquities. XII, 8, 1 has Jazōros or Jazorōs. A village eight miles west of Philadelphia is Kh sar (note 10 miles in K. 104: 13).

On Amman or Philadelphia see K. 16:15 below.

In Hebrew Names, Jerome has 5 entries which could pertain, based on "hearing" or "helping" (82, 94, 125, 127, and 134).

23. Aroēr. Deuteronomy 3:12, 4:48; K. 12:5; L. 235:29.

This polis is located on the brow of the Arnon (K. 10:15) and probably still exists with its traditional name at 'Ara 'ir. Archaeological excavation shows it was weak in 4th Century A.D. The biblical information from Numbers 21:26, Deuteronomy 2:9 and Joshua 13:25 is summarized by Eusebius, with real additions.

There are three or four biblical places with this same name. Jerome has three entries in Hebrew Names: "lightening or emptying of the watch or shell" (79), "cover of the guard or spread out the watch"(88) or "covered"(125).

In this entry polis in Eusebius becomes one of the few instances where it is translated by oppidum in Latin (cf. 10:25 and Appendix I). This and next entry are out of order and suspect as late additions.

24. Astarōth. Deuteronomy 1:4; K. 12:11; L. 235:35.

Astarōth occurs often in the Onomasticon (K. 6:4, K. 12:27, K. 112:3). Here the references in scripture are summarized (Joshua 12:4, 13:31). The Old Testament site is perhaps Tell 'ashtarah which is too far from Dera to fit the Onomasticon. But nine miles closer could be Tell el Yaduda or el Muzeirib.

The "another" above refers to K. 6:4 and with no location is without any identification (cf. also K. 112:3).

Astaroth and Edrai were the major cities of Bashan. Adraa is at der'at located by the

Tabula Peutinger as 24 miles from Bostra (cf. K. 84:9) but 25 miles here. Valerian made Adraa a city in status. For Bostra see also K. 46:10. There was a bishop in Adra in the 4th and 5th centuries.

Batanaia is the all-inclusive name for the territory which includes Trachonitis (K. 166:1) as well as the Gaulon (K. 64:6). Perhaps also it is to be identified with part of Itouraia (K. 110:26). The relationship of these with the several regions of Arabia is unclear. In Herod's time Dera was the east border of Batanaia, but it was in Nabatean or Syrian control in the 4th century.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "sheepfold or the spies act" (61).

25. Agrou skopia. Numbers 23:14; K. 12:16; L. 235:40.

In one text the Latin adds "is" a mountain.

This is not an original entry. Apparently Onomasticon identifies it with Phasgo (16:24), Phasga (168:28) and Pogor (168:25 cf. 170:13). The location is not readily fixed. The Hebrew and the Confraternity Translation suggest "hill of cursing" for the Greek "peak of the hewn."

26. Arabōth Mōab. Numbers 26:3; K. 12:20; L. 236:44.

Textual variants: Iebous (Greek) and Esbon (Latin).

The synonym used by Aquila and Symmachus are repeated in Procopius 992A. They are probably correct and so no confusion of this "place" arises with Ar Moab (K. 10:25). See below on Iordan (K. 104:20), Iericho (K. 104:25), Libias (K. 44:17 and K. 48:15), and Esbous (K. 84:1). For Phogor (cp. 168:25), this is probably a late addition to the text.

27. Araba. Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 12:25; L. 236:49.

See below K. 16:12 and K. 90:11.

Hexaplatic information in this entry. Out of order and doubly suspect.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome has "west or evening" (86) and "fine" (89).

28. Astarōth (Ataroth). Numbers 32:34; K. 12:27; L. 236:51.

Textual variants: Atarōth (Greek) and Astaroth (Latin).

Probably this is not the same as K. 12:11 above. It is of Gad and not Manassē. Reference to Solomon is in I Chronicles 2:54. Only a generalized biblical location.

The Peraia is always translated by Jerome as Transjordan. In Byzantine times Peraia was continuous with the region of Philadelphia (K. 104:14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "crowns" (79), "crown" (89).

29. Astarōth Sōphar (Ataroth Sofan). Numbers 32:35; K. 12:30; L. 236:54.

Textual variant: Atroth (Latin).

Possible two cities of Gad combined in this entry. So far appears three times in Interpretation of Hebrew Names: "his spy or trumpet" (72), ''war trumpet" (85), "scattering of the lookouts or scattering of the spies or I will see the spies" (134).

30. Arad. Numbers 33:40, 34:4; K. 14:1; L. 236:55.

Textual variants: Arama (Greek) and Arath, Arat (Latin).

The Greek has confused Arad with the Addar of Hebrew. But Joshua 15:21 suggests this possibility in the LXX. One of rare entries with mileage given to two reference points.

The double location (repeated by Procopius 1045C) identifies this with Tell el 'Arad about 20 miles south of Chebrōn but no Byzantine village there. Madaba Map location agrees with Eusebius: "Arad from which come the Aradites." The Bronze Age city is being excavated. A Judean temple and administrative center is there. Arad has Chaleolithic, Early Bronze, Iron, Persian and Hellenistic remains with a very slight Nabatean/Roman fortress. Eusebius' Arad is not this tell since it has an archaeological gap of 1st through 7th A.D.

Malaatha is used for a reference by Eusebius (cf. 88:4, 108:3). It is in Idumea according to Josephus Antiquities, XVIII, 6, 2. It probably is the Moleatha of the Notitia Dignitatum (74:45) where there was a garrison. The name may persist in the tradition at Kh or Tell Milh (Malhata) where there is a Roman fort as well as some Middle Bronze, Iron and Hellenistic sherds. Perhaps the Byzantine village is to be found at el quseife which is 6 kilometers from Arad. Perhaps it is to be related to Molada (130:6). On "oppidum" cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I.

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "descending" (62 and 78).

31. Asemōna. Numbers 34:4; K 14:4; L. 236:58.

The Madaba Map quotes Eusebius for the southern limit of Palestine (Ioudaia) cf. Joshua 15:4, Ezekiel 47:134. It is probably Israeli Atzmon at 'Ain el Quseimeb (cp. K. 10:7).

32. Akrabbein (Acrabbi). Numbers 34:4; K. 14:7; L. 236:61.

Eusebius has confused the southern border of Judah (Numbers 34:4) with a northern site. The Madaba Map follows Eusebius and locates it at a northern village site. Procopius 1048B records the first part of the Onomasticon referring to an eastern border. Biblical data is from Joshua 15:3 and Judges 1:36.

Perhaps Eusebius is influenced by Josephus' Wars II, 20,4 and III, 3,5 and sees this as one of the Toparchies of Juda, perhaps Akrabattinē (cf. K. 86:25, K. 108:20, K. 156;30, K. 160:14). This northern site is 'aqrabeh, just nine miles southeast of Nablus.

But the southern border must be southwest of the Dead Sea, a boundary with Edom rather than with the Amorites. This may be the Ascent at Nagb-es-safi (cf. I Maccabees 5:3).

Jerome in Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "of scorpions or fitting" (79) and "of scorpions" (89 and 98).

33. Asadadda (Asadada). Numbers 34:8; K. 14:13; L. 236:67.

Textual variants: Asaradda (Greek) and Sadada (Latin, cf. K. 155:17).

Simple border of Judah as in Ezekiel 47:13; cf. K. 154:19. Out of order and suspect.

34. Arad. Numbers 34:4; K. 14:14; L. 236:68.

Textual variants: Arath and Arat (Latin).

Part of this entry is missing in Vatican Manuscript. See above K. 14:1.

35. Asarēnan (Asarenam). Numbers 34:9; K. 14:16; L. 236:70.

Textual variants: Asarēnan, Asaerēnan and Asserēnan (Greek).

Simple border listing. Same as next entry.

36. Aserna (Asernai). Numbers 34:10; K. 14:17; L. 236:71.

Textual variant: Asernaei (Greek).

Probably the same as the previous entry (cf. Ezekiel 47:13). Simple border listing.

37. Arbēla. Numbers 34:11; K. 14:18; L. 236:72.

Textual variant see K. 46:6.

Two sites: One in Transjordan and Decapolis (K. 80:16) region and the near the great plain of Megiddo.

Pella is an important reference point in the Onomasticon (K. 22:25, K. 32:6, K. 80:17, K. 110:13). In 66-67 A.D. it was a refuge for Christians fleeing from Jerusalem (cf. Historia Ecclesiastica, iii, 5, 3). At this time it is a polis in Palestine. Formerly it was one of the independent Decapolis, probably at Kh Fahil, and later it was included with Syria.

Arbela is a dependent village of Pella. It may be tell Abil or tabaqat fahl. Jerome has perhaps confused it with Ribla which may be at Irbid (cp. Betharbel, Hosea 10:14).

The great plain southwest of the Sea of Galilee is called after the important city (oppidum) Legeōn. On oppidum cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I. This is the plain of Jesreel (Josephus' Antiquities, V, 1, 22 and IV, 6, 1). From the time of Hadrian on Legeōn controlled the area from Galilee to Samaria. It was called Maximianopolis in the early 4th century but Eusebius never uses that name. It had Roman camps around it. Now called Lejjūn. There is also an Irbid southwest of Galilee with a synagogue and Roman-Byzantine sherds, but the distance does not fit Onomasticon. Quite possibly Arbela is 'Affule in Roman-Byzantine times.

Arebla in Interpretation of Hebrew Names is "a trap" (79).

38. Aulōn. Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 14:22; L. 236:75.

Textual variant: Tiberias is missing in the Vatican Manuscript. Dubious entry.

Aulon in Roman times came to be identified with the Jordan valley as reflected here in both Eusebius and Jerome. The description here, together with that of Jordan (K. 104:20) is fairly complete.

The valley begins in Libanon (K. 122:27) and reaches south to Pharan (K. 166:12).

Skythopolis is an important city, one of the cities of the Decapolis (K. 80:15), used frequently in the Onomasticon. The listing of all the others is confused but surely included Hippus, Gadara, Abila, Pella, Gerasa and Philadelphia. Skythopolis is identified with Bethshan at Tell al Husn (K. 54.8). It was the capital of Palestina Secunda in Byzantine times.

Lake of Tiberias was in Hellenistic times the sea of Gennesaris and and in the New Testament Gennesaith (K. 58:12 and K. 120:2). Today it is the Sea of Galilee (K. 72:20).

For Ierichō see K. 104:25.

Paneas is used as a referent often in the Onomasticon. A bishop came to Nicea from here. Baniyas today, at the source of the Jordan was also the site of Caesarea Phillippi, also listed as one of the Decapolis (Historia Ecclesiastica, vii, 17). In Tabula Peutinger it is 32 miles from Tyre.

On the Dead Sea see K. 100:4.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome says, "Elan, oak or aulon of which we wrote more fully in the Book of Places" (83) and "Ailon which we spoke of under Aulon above (88)."

39. Amalēkitis (Amalecitis). Deuteronomy ?; K. 16:5; L. 237:84.

This is probably the wilderness of Zin in the Old Testament (K. 152:18, cf. Numbers 13:29, 14:25; Josephus Antiquities III, 2, 1) includes the inhabitants of Petra and Gobolitis as the Amalakites. Not an original entry, but a gloss.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "licking people" (61) "dull people or licking people" (74,161).

40. Araba. K. 16:1; Deuteronomy 1:7; L. 237:91.

Textual variant: Safforinea (Latin).

In Deuteronomy 1:7 it really refers to the plain as in K. 12:25.

Eusebius reports on two villages by this same name. Ona is three miles west of Skythopolis or Bethshan (K. 16:2 and K. 54:8). Some suggest 'Arabūne but the distance is not great enough. Probably marks the place of the turn off from the main road.

The second is a village dependent upon Diokaisareia which is Sepphōris (Saffuriya) in Josephus (Wars, II, 21, 7) and frequently used as a referent in the Onomasticon. Many Jews fled there in 71 and 135 A.D. Vespasion made Sepphōris into a municipality. A Roman garrison was there according to Notitia Dignitatum (73:28). Constantine built a church there (Epiphanes Ad Haer, I, 30, 11). The village may be located at 'arabet el battōf. It is distinct from K. 86:9 although the Vatican Manuscript has a gloss at that place which wrongly seems to equate them.

41. Amman. Deuteronomy 2:19; K. 16:15; L. 237:94.

No doubt of this continuing identity (Deuteronomy 2:20). Jerome in Commentary on Nahum 3:8 writes, "Ammona which is now called Philadelphia." It also is one of the cities of the Decapolis (K. 80:16) and a bishop was present at the Council of Nicea. It is in the province of Arabia located by the Tabula Peutinger as 62 miles from Aeropolis (Rabbath Moab cf. K. 10:17). It is used as a referent in the Onomasticon. It is probably the same as Rabba Ammon.

To Eusebius it was a most important city. He uses polis episēmos for only seven towns of his own time: Abela (K. 32:16), Adra (K. 84:8), Gaza (K. 62:26), Gerasa (K. 64:3), Damaskos (K. 76:4), Philadelphia and Askalon (K. 22:15). Amman/Philadelphia is also used to describe the region.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amon, son of my people or people of my wall" (61, 78, and 90).

42. Argob. Deuteronomy 3:4; K. 16:18; L. 237:97.

Og of Bashan (K. 44:9) had many cities according to Scripture. In I Kings 4:13 Argob is in the 6th district of Solomon. The Erga of Eusebius is not the same as that Argob. Fifteen miles West of Gerasa is er-rudjib, which may be Erga. Others more correctly suggest Arjan in the Wadi Yabis (cf. K. 94:26).

Bashan is also Trachonitis (K. 166:1) in the Province of Arabia. Gerasa is one of the famous cities of Byzantine times (K. 64:3). See entry above.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "height of cursing" (86 and109), "lofty cursing" (115).

43. Asēdōth. Deuteronomy 3:17; K. 16:22; L. 237:2.

This is one of eleven entries in the Onomasticon which include an etymological notation not specified as from the Hexapla (cp. K. 12:17, K.18:21, etc.).

44. Abareim (Abarim). Deuteronomy 32:49; K. 16:24; L. 237:4.

Textual variants: Easgan and Esbum (Latin).

As a "mountain" it is probably a late addition to the Greek list of place names.

The relation of Phasgō to the Moab plain is more clearly indicated here. Eusebius was fascinated with Phasgō, Peor, Phogor, etc. (K. 12:17, K. 16:22, K. 168:28, etc.). It is probably present day Mt.Nebo or ras sijagla where a Byzantine church has been partially restored. The identity of the two made here by Eusebius is contested by scholars who would put Phasgō farther south (cf. Deuteronomy 34:1 and 32:49).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abarim, is passing over, which in Greek is indicated by peran" (179).

45. Auōth Iaeir (Avothiair). Deuteronomy 3:14; K. 18:4; L. 237:10.

Textual variant: Golam (Latin).

The etymology "shoulder of Iaeir" is not in the Vatican Manuscript. Out of order and suspect. Gōnias is mentioned only here and in K. 136:3 but Gauiōn and Gōlan are in K. 64:7f. and seem to be in the same area (cf. Basan 44:9 and Galaad 44:10; cp. Numbers 32:39, Deuteronomy 4:43; Joshua 13:30).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "gloria of the light or life of light" (86).

JOSHUA (of Naue)

46. Antilibanos (Antilibanus). Joshua 1:4; K. 18:8; L. 237:14.

This area is Eusebius' interpretation, perhaps from a faulty Greek text. The New Testament and most LXX texts have Libanon here. In I Chronicles 5:23 Mt. Hermon (K. 20:9) is in the lot of Manasseh. The placement of the tribal indication last suggests it is a later editor's addition.

47. Azēka (Azeca). Joshua 10:10; K. 18:10; L. 238:16.

Azeka is important Old Testament city in Jouda (cf. Joshua 15:35). It is mentioned in the Lachich letters. The Old Testament site is fairly certain at Tell es-Zakariyeh. This village may be on the Maddba Map west of Sōebō. In the vicinity is the Byzantine town, perhaps at Kh el 'Alami. The Greek location literally means "halfway" to Jerusalem, but this is not precisely intended.

Eleutheropolis is frequently used as a referent by Eusebius. In about 200 A.D. Septimus Severus gave it municipal status. It was a city on which a great many villages were dependent. It was one of the largest regions in Palestina Prima. In Tabula Peutinger and Ptolemy it is called Betogabri and is located 32 miles from Jerusalem. It suffered greatly under Diocletion about 303 A.D. A bisbop attended the Council of Nicea. It is the present Beit jibrin.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Azeca, strength or crafty" (88).

48. Ailōm (Aialon). Joshua 10:12; K. 18:13; L. 238:19.

Textual variant: aialun (Latin).

Eusebius, followed by the Madaba Map, seems to be confused with Ailmōn (K. 28:l; cf. Joshua 21:18). This could be 'Almit, east of Tell el Ful or Kh Haiyan both near Rama (K. 144:14) and Gabaa (K. 70:10, 22). The location in reference to Bethel points to Kh el 'alja (cf. I Samuel 10:26, Judges 19:13) to the southeast.

The Hebrew tradition by which Jerome corrects Eusebius is much more reasonable. It fits the biblical materials and is repeated by Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel 42:22 and Ezekiel 42:22 and Epistle 108:3 (cf. Paula vi, PPT, I,51) This Alous was known by Eusebius (K. 30:27) as in the Nicopolis region. It must then be Jalo, east of 'Amwas on the road to Jerusalem.

Ailōn in Interpretation of Hebrew Names is referred to the previous Aulonem (88) or, for Aialon "fields or valleys" (90).

49. Achōr. Joshua 7:24, 26; K. 18:17; L. 238:23.

Note the error in the Greek where the name of Achan is turned into Achōr and the valley named after him (Hosea 2:15). Procopius and K. 84:18 have an entry under Emekachōr, i.e., "valley of Achōr." Procopius 1017 A writes, "Emekachōr is interpreted by Thedotion and Symmachos, valley of Achōr. Located north of Ierichō it is even now called this by those in the vicinity. Achōr means "perverted." Jerome's Epistle 108:13 and Paula VI, PPT 1, 12) writes "It would be quite lengthy if I would discuss the valley of Achor, i.e. commotion or uproar, where theft and greed were condemned." This is not a city, out of order, so suspect.

It seems obvious that the name of the "place" was known in the fourth century, possibly near Gilgal (K. 84:21). The Wadi Nue 'ime fits Eusebius.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "commotion or uproar" (89), "commotion or uproar or perverted" (120).

50. Asēdōth. Joshua 10:40; K. 18:21; L. 238:27.

Cf. K. 16:22 above. This is one of six entries where "another" or "a second" is used for occurrences of the same name, probably indicating editing of several sources.

51. Asōr. Joshua 11:1; K. 20:1; L. 238:29.

Ancient Hazor has been well excavated and the location attested at Tell el Qedah, but Eusebius does not locate it. Procopius 1048D reports, "it alone Iēsous burned while besieging the other kings since it was the chief of the foreigners" (Joshua 11:10 also Joshua 90:9; cf. K. 30:22.

The second Asōr (cf. Esōr K. 84:26) from Joshua 15:25 is near Askolon and probably dependent upon it. It may be present day jasur east of Asbdod (K. 20:18).

Interpretation of Hebrew Names has "arrow of light" (88 and102) and "entrance hall" (109).

52. Aermōn. Joshua 11:3, 17; K. 20:6; L. 238:34.

LXX also uses the term Baalermon. Vatican manuscript has Ailerthmōn.

Again a mountain gives its name to a region which was the frontier of Og and of the tribes. It is part of the Anti-libanas (K. 18:8) range. Also called Sanir (K. 20:10) or Sanior, and Sirjon (see below K. 20:9, cf. Judges 3:3).

The snows of Hermon were famous for delicacies of ice in the course of history. The inhabitants of Beirut still bring snow, even snowmen on radiators of cars, down from the mountains in the summer. Even now it is at times called jebel el teld or "mount of snow," but mostly jebel esh sheikh.

Tyrus (K. 162:15) is also called Sor.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "banned wall" (88).

53. Alak (Aalac). Joshua 11:17; K. 20:7; L. 238:35.

Textual variant: Ahalac (Latin). It is not in the New Testament.

This entry is textually corrupt. In the Vatican Manuscript a new hand is recognized and several words have been added. Perhaps an attempt is made to use LXX and add Symmachus.

As noted previously, mountains, three of which are here in successive entries together, are suspect as not fitting the original purpose and limitations of the Onomasticon to place names.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "my portion or slippery" (88).

54. Aermōn. Joshua 11:17; K. 20:9; L. 238:37.

Textual variant: For Saniōr the Vatican Manuscript has Aniōr.

This mountain (cf. K. 20:6 and K. 18:8) is given several names. The Phoenicians called it Sirjon. In Ugaritic it is ah-r-j-n and in Hittite Sarijana and perhaps indicates the Anti-libanos range. The Amorites called it Senir and the Assyrians Sanian. In LXX we find both Sanir and Saneir. Eusebius records some of these traditions (Deuteronomy 3:9; Joshua 12:1).

Paganism was not extinct in the fourth century. Ruins of a temple at Banyas have been found. The information Eusebius records of this pagan cult is dependent upon an anonymous source, quite possibly only hearsay. This seems to be the purport of phasin, "they say" or "it is reported" (cf. the Latin dicitur). Paneas became an autonomous city at the death of Agrippa II and was called briefly Caesarea Philippi.

55. Anōb. Joshua 11:21; K. 20:15; L. 238:44.

Textual variants: Bētoannab (Greek) and Bethoannaba (Latin).

Eusebius' reference here is to Bētoannaba which is as confusing as his reference to Anea (K. 26:8). Jerome attempts to correct Eusebius at Beit Nuba near Nikopolis but the Madaba Map follows Eusebius and identifies Anob with Bētoannaba to the East of Diospolis (K. 8:14).

In the Roman post service, the horses were changed every four miles and the two authors have two locations. Eusebius probably identifies 'innaba as his Bētoannaba. Four miles is distance to turn off from the main road. Jerome seems to intend Beit nūba for his Bēthannaba. Both sites have Roman-Byzantine ruins. The proper Old Testament site is Kh 'Anab.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "my submissiveness" (88).

56. Asdōd. Joshua 11:22; K. 20:18; L. 238:47.

Cf. below K. 22:11. Note "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix II).

57. Ader. Joshua 12:14; K. 20:21; L. 238:50.

Possibly confused with K. 62:5 and K. 68:11. The letter G is noted as missing in the by Hebrew by Jerome (K. 63:4, cf. also K. 43:22).

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "flock" (88).

58. Aphek (Afec). Joshua 12:18; K. 22:1; L. 238:52.

Textual variant: Aphak (Greek).

Eusebius has several references to Aphek (K. 22:19, K. 30:16, K. 34:11, cf. K. 26:15). No location is indicated in this entry. The three items listed together seem to be copied from a list of cities conquered by Iēsous. Probably for eight different towns in the Old Testament.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "surrounded or border" (89) "new madness or bounded" (102), "he surrounds or reaches to" (114).

59. Aksaph (Acsaf). Joshua 12:20; K. 22:3; L. 239:54.

Textual variants: Achaselōth and Exalous (Greek) and Asapb, Asapat and Ascaph (Latin).

Aksaph is wrongly connected with Chasalous and its real biblical location is in debate: et Tell, Tell Far, Tell Harbaj, Tell Keisan, Kh el musheirefeh are all preferred by some scholars to the homonymy KhIksa. However Kh Iksa may be Eusebius' Chasalous. It has Byzantine remains. (But see K.28:23).

Thabōr is a city on the mountain which is used by Eusebius as a referent. Located at jebel at-Tor (cf. K. 98:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "limping or made, i.e. poiēsis (creation)" (89).

60. Akkarōn (Accaron). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:6; L. 239:57.

Akkarōn is the Greek form of the name given to one of the five cities of the Philistines, Ekron (see next entry cf. K. 32:11, K. 62:22, K. 68.4).

The Madaba Map puts Akkarōn near Iamnia (K. 106:20) on the road to Azōtus (K. 22:11). The map has the name repeated possibly for ancient and modern site with identical names in Greek.

The Old Testament site seems to be at Kh Muqenna' a very large site with proper sherds. The name is reflected in 'Aqir which is a Byzantine to modern site and perhaps was the one which Eusebius had in mind. Jerome reports an obviously erroneous tradition which would locate it at Caesarea.

This is one of eleven towns reported to be inhabited by Jews in Eusebius' day (K. 26:9, K. 26:12, K. 86:18, K. 88:17, K. 98:26, K. 108:8, K. 78:6, K. 86:21, K. 92:21, K. 136:24 plus perhaps Nineveh (K. 136:2) cf. Appendix II.

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "teaching of gloom or barrenness" (89) "flocks grazing or is pasture as the Greek has en poimniotrophiois (sheep feeders)" (123).

61. Azōtos (Azotus). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:11; L. 239:63.

Textual variant: Askadōd (Greek). Note Latin transliteration Allefylous (cp. K. 68:24 and Azotes is the Greek of I Maccabees 4:15 etc. for this Philistine city, cf. the more general entry in K. 20:18 (Joshua 15:47, Judges 1:18).

The continued use of the name probably accounts for the lack of any location being given here. After all it is one of the famous cities of his time as also is Askalōn (K. 22:15) and Gaza (K. 62:26). In K. 20:19 Eusebius uses polichnē but in K. 22:11 polis. He uses polichnē for only four other cities of his time: Iamneia (K. 106:20), Sebastē (K. 154:22), Gaza (K. 130:8) and Gabe (K. 70:8).

The Madaba Map has the two cities, one coastal and one inland. Reflecting the Greek of Eusebius it may be suggesting that in the 4th to 6th centuries the inland Ashdod was less important.

The Tabula Peutinger locates Asdōd ten miles from Iamnia (K. 106:20) and twelve miles from Askalōn. Procopius 1024B retains the double names Asdōd and Azōtos. Josephus also reported on the double Azōtos. Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah 20:1 writes "Azotus," which is called Esdod by the Hebrews, is the most powerful of the five cities of Palestine." It was made a municipality by Vespasian. The other Philistine cities are in K. 22:6, K. 22:15, K. 62:22 and K. 68:4.

The ancient Philistine site at 'eshdud is being excavated. The Roman-Byzantine settlement is strong and prosperous on the old site. The ancient sea port was at Tell Mor, but the Roman-Byzantine port is at Minet el caāa and it was of increasing importance in Eusebius' time.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Azotii, i.e. Asdodi, fire of my uncle or burning"(89) "Azotus is called by the Hebrews Esdod and they have the same etymology, fire of the uncle" (143) "Ashdod destruction or violent movement or burning"(88).

62. Askalōn (Ascalon). Joshua 13:3; K. 22:15; L. 239:67.

Askalōn is one of the "famous cities" in the Onomasticon and another of the five Philistine cities (see previous entry). According to Josephus Wars I,21, 11 Herod the Great rebuilt it. Jews were there from the first century on and a synagogue has been excavated from late Roman times. For a brief period a city Diocletianopolis was in the vicinity named after the Emperor. It may be the same town, but the Onomasticon makes no mention of it. A bishop from Askalōn was at the Council of Nicea. There is a large walled city on the Madaba Hap south of Azōtus (cf. Joshua 15:25, Judges 1:18)

As a city it is used as a referent by the Onomasticon. The Tabula Peutinger locates it 12 miles from Azōtus (K. 22:11) and 15 miles from Gaza (K. 62:22). Tell 'Ashalon is the site for all periods with the Roman and Byzantine city expanding off and around the mound.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "weight or disreputable fire" (89) "disreputable fire or ignoble fire" (143).

63. Apheka (Afeca). Joshua 13:4; K. 22:19; L. 239:71.

A number of Apheks are in the Onomasticon (cf. K. 22:1). This Apheka is one of three contemporary villages called "great" in the text (cf. Thamna 96:25 and Magdiel 130:21) but others are episēmos "famous" or "notable," megistai (splendid) rather than megalē (large).

The location "near" or "in the vicinity of" is very inexact in the terms of our text. Sometimes it is made more exact by a second location which gives mileage.

Hippos is a city of the Decapolis and is near present day Susita (Aramaic for the Greek?). The remains are primarily Qalat el Husn. A great Hellenistic-Roman and Byzantine site is there. Its region included dependent villages such as Apheka.

On the plateau east, the Sea of Galilee (K. 72:21) is the present day Fiq which suits the Onomasticon and is on the road between Damascus and Beisan. The change in its fortunes over a century may be indicated by the change to "large castle" in Jerome. Or it may merely be Jerome's Hebrew knowledge coming through since Hebrew aphek can be translated "fortress" (Appendix IX).

Palestine may be East Jordan called Palastinē Secunda.

64. Algad (Agad). Joshua 13:5; K. 22:22; L. 239:74.

Here as in many entries the Onomasticon merely quotes the Bible. Perhaps this should be Baalgad as in MT (cf. K. 48:1). The LXX transliteration is used.

65. Aimath (Aemoth). Joshua 13:5; K. 22:23; L. 239:75.

Textual variants: Aitham (Greek) and for "other" Amatha (Latin).

Possibly three or four towns are involved in these lines.

In the Peraia and located in relation to Pella (cf. K. 14:19), this Ammathous was a chief city in Herodian Peraia. It is probably Tell 'Ammata near Tell el Qos. This site has many Roman-Byzantine sherds. The Talmud identifies this with Saphon (K. 156:1) which may have been at Tell el Qos. There was probably a Roman garrison at this first Ammathous according to Notitia Dignitatum (73:33).

Near Gadara (K. 74:10) in the Bethshan valley there is a Tell el Hamah which may reflect Emmatha and possibly the city of Roubin. Better for Eusebius is nearby scheri 'at-el mensdire where there are springs, baths and extensive Roman establishments. Note how each of these first two are localized in a different manner.

Jerome's addition is the present Syrian town of Hamath on the Orontes (cf. K. 36:10).

The fourth town in Syria was the Northeast limit of David's kingdom as noted here from II Kings 14:25f. Its identity with Epiphania is repeated in K. 90:7 and in Jeromes' Commentary on Isaiah 10:5. But in the Commentary on Amos 6:2 he apparently sees that as the "little Emath" while the "great Emath is now called Antiochia." Possibly this Hamath also is in K. 88:30 below.

66. Ammon. Josua 13:10, 25; K. 24:1; L. 239:81.

Cf. 16:15 above.

67. Adira. Joshua 15:3; K. 24:3; L. 239:83.

The broken section of the Madaba Map may include Addara near Diospolis (K. 8:14). The location of the biblical site is unknown as is the location of the "other" site. The best suggestion is Kh ed Deir for the region of Diospolis (cp. K. 80:11).

Thamna (K. 96:24) on the southern border of Joudas is in the region also of Diospolis. It gives its name to the Thamnitikē southwest of Nablus. If Jerome is consistent, there is indication of a change in fortune for the worse in the century.

68. Akarka. Joshua 15:3; K. 24:6; L. 239:86.

Textual variants: Akkarka and Akarkas (Greek).

The text is unclear. It may be a confusion for Ekron, Akkarōn (K. 22:6). Or with the LXX it may be the Hebrew article transliterated. Near the steppe or desert could fit Karkaia (K. 116:18) a day beyond Petra, but that is inconsistent with the tribe of Jouda annotation. No identification is possible.

69. Achōr. Joshua 15:7; K. 24:8; L. 239:88.

The last part of this entry is missing in the Vatican Manuscript.

A Simple tribal listing. See K. 18:17 and K. 84:18.

70. Adommim. Joshua 15:7; K. 24:9; L. 239:89.

Textual variants: Adonim and Addommim (Latin).

There is a strong possibility that the Greek text is incomplete and that Jerome is not adding information to Eusebius. The first word is missing in the Vatican Manuscript.

This is "deserted" or in ruins at the editor's time. It is also called "a place" but not a "deserted place" literally. This is the only use, however, of "deserted village" in the Onomasticon. Jerome in Epistle 108:12 (Paula PPT I,11) writes, "she passed by, (i.e. on the road from Jerusalem to Jerico), reflecting on the kindness of the Samaritan, that is of the shepherd who put the half dead man upon his own beast and brought him to the fold of the church and the place Adomim which is translated 'of blood' because much blood was shed there in the frequent inroads of robbers" (Luke 10:30ff.).

Maledommei means "ascent of blood" and in Arabic Qal'at ed damm means almost the same thing, "fort of blood", while Tal'at ed damm would be identical in meaning. This spot is located just about half way to Jericho. The tradition of robbers, of the Good Samaritan is reinforced by the reddish limestone in the area. Popularly the Chan el Ahmar is pointed out, but the spot is really off the road farther, perhaps at Qal'at ed damm.

The garrison in the area between Jerusalem and Jericho is reported elsewhere in Notitia Dignitatum (74:47-48). Baldi suggests that Jerome reflects the present scattered tradition. The ascent of blood seems to refer to the geographic position; the fort of blood to the Roman fort, and the supposed sites of the parable Chan el Hatrūn and of the Inn Chan el Ahmar.

71. Amam. Joshua 15:26; K. 24:12; L. 240:92.

Textual variant: Amem (Greek).

A simple listing of the tribal allotment occurs frequently, especially in the Joshua entries. Jouda more frequently localized than other tribes suggesting the early source of Onomasticon was developed in Jewish times in Jerusalem.

72. Aser. Joshua 15:27; K. 24:12; L. 240:93.

In Mt.Hezron and Hazor are equated and located on southern border of Judah (cp. K. 20:3 above). In Eusebius' time it was a large village but location is uncertain.

73. Asarsoual (Asarsual). Joshua 15:28; K. 24:14; L. 240:95.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "home of foxes" (90).

74. Ain. Joshua 15:32; K. 24:15; L. 240:96.

Textual variants: Baithanin, Bēithanin, Bēthcnim (K. 94:20 Greek) and cf. ēnaim also.

Located with two mileage markers from the terebinth (K. 76:1) and Chebron (K. 170:25) two well-used referents (cf. Josh 21:16). This Bēethanin is probably the same as Beit 'ainun, north of Hebron. This is probably the real location of either Bethalōth (K. 50:17) or Bēthenim (K. 94:20). In the MT it is quite probable that Ain was only a prefix to Rimmon (K. 144:11)

Interpretation of Hebrew Names "eye or well" (89); "well" (79); "well or eye" (118); but "interrogation" (88).

75. Asthaōl. Joshua 15:33; K. 24:18; L. 240:99.

Asthō is not a proper identification for Asthaōl. At Asthō there may have been a Roman garrison (Notitia Dignitatum 73:35-36) but its remains are undefinable. A border town in the Onomasticon but not clearly located.

76. Asna. Joshua 15:35; K. 24:20; L. 240:1.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 26:4).

77. Adolam (Adollam). Joshua 15:35; K. 24:21; L. 240:2.

The size of this village seems in debate between Eusebius and Jerome or it changed in the century. It is dependent upon Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but is not on a major Roman road. In the MT it is in the Shephelah and probably located at Tell esh sheikh Madkur (cf. K. 84:22 and K. 140:20).

The Vulgate has variants Adullam. Odullam and Odollam (cf. K. 84:22 where such a village is twelve miles east of Eleutheropolis) and K. 172:7 near Chasbi also in the region of Eleutheropolis) at Kh id el Minya south of Chasbi.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adollamin, their society" (89) and Adollam also (106).

78. Adiathaim (Adithaim). Joshua 15:36; K. 24:23; L. 240:4.

Textual variants: Adatha and Adiathaeim (Greek).

In the Madaba Map we find Adlathim which now is Aditha, east of Diospolis. Adia does not appear as the name of the village near Gaza in the Greek texts. The Latin texts vary as to Adia a village or little village and Aditha around or near Diospolis. On the Tabula Peutinger there is an Addianim which may or may not be related to this entry.

Apparently Aditha is added here by confusion of sounds. This town in Eusebius and on the Madaba Map is northeast of Lydd at el Haditha (cf. I Maccabees 12:38 and Ezra 2:33).

The original Adiathain is located at another el Haditeh, north of Yalu (Ajalōn). This may be stretched as a location "near Gaza" but probably, the first village Adia is unknown.

79. Adasa. Joshua 15:37; K. 26:1; L. 240:6.

Textual variants: Gouphna, Gophna, Taphnōn, Gophnōn (Greek cf. K. 168:16, K. 74:2) and Gofnesem (Latin).

The biblical reference is to a town in the Shephelah which is not clearly identified, but Kh el judeideh has been suggested. Eusebius has been confused and Jerome says so in clear fashion (cf. Josh 16:5 and Onomasticon K. 29:7). Probably the village Eusebius would locate for us is Kh 'Adaseh near Beth Horon referred to in I Maccabees 7:40. Gouphōn comes into the picture because of Josephus Wars I, I, 5-6 which connects Nicanor's retreat and fall with Gophonitikē.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adasa, new" (89).

80. Ather. Joshua 15:42; K. 26:3; L. 240:8.

Textual variants: Atherei, Ether and Acherei (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Athar, depreciating" (89).

81. Asan. Joshua 15:42; K. 26:4; L. 240:9.

Textual variant: Theuasa (Greek). Latin omits "to the west."

Bethasan is a dependent village of Jerusalem. In MT it should be found in the Shephelah. This may be Adasa of I Maccabees 7:40. It is probably beit shenna near 'amwas. The Old Testament site is Kh 'Asan northwest of Beersheba. Perhaps Eusebius is locating here the Ashna of Joshua 15:23 which is only listed in the Onomasticon at K. 24:20.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asam, smoke" (90) or "smoking" (102).

82. Asema. Joshua 15:43; K. 26:6; L. 240:11.

A simple tribal listing. Possibly related to Iedna K. 106:15.

83. Achzeib (Agzif). Joshua 15:44; K. 26:7; L. 240:13.

Textual variant: Azeib (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

84. Anab. Joshua 15:50; K. 26:8; L. 240:14.

This entry is probably identical to K. 20:15. The Anab located by Eusebius in the territory of Eleutheropolis is appropriate. The reference to Annia is confusing (cf. Bethanatha K. 52:24). This is another of the villages inhabited by Jews, most of which are in southern Judah (K. 22:9). A neighboring town is all Christian (K. 26:14). This twin city has been identified with Kh Juweim el Jarbiya southwest of Hebron. The higher one to the east is Christian and the lower Jewish. Nine miles marks off from main road.

The Daroma is a region south of Judah and southwest of Edom. Daroma is one of the many Hebrew words for "South" [(cf. Negeb (K. 136:14) and Theman (K. 137:15)]. At least 15 towns are in the Daroma according to the Onomasticon (K. 26:12, 60:8, 68:19, 70:11, 78:21, 86:9, 86:21, 88:4, 88:18, 92:15, 98:27, 108:3, 108:10, 110:18, 120:22, 146:25, 156:12, 172:21).

85. Asthemō (Asthemof). Joshua 15:50; K. 26:11; L. 240:17.

Textual variants: Ansoema, cp. Esthemo (K. 86:20), Esthama (K. 90:2) and Ansim for the contemporary site (Greek), Anem (Latin).

Only Jerome notes this to be a Jewish village and probably it is es semu'a where remains of a synagogue have been found. It is near Anaia (K. 26:9) another Jewish village (cf. Note on K. 22:9). The Greek K. 86:20 notes it is a large Jewish village in the Daroma (Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esthamoe, woman of the womb" (93) and "Esthamma, passion" (93).

86. Aneim (Anim). Joshua 15:50; K. 26:13; L. 240:19.

This entry is related to K. 26:8 above. This is the twin of the Jewish village which probably continued on the Old Testament site. This Christian village is new and upper Kh Juwein el Foqa also called Juwien esh-Shargiya. There are only three wholly Christian villages in the Onomasticon over against almost a dozen wholly Jewish ones listed (cf. K. 112:16 Kariatha). Very close in the west is Ietheira (K. 108:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Anem, circles or crowns or singing" (89).

87. Aphaka (Afeca). Joshua 15:53; K. 26:15; L. 240:22.

A simple tribal listing, but one of the many related to Aphek in both the Old Testament and the Onomasticon (cf. K. 22:19).

88. Amata (Ammata). Joshua 15:54; K. 26:16; L. 240:23.

Textual variants: Ammata (Greek), Ammeta (Latin) and Athmatha (Vulgate).

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammeta, light" (89).

89. Arebba. Joshua 15:60; K. 26:17; L. 240:24.

Textual variant: Aremba for MT rabbah (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

90. Archiatarōth (Ataroth). Joshua 16:2; K. 26:18; L. 241:25.

Textual variant: Ramam (Latin).

The Greek calls this a biblical city, which the Latin text omits. The Latin gives a vague location while the Greek has none. The Greek combines this entry with the next as is done by the LXX.

91. Atarōth. Joshua 16:5; K. 26:19; L. 241:26.

The Old Testament site is not clearly located by scholars. Some see the name as persisting near Bir Zeit in Kh 'Attarah.

In Eusebius' time there were two Atarōths dependent on Jerusalem (K. 26:26, K. 112:6). The Onomasticon errs in locating it four miles north of Sebestē (K. 154:21) at 'attara. But the 4 miles marks the turn off from main road to the contemporary village there. This is one of the few places in the Greek text where the word miliōn is used for "mile." The usual word is "semeiōn" for "sign" indicating milestone or marker. In Latin the most frequent term for milestone is lapidus but occasionally miliarius is used. More infrequently milus and millus for 1000 paces or mile "between" or "from" a site. In K. 27:24 lapidus has a textual variant miliarius.

Sebastē is the Roman city of Samaria (K. 162:13, K. 154:21) and is used as a referent the Bible and Onomasticon. Dothaeim is also north of Sebastē (K. 76:13).

92. Adar. Joshua 16:5; K. 26:21; L. 241:28.

A simple tribal listing.

93. Asēr. Joshua 17:10; K. 26:22; L. 241:29.

See also Aser above (K. 24:13) in Judah.

Many of the pilgrims located the home of Job fifteen miles from Nablus on the main road from the Jordan Valley (cf. PPT I, 18, 67) and it probably is the present tajasir. In the Onomasticon the home of Job is far away (K. 112:6, K. 142:3).

94. Atarōth. Joshua 18:13; K. 26:25; L. 241:32.

The two villages are probably both called now Kh'attara, one near Bir Zeit (above K. 26:19) and the other east of Hizma dependent upon Jerusalem (K. 112:6). These may only be retaining the name and the Old Testament sites are to be located elsewhere.

95. Anathōth. Joshua 21:18; K. 26:27; L. 241:34.

Jerome in Commentary on Jeremiah 11:21 agrees with the three miles given here. The Roman-Byzantine site for the home of Jeremiah was the present village of 'Anata. Josephus has it 20 stadia from Jerusalem (Antiquities X, 7, 3). There are more ancient remains but not as many at nearby Ras el Harrubeh which may be the Old Testament site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Anathoth, obeying or responding to signs" (90) and "response or responding to signs or obedience" (125).

96. Adar (Addar). Joshua 18:13; K. 26:30; L. 241:37.

A simple tribal listing. This may be an addition if the previous entry is correct.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adar, splendid or coverlet" (89).

97. Ailmōn (Aelomon). Joshua 21:18; K. 28:1; L. 241:38.

Textual variant Ailōn (Greek).

Cf. also K. 18:13. This is out of the biblical order.

98. Amekkasis (Amez-casis). Joshua 18:21; K. 28:2; L. 241:39.

Textual variant Amekasis (Greek).

The Latin has proper MT translation of Amek or emek "valley" but the location is unknown.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Emeccasis, valley of breaking up" (93).

99. Aueim (Avim). Joshua 18:23; K. 28:3; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Not in Vatican Manuscript.

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eneam, behold you or behold they are" (93).

100. Aphra. Joshua 18:23; K. 28:4; L. 241:40.

Textual variant Effrem (Latin).

The village Aiphraim fits this location. A textual variant has six for five miles. Madaba Map with "Ephron or Ephraia" may reflect Jerome's spelling. Seems that Eusebius has the correct location at et tayibe (cf. K. 86:1). For Ophra, Ephron, Ephraim and Aphra. Madaba map notes the New Testament event as in K. 90:18. A strong Maccabean city (I Maccabees 5:46). It was occupied by Vespasian (Antiquities IV, 9, 9).

101. Ammōenia (Ammoeniam). Joshua 18:24; K. 28:6; L. 241:42.

A simple tribal listing. Vulgate has Emona for MT Ammonah.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammona, his people" (90).

102. Aphnei (Afni). Joshua 18:24; K. 28:7; L. 241:43.

Simple tribal listing, probably the same as the Gophna (jifna) of the pilgrims. Cf. K. 168:16.

103. Alph. Joshua 18:28; K. 28:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek text.

Simple tribal listing. Missing in the Latin text.

104. Arēm (Arim). Joshua 18:28; K. 28:9; L. 241:45.

This is a Greek transliteration for "villages" in the MT. The Bēthariph near Diospolis (K. 8:14) may be dair tarif near Lydda and off the main road. The Greek has been emended here from the Latin text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eram, sublime life" (94).

105. Amsa. Joshua 18:26; K. 28:11; L. 241:47.

Textual variant Ampsa (Latin).

Simple tribal listing. Possibly out of order and suspect.

106. Asar. Joshua 19:3; K. 28:12; L. 241:48.

Simple tribal listing.

107. Asan. Joshua 19:3; K. 28:13; L. 241:49.

Textual variant Aaon (Latin).

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asan, smoke" (90).

108. Amarchabob. Joshua 19:5; K. 28:14; L. 241:50.

Textual variant Amarchabōn (Greek).

A simple tribal listing.

109. Ain. Joshua 19:7; K. 28:15; L. 241:51.

A simple tribal listing with editorial addition from the list of priestly cities. Thus a tribe could be given to two tribes as on the border. Loyalty may have shifted (cp. K. 50:1, 88:11, 98:22, 130:6, 144:11, etc.).

110. Asenna. Joshua 19:7; K. 28:16; L. 241:52.

A simple tribal listing.

111. Ammathar. Joshua 19:13; K. 28:17; L. 241:53.

Textual variant Amatha (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

112. Anoua (Anua). Joshua 19:13; K. 28:18; L. 241:54.

Textual variants: Anoua apioutōn, Anouabōr kai and Anoua boreēthen. Josephus has Anouathon Borkaios (Wars III 3, 5). Vatican manuscript also has Anouan for Ailian an obvious scribal error. There is a variation of 5 miles between the Greek and Latin Text.

Location is unknown for the Roman-Byzantine site.

113. Anathōn. Joshua 19:14; K. 28:21; L. 241:57.

Textual variants: Anathōth (Greek) and Annathon (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ennathon, giving favor" (93).

114. Acheselōth (Achaseloth). Joshua 19:18; K. 28:22; L. 241:58.

Textual variants: Achaseluth and (for contemporary site) Chaslus (Latin).

Cf. K. 22:4 for similar location of Chaslous probably at iksal southeast of Nazareth (K. 138:24) which preserves part of the ancient name. Probably to be equated with Chaselath Thabor (K. 174:11).

115. Aiphraim (Aefraim). Joshua 19:19; K. 28:25; L. 241:61.

Textual variant Afraim (Latin).

The biblical site is unknown since et taiyebeh suggested by some is really Ophra (cf. K. 28:4 above). The Byzantine Aphraia is probably Kh Fareir northwest of Legeōn (K. 14:21) and properly measured in distance to turn off from main road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Efraim, growing or fruitful" (81, cf. 65) "fertile or growth which we are not able to call Augentium, from growing." (142).

116. Anerth (Anereth). Joshua 19:19; K. 28:27; L. 242:64.

A simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Enarath, behold be takes hold" (93).

117. Aims (Aemes). Joshua 19:20; K. 28:28; L. 242:65.

Textual variant Aim (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ames, powerful" (90).

118. Achsaph (Achsaf). Joshua 19:25; K. 30:1; L. 242:66.

Textual variant Achiam (Greek).

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 22:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Acsa, limping or dead" (89).

119. Alimelech. Joshua 19:26; K. 30:2; L. 242:67.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 22:3).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ekunekech, my god is king" (102).

120. Amod (Amath). Joshua 19:26; K. 30:3; L. 242:68.

Textual variant in LXX Amad.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amath, these people" (90).

121. Abdōn. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:4; L. 242:69.

Textual variants: Ardōn (Greek) and Dabbōn (LXX B).

Simple tribal listing. The Latin has added from the list of Levitical cities and the Greek could be emended so, but such listings are a later editing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abdo, his slave" (90) "Abdon, slave of the wall" (99).

122. Aneiēl (Aniel). Joshua 19:27; K. 30:5; L. 242:70.

Textual variants: Aneir and Aniel (Greek).

The Byzantine Baitoannaia (cf. K. 52:24) is 'Anin, off the road to Legeōn, east of Caesarea the mileage is mark for leaving main highway. It has nothing to do with the identity of the Old Testament site. In K. 70:8 a Gabe is 16 miles east of Caesarea but this is no problem since a quadrant is involved, not the same road. It is peculiar that an anonymous report on the healing qualities is recorded by an author from nearby Caesarea. Did Eusebius doubt the volcanic baths' power? Or is this indication of an editor? (Cp. K. 52:24.)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Enihel, god is my grace" (81).

123. Achran. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:8; L. 242:73.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Achran, he disturbed them" (78).

124. Ammōn. Joshua 19:28; K. 30:9; L. 242:74.

Textual variant Amon (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammnon, people of the wall" (90).

125. Akchō (Accho). Joshua 19:30; K. 30:10; L. 242:75.

Textual variant Akko (Greek).

Procopius 1048A has "Agcho, it is now said to be Ptolemais." The identity is repeated by Jerome's Epistle 108:f. (cf. Paula PPT I, 4) Tabula Peutinger has Ptolemais 32 miles from Tyre end 20 from Dor. There was a bishop from here at the Council of Nicea. The ancient city is east of the modern town of Acre. A whole complex of Roman roads led there. It is often used as a referent in the Onomasticon. It was a territory as described in Josephus Wars II, 10, 2. The reference to Israel's incomplete conquest is from Judges 1:31 (cf. below K. 30:12, 16).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Accho, up to this or hook or his submissiveness" (98).

126. Achzeiph (Achzif). Joshua 19:29; K. 30:12; L. 242:77.

The first portion of this entry is not in the Vatican manuscript but has been emended on the basis of the Latin. The mileage is also missing in Vatican. Vulgate variant has Achazib.

All agree with Eusebius that Ekdippa was the same as Achzib (Josephus Wars I, 13, 4 (Itin. Bourd 19, 5). Many Roman-Byzantine-Arab artifacts found here. The distance is exact for ez zib which still reflects the same name. Some itineraries have 8 miles for Eusebius' 9. This reflects difference in counting: from center of city or first milestone from edge, etc. Israel's failure noted in Judges 1:31(cf. K. 30:10).

127. Amma. Joshua 19:30; K. 30:15; L. 242:79.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amma, his people" (90).

128. Aphek (Afec). Joshua 19:30; K. 30:16; L. 242:80.

Another of the many Apheks. Israel's failure in Judges 1:31 (cf. K. 30:10, 12).

129. Ademmei (Ademme). Joshua 19:33; K. 30:18; L. 242:82.

Textual variants Armai (LXX) and Aderni (Syr.). Confusing Hebrew daleth and resh.

Simple tribal listing.

130. Asedeim (Aseddim). Joshua 19:35; K. 30:19; L. 242:83.

This is a name based on a LXX variant which has incorporated the Hebrew article into the transliteration. LXX also confused the Hebrew daleth and resh. The Vulgate Assedim appears. Onomasticon correct with d from Hebrew.

Simple tribal listing.

131. Amath. Joshua 19:35; K. 30:20; L. 242:84.

Textual variants: Amathi (Greek) and Ematha (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Amath, this people" (90).

132. Adami. Joshua 19:36; K. 30:21; L. 242:85.

Simple tribal listing.

133. Asōr. Joshua 19:36; K. 30:22; L. 242:86.

Simple tribal listing plus II Kings 15:29. Cp. K. 20:1 above.

Possibly these five Nephtheim entries are from a late list added or else the following entry is an addition out of order.

134. Azanōth. Joshua 19:34; K. 30:24; L. 242:88.

Textual variant Azananōth (Greek).

Another of the villages dependent on Diokaesareia but Eusebius is not sure about the location.

135. Ailōn. Joshua 19:43; K. 30:26; L. 242:90.

Textual variants: Ahialon and Ahilon (Latin).

Eusebius seems to be confused here. Perhaps this is the Aialon of Jerome 19:16. Nikopolis is in the Valley of Aialon. In 220/1 A.D. Emaus was given the name Nikopolis (cf. K. 90:1.5). It was a famous city and a regional free city including both Aislon and Gezer (K. 66:21) in its territory. There was a bishop at the Council of Nicea from this chief city of the district. Jerome's Epistle 108 reports a church here. It is present day 'Amwas. Alous is the located at Yalu.


136. Arad. Judges 1:16; K. 32:2; L. 242:94.

Textual variant Arab (Greek).

See above K. 14:1f.

137. Ared. Joshua Judges 7:1; K. 32:4; L. 242:96.

Rivers, wells, mountains are all suspect entries in the Onomasticon. This is also out of order in the biblical sequence of things and suspect for that second reason also (cf. K. 36:4, 54:21, 72:22, 116:23, 116:25, 118:11).

138. Arisōth. Judges 4:2; K. 32:5; L. 242:97.

Textual variant Asiroth (Latin).

Eusebius identifies erroneously this with Iabeia Galaad (cf. K. 110:11f). Iabis is located six miles from Pella (K. 14:19) in both entries and this points to vicinity of Tell el Maqlub, which is the Old Testament site. Byzantine site is Kh Isna exactly six miles from Pella. By Procopius' time (1049A) it was a village, no longer a great city. But Procopius has confused the distance - 20 miles from Pella and 60 from Gerasa. (The Greek of Procopius has been corrected from the Onomasticon to read six, but only in Latin is the text complete for Procopius on this item.). Perhaps a corrected distance would be six from Pella and 20 from Gerasa. Harosheth of Old Testament is not located by the Onomasticon.

139. Ares. Judges 8:13; K. 32:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Text missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

There seems to be a confusion of the Greek and Hebrew biblical texts.

140. Aroueir (Aruir). Judges 11:33; K. 32:9; L. 243:00.

Textual variant Arouei (Greek).

The scene seems to be in Transjordan but the homecoming has confused Eusebius (cf. K. 12:5). The Greek, if not an error, points to the vicinity of er Ram, possibly Kh arajanj. If Jerome is followed, as many prefer to do in order to arrive closer to Mizpeh (K. 130:1), it must be located at Kh 'arūra. The 20 is in conjuction of main road north from Jerusalem. A branch goes west to Kh 'arūra.

141. Arima. Judges 9:41; K. 32:11; L. 243:2.

A simple report of Scripture (cf. K. 144:27)

142. Aialon (Aialin). Judges 12:12; K. 32:12; L. 243:3.

The judge of Israel (Judges 12:11) has a name which sounds almost the same as that of the clan. Probably Ailon or Elon would be proper for both. Biblical information only.

143. Abel of the vineyards. Judges 11:33; K. 32:14; L. 243:5.

Textual variants: Abel (Greek) and Abila (Latin).

The biblical site is located by Eusebius in the region of Philadelphia (K. 16:15) and seems to be in the vicinity of Na 'ur, perhaps even Na 'ur or Qom Yajus or else closer to Heshbon at Kh es Suq. The Greek text makes this very vague (cp. K. 10:28).

Abela near Gadara (cf. K. 74:10) is the large town of the Decapolis (K. 80:16) which is to be located at Tell Abil. A few scholars would locate it at nearby Muqes.

Abela of the Phoenicians is not identified as to size by Eusebius. Possibly following the Tabula Peutinger which has it 18 miles from Damascus (K. 76:4) it is possibly located at suk wadi barada on the way to Paneas (K. 16:4).

In Eusebius' day Phoenicia was a distinct 'Roman province not to be confused with Palestine or Syria. This was true from about 194-381 A.D. According to Eusebius it includes Damascus, Abela, Byblos and Sidon with Tyro as its chief city.


144. Armthem Seipha (Sofim). I Samuel 1:1; K. 32:21; L. 243:12.

The New Testament identification (Matthew 21:51) here may be the first real work of the Christian author (whether Eusebius or not) who compiled and collected several Jewish and biblical lists (cp. K. 144:29).

For Diospolis see K. 8:14 and Thamnitikē see K. 24:4. In 200 Diospolis took over the region earlier called Thamna.

The Madaba Map has both names and follows Eusebius in identifying the two Old Testament and New Testament places but does not clearly follow Eusebius in the location. "Armathem or Arimathea" seems to be due north of Jerusalem near Nebi Samwil and Ramalla while Eusebius and other Christian traditions locate Arimathea at Rentis, northeast of Diospolis. Both the map and Eusebius seem to separate these two names from Ramah (I Samuel 1:19 cf. K. 144:14). The Armathem in Greek reflects the transcription of the Hebrew article. Jerome writes in Epistle 108:8 (Paula PPT I, p. 4) "not far from it (Diospolis) is Arimathiam the little village of Joseph who buried the Lord" (cf. Luke 23:5). The Old Testament Rama of Samuel is uncertain.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Armathaim, their height" (102).

145. Abenezer. I Samuel 4:1; K. 32:24; L. 243:15.

This is a "place" and possibly textually suspect as well. Etymology (K. 56:6) plus a biblical reference and a vague location. Since the Survey of Western Palestine it has been suggested that Eusebius had in mind Deir Aban near Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but all agree that is not the Old Testament site.

Bethsamys or Bēthsames (K. 54:11) is probably 'ain Shema near beit jibrin.

146. Aphesdomeim (Afesdomim). I Samuel 17:1; K. 34:1; L. 243:18.

Textual variant Afesdommim (Latin).

Biblical and Hexaplaric information only.

147. Anegb (Annegeb). I Samuel 20:41; K. 34:3; L. 243:20.

Textual variant Aneka (Greek). The Greek text has again transliterated the Hebrew article. Two synonyms for the southern quadrant are used in the Greek and two in the Latin. Only Hexaplaric information (cp. K. 136:14, 137:16f.).

148. Arith. I Samuel 22:5; K. 34:4; L. 243:21.

The LXX is followed by our Greek text and makes this a city while in the New Testament we find "forest." It is a region west of Jerusalem. Eusebius' Arath which is not the forest may be perpetuated in Kh Hareish.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Arith, delay" (102).

149. Aialim. I Samuel 24:3; K. 34:6; L. 243:23.

Textual variants: Aalim, Abialeim (Greek), Achia, Ala, Ahialim (Latin).

The Onomasticon makes a proper name out of the MT phrase. Theodotion is more literal. Only Hexaplaric information.

150. Aendōr. I Samuel 29:1; K. 34:8; L. 243:25.

Textual variant Iesrael (Greek).

The LXX has this place name where the MT only has "fountain in Israel." It is in the vicinity of Mt.Thabor (K. 22:4, 98:23). The name is perpetuated at 'Andūr. Perhaps the same as Eddēr (K. 94:22) of Saul which is located near Nain and so also near Thabōr. 'Andūr has no ancient ruins and is not a tell. It has been suggested that nearby Kh es safsafeh is the place and it does have evidence of lengthy occupation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Aendor, eye or well of the generation" (102) and "Endor well of the generation" (93).

151. Aphek (Afec). I Samuel 29:1; K. 34:11; L. 243:28.

Textual variant Apher (Greek).

One of the many confused Apheks in Scripture and the Onomasticon. By inference this is said to be near the above Aendōr. Eusebius gives no location data which is not directly from the Bible.

152. Arma. I Samuel 30:26, 30; K. 34:13; L. 243:30.

In Samuel there are a number of towns which are listed in the Onomasticon with no other information than the biblical reference to David's spoils (I Samuel 30:26f.). This may possibly be identical with K. 88:1 below.

153. Athach. I Samuel 30:26, 30; K. 34:14; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Athlac (Latin).

This entry is missing in the Vatican manuscript. Only information is on the spoils as in the above Arma. LXX also has Athach for Ether (K. 88:3) in Joshua 15:42.

154. Amma. II Samuel 2:24; K. 34:15; L. 243:31.

One of the entries where only the Scripture is quoted for location and identity.

155. Aeththam Adassai (Aethon Adasai). II Samuel 24:6; K. 34:16; L. 243:32.

Textual variant Arnmeiththa (Greek).

Perhaps the same as Thaad in K. 100:19. Only Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ammeta, light" (89) and "Adasa, new" (89).

156. Alōn Area Orna. II Samuel 24:16; K. 34:17; L. 243:33.

Textual variant 'orion (Greek).

This is not a place in the MT but refers to a person who is a Jebusite and is connected with Jerusalem. The identification of Eusebius is in the biblical passage Joshua 18:28 (cf. K. 106:7 below). 'Alōn and Area both are proper translations of MT "threshing floor."

157. Assour. I Kings 9:15; K. 34:18; L. 243:34.

This item is out of order and may be an editorial addition. The Roman Ioudaia is indicated here rather than the Old Testament Jouda. If this is one of the cities Solomon built it is a textual variant for Hazōr (K. 20:1). This same annotation occurs in K. 90:9, 132:2 and 134:1, 3.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Assur, directing or beauty or stepping or accusing" (60) and "Assur beauty or step" (78).

158. Abelmaelai (Abelmaula). I Kings 4:12; K. 34:20; L. 243:35.

Textual variant Bethaula (Latin).

Eusebius is not sure of the location of this village. He knows only two possibilities with similar sounds. Josephus' Antiquities VIII 13, 7 notes, "Elisha of the city of Abela" (cf. I Kings 19:16). This could be Beeleōn (K. 44:21) which is also the large village from which Elissaios came (K. 46:2) but that is nine miles from Esbus which would put it in the southeastern section of the Aulōn (K. 14:22).

Bethmaela is 10 miles from Skythopolis (K. 16:2) but only Jerome has "south." Such a milestone has been reported at Tell Abu Sus. Other scholars would locate Eusebius' site near 'Ain el helweh or Tell Abu Sifri but the latter has no Roman-Byzabtine remains. The former has Roman-Byzantine remains but no clear evidence. Tell Abu Sus is Old Testament site, Kh es Sakut nearby is Byzantine.

Abelmea is perhaps in the other direction on the way west and up to Neapolis (K. 4:28) but only seen from the road. There are remains of a Roman bath, etc. near the source of the Wadi el Malih so perhaps 'ain malih is correct for this Eusebius site, but not for the Old Testament location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abimahel, my father from God" (61).

159. Auothiaeir (Avothiair). I Kings 4:13; K. 34:24; L. 244:39.

Textual variant Auōthenaēr (Greek).

Simple biblical summary.

160. Ailath. I Kings 9:26; K. 34:25; L. 244:40.

Textual variant. Latin omits Ailas.

The first part of the entry quotes the biblical text. Ailas probably refers to Ailam (K. 6:17 cp. K. 36:1 and K. 62:13).

161. Ailōth (Aeloth). II Kings 14:22; K. 34:27; L. 244:42.

Textual variant Ailōn (Greek) Aloth (Latin).

This is out of order and seems to be an editorial addition to the previous entry and the one in K. 36:1. It gives an additional item of biblical information.

162. Ainda (Aenda). I Kings 15:20; K. 34:28; L. 244:43.

Textual variant Ain of Dan (Greek). The MT has only Dan.

This biblical information is repeated in K. 148:15 also with the Greek of the LXX text which varies from the MT.

163. Asiōn Babai (Asiongaber). I Kings 22:49; K. 36:1; L. 244:44.

Additional biblical information is given for the site on the Gulf of Aqabah. Eusebius seems to try to distinguish two sites nearby: Aisia (K. 62:15) and Alla (K. 6:17, 34:25, 62:16). The Bible does not distinguish too clearly between Ezion Geber and Elath (cf. II Chronicles 20:36). A bishop from Ailath at Nicea.

Tell el Kheleifeh is usually identified with Old Testament Ezion Geber after Glueck, but it has no ruins later than the Israelite captivity. Possible location may be Jirzere Farra'un. Aila-Aqabah-Elath has Nabatean, Roman, Byzantine, and Arab occupation.

Another small settlement Aisia between the coast and the Old Testament site seems to be indicated in Eusebius. Modern Israeli Eilat is a new town.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esopmgaber, a wish or council of sorrow" (111).

164. Alae (Alle), Abor, Gozan. II Kings 17:6; K. 36:4; L. 244:47.

Textual variant Abar (Latin).

This is outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land. It is out of the proper biblical order. All rivers are suspect as additions to the text.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abur, livid spot or wound" (114) and "Gozan their tone or their courage" (111).

The next four entries are all late editorial additions to the test.

165. Abena (Abana). II Kings 5:12; K. 36:6; L. 244:49.

Suspect on the same grounds as above - a river.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Abana, his stones" (114).

166. Aophsith (Aofsithe). II Kings 15:5; K. 36:7; L. 244:50.

LXX variants of Aphphōsoth and Aophasōth, Hexaplaric elements.

167. Aian. II Kings 15:29; K. 36:8; L. 244:51.

Vulgate has Ahion.

Simple biblical report.

168. Aia. II Kings 17:24; K. 36:9; L. 244:52.

Vulgate has Ava.

This and the next entry are probably beyond the geographical limits of the Holy Land in Syria (cf. K. 36:10 below and K. 174:17).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Aia, vulture" (105).

169. Ainath (Ameth). II Kings 17:24; K. 36:10; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Amech (Latin). Probably same as Aemath of K. 23:30.

Part of these two successive entries K. 36:9 & 10 are missing from the Vatican manuscript.

170. Asimath (Asima). II Kings 17:30; K. 36:11; L. 244:53.

One of the few uses of "oppidum" in Latin (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix II). No such designation in Greek.

There seems to be an error in the Vatican manuscript with Idoumaia and Ioudaia.

171. Arkem (Arcem). II Kings 17:30; K. 36:13; L. 244:55.

The name is not in the New Testament but is from the LXX. On the basis of Josephus Antiquities IV, 4, 7 it has been identified with Petra "came to a place in Arabia which the Arabs have deemed their metropolis, formerly called Arce (Arkēn Greek) today named Petra" (K. 142:7, 144:7). Personal name in Numbers 31:8 may have influenced Josephus.

Palestine is here apparently used for the whole country since Petra would not fit the old Roman province of Palestine. If the later use of I, II and II Palestine is intended then of course we have evidence of later editing of the text.

Usually when topography is given, some biblical history is also summarized. Other exceptions are in K. 124:20, 126:14, 126:19, 132:3, 140:4, 146:23, and 170:23.

172. Adramelech. II Kings 17:31; K. 36:15; L. 244:57.

This obviously is not within the original purview of a book on place names! Other idols noted are Bel (K. 58:9 cf. K. 44:13), Molchom (K. 134:17), Nesarach (K. 138:19), Chamos (K. 174:22), and Remnan (K. 146:26). A Roman god is mentioned below in K. 36:26 (cf. K. 8:15 and Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Adramelech, stola of the king or the comeliness of the king" (144).

173. Arōnieim (Aroniim). Isaiah 15:5; K. 36:17; L. 244:59.

Textual variants: Aōronaim (Greek), Arona (Greek A'); Arnomim, Armonum, Oronaim (Latin). The Vulgate has Oronaeum and Oronaim. The Moabite Stone has Hauranein. There was a Roman garrison nearby according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:18).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Oronaim, opening of the wall" (121).

It is quite possible that all the prophets listings are a separate editorial addition or separate source.

174. Agalleim (Agallim). Isaiah 15:8; K. 36:19; L. 244:61.

The first of the entry is missing in Vatican manuscript and is restored from the Latin. Another Latin variant is Agallim.

The Byzantine ruin and name is found at rujm el jilimeh called Aegalim. This is at the proper distance from Areopolis (K. 10:13) but probably is not Old Testament site.

175. Aileim (Aelim). Isaiah 15:8; K. 36:22; L. 244:64.

The Vulgate has "well of Elim" which is for the MT birelim. It has been equated with Dimon (Isaiah15:9) which may be the same Madōn (K. 126:26) but can hardly be Deimona of Jodda (K.73:16).

176. Arina (omitted in Latin) or also Ariel. Isaiah 15:9; K. 36:24; L. 244:66.

In the MT text the word "lion" is used as noted in Interpretation of Hebrew Names "lion of God" (106 and 114). Jerome Epistle 108:9 (Paula PPT I, 6) has, "Woe to thee, city of Ariel, that is lion of God, once most strong, which David took by storm." In Commentary on Isaiah 29:1 Jerome writes, "Therefore Arihel, that is lion of God, once most strong is called Jerusalem, out it is preferred by others temple and altar of God which was in Jerusalem." His Commentary on Isaiah 15:1 is more apropos, "This metropolis, the city of Ar, which today is called Areopolis by the combination of Hebrew and Greek words, not as many think because it is the city of Ares, that is Mars" (cf. K. 10:13). Procopius 2097A follows this identification and calls it a great village. A number of entries have double names (cf. K. 25, 48:11, 58:3, 64:6, 76:1, 76:7, 90:10, 132:8, 160:19, etc.). Reference to idols is not uncommon (cf. 36:15 and Appendix)

177. Adama. Isaiah 15:9; K. 38:1; L. 244:70.

Textual variant in Vatican manuscript where Theodotion is misplaced with Aquila and Symmachus. This is not a proper name in MT. Only Hexaplaric information given.

178. Agros (Ager). Isaiah 7:3; K. 38:2; L. 244:71.

The fuller's field is referred to again in K. 102:16. This is one of several entries detailing Jerusalem areas. Out of order and suspect as later addition.

179. Asedek (Asedec). Isaiah 19:18; K. 38:4; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Asedech (Latin).

The entry is missing in Vatican manuscript. Since it is out of the geographical limits of the Holy Land, it probably is not to be emended from the Latin. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah19:18 also indicates the ambiguous etymology from either "clay" or "sun."

Ostracine is out of the Tabula Peutinger 23 miles beyond Rinokoura (K. 148:3).

Heliopolis is identified with ōn (K. 176:2).

180. Arphad (Arfad). Isaiah 36:19, 37:13; K. 38:7; L. 244:73.

Simple biblical summary.

The additional notes are to Jeremiah 49:23 and II Kings 18:34. This kind of addenda could be a marginal gloss when it appears at the end of an entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Arpath, healing" (126) or "Arfath, healing or cure" (114).

181. Anaeougaua (Aneugaua). Isaiah 37:13; K. 38:9; L. 245:75.

This is a Greek combination of two Hebrew names. Textual variants: Anathoysau and Ane and Gaye (Greek).

These may be out of the geographical limit of the Holy Land. Jerome's Epistle (?)39:13 notes the possibility that the ou refers to the Hebrew conjunctive wav. So also in his Commentary on Isaiah 37: 13 he says, "Ana and Aua which the LXX mixed up calling it Anauegaua with the conjunction and, that is wav, between two nations which in Hebrew are Ana and Aua."

The added reference is to II Kings 18:34 as a gloss or later editing.

182. Armenia. Isaiah 37:38; K. 38:11; L. 245:77.

Also outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land as is the first entry Ararat (K. 2:23). Sarasa is probably a scribal error written as a variant Arasa, but it could possibly be confused with a marginal gloss on Sharezer who killed Sennacherib and escaped to Armenia (Isaiah 37:38).

183. Asel (Asael). Zechariah 14:5; K. 38:12; L. 245:78.

Textual variant Asaēl (Greek).

In Commentary on Zechariah 14:5 Jerome writes, "The LXX transliterates Asael. Aquila puts the Hebrew word as Asel with a short letter e but Theodotion has a long."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asahel, deed of God" (125).

184. Anamaēl (Anameel). Zechariah 14:10; K. 38:13; L. 245:79.

The LXX has changed the N of Hebrew into an M (cf. Jeremiah 31:36).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ananahel, grace of God."

185. Asademōth (Assaremoth). Jeremiah 31:40; K. 38:14; L. 245:80.

Possible variant in Greek would agree with the Latin form.

Jerome's Commentary on Jeremiah 31:40 also notes Aquila's translation of Sademoth "suburban." This is probably not a proper name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Asarmoth, entrance way of the dead." (61).

186. Aeniōth. Jeremiah 37:16; K. 38:16; L. 245:82.

Simple entry with Aquila for evidence that this is not a proper name. LXX also translated the HebrewMT.

187. Alōth (Alaoth). Jeremiah 48:5; K. 38:17; L. 245:83.

The Vatican manuscript does not have the notation on the MT Loyith. This name appears in K. 122:29 as Loyeitha (Vulgate Luit), but the location between Areopolis and Zoara is vague.

188. Aitham (Aethan). Jeremiah 49:19; K. 38:18; L. 245:84.

Textual variant Aetham (Greek).

Probably not a proper name. Hexaplaric information noted.


189. Akeldama (Aceldama). Matthew 27:8; K. 38:20; L. 245:86.

The New Testament places are rather limited but may be the only major part of the work done by Eusebius himself after compiling and collating various Jewish lists. Later editors added other lists to the work.

Textual variants: Acheldema and Acheldemag (Latin).

This is said to be the earliest non-biblical reference to this site. In K. 102:14 it is written Acheldamax. In the Madaba Map it is Akeldama following this Onomasticon entry. Jerome locates it south and Eusebius north of Jerusalem. The pilgrim text suggests southeast of Silwan and it is probably Deir Abu Tor near Hagg ed Dam which preserves the etymology.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Acheldemach, field of blood" (134, 143) which is a quote from Matthew.

190. Ainōn (Aenon). John 3:23; K. 40:1; L. 245:88.

Textual variants: Aleim (Greek) and Salem (Latin).

As in previous New Testament entry the first note after the place name is a quotation from the Gospel. It is not a city or town in the fourth century but only a "place" which is "near Saleim" (cf. K. 153:6). Ainon of Onomasticon is just north of Umm el 'umdan.

The Madaba map places the words "Ainōn which in near Salim" at a spring south of Skythopolis (K. 16:2) following Eusebius. This is probably along the main road to Ierichō. Possibly the spring is 'Ain el Deir. It should be near to Bethmaoula (K. 34:22) which is 10 miles South of Beisan. This all seems to place the tradition on the west bank of the Jordan, so some even suggest the waters of the Wadi Far'ah are intended.

But the Madaba map also has on the east bank an Ainon, possibly pointing to the Wadi el Harrer cf. Bēthaabara for still another tradition (K. 58:13).



191. Babel (Which is also) Babylon. Genesis 11:9; K. 40:7; L. 245:94.

The first entry in "B" is quite outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land just as Ararat, the first entry in "A," and is therefore suspect. This is often true of first alphabetic entries. Probably a marginal addition.

It has been noted before that occasionally Eusebius gives etymology. It is quite possible that all the non-biblical etymologies given are the result of an editor's work or the inclusion of marginal glosses by a copyist. In Interpretation of Hebrew Names this item is paralleled: "Babylon or Babel, confusion" (62).

The simple summary of the biblical story is here recorded as in Ararat which likewise in turn is filled out from Josephus Antiquities I, 4, 3. The text in the Onomasticon is only slightly different from that used by Thackeray in the Loeb series "The place where they built is now called Babylon from the confusion of that primitive speech once intelligible to all, for the Hebrews call confusion 'Babel.' This tower and the confusion of the tongues of men are mentioned also by the Sybl in the following terms: 'When all men spoke a common language, certain of them built an exceeding high tower, thinking thereby to mount to heaven. But the gods sent winds against it and overturned the tower and gave to every man a peculiar language; whence it comes that the city was called Babylon'" (I p. 177f.). The Syriac text has still other minor variations.

Procopius 309B "Nebrōd was a giant hunter, one of the gods. Joseph tells the story of the contriving of the tower in the Antiquities."

192. Baithēl (Bethel). Genesis 12:8, K. 40:20; L. 245:9.

Textual variant. Ulammaulus (Latin). The Syriac text seems to follow the Latin and adds weight perhaps to Klostermann's emendations.

Jerome has the etymology of the name Baithēl as "house of God" (cf. Interpretation of Hebrew Names 62 and cf. below K. 43:7 as well as Epistle 108:13 and Paula PPT I, 12): "of Bethel, the house of God, in which Jacob, naked and poor slept upon the bare ground and placing under his head a stone, which in Zacharias 3:9 is said to have seven eyes in Isaiah 28:16 is called the stone of the corner, saw a ladder reaching to heaven above which the Lord leaned offering His hand to those who climbed and casting down those who were negligent."

As in this entry (cf. K. 43:6) Jerome in the Commentary on Hosea 4:15 notes the identity of Bethel and Bethaven: "it (Bethel) was first called 'house of God' but after the calves were placed there it is named Bethaven, i.e. house of folly or house of idols." However (K. 50:24) suggests a separate location which Jerome denies in (51:24).

The identity with Luza (K. 120:8) is also affirmed by Jerome's note (K. 43:3). Luza means "nut or almond" according to Interpretation of Hebrew Names (34). The Madaba Map makes this same identification: "loyza which is also Bethēl" located a bit farther east because of the crowding of the map at this point, but still beitin. This site has been excavated several times. Some still believe Bethel should be a shrine separated from a village of Louza. The biblical information is summarized from Genesis 28:19, Joshua 18:13, Judges 1:23, Joshua 18:22, also Joshua 7:2 and 12:16.

The peculiar word Oulamma (K. 140:15) is ridiculed by Jerome with his famous Hebrew knowledge (K. 41: 21). Also in Hebrew Questions he says, "it is absurd to think Hebrew ulam is the name of a city since ulam means 'former'" (34).

Locating it near Aggai (K. 4:27) is of no help since neither the Onomasticon nor biblical site is certain today. Why no mention is made here of the church is curious. Jerome did note it in relation to Aggai (7:2). Incidentally the Church is not on the Madaba Map either. The church is located a mile east of beitin.

The pilgrims all agree with the 12 miles from Jerusalem. Procopius 320A writes, "Baithēl which was earlier called Oulammoaus is at the 12th mile on the right going from Jerusalem to Neapolis. Also Louza, tribe of Beniamin." This means the path leading up from Ailias to Bethel leaves the main road at the 12th milestone. Curiously Procopius 1020A has what must be a scribal error, "Baithēl is located on the road going up from Ailias to Neopolis on the left of the road at the 12th mile from Ailias." All other itineraries agree with Paula on the 12 mile figure (PPT I 16, 19).

193. Bala. Genesis 14:2; K. 42:1; L. 246:13.

Textual variants: Babla, Balak (LXX), Balaa (Latin), Zōora (Greek).

The Madaba Map copies Eusebius with all three names listed: "Balak which is also Sēgōr or now Zoora" and picturing a fortress with palm trees. Zoora is also Soora (K. 15:19) and Zogera (K. 94:1) and is used at times as a referent in the Onomasticon (K. 112:19, 168:10 etc.). It is located on the Dead Sea (K. 100:4) where there was a garrison stationed in Notitia Dignitatum (73:26) and a colony of Jews. A bishop was known in the fourth century as the bishop of Sodom but he must have been from Zoar.

At Kh Sheikh 'isa Byzantine remains may indicate the city with its nearby fort. This location southeast of the Dead Sea fits the early geographers and the concept of Moab identity (Isaiah 15:5 and Onomasticon 94:1 for Jerome 48:4). Ptolemy has it 35 miles from Petra, which seems to be an error.

On the Pentapolis of Sodom see K. 8:4 (Genesis 19:21). Jerome's etymological parallel is repeated in Hebrew Questions: indeed Segor means little which in the Syriac is Zoara. However, the Valley of Salt, where formerly they worked pits of bitumin, after the wrath of God and the sulphuric rain, became the Dead Sea which in Greek is called Iimnē asphaltitis (i.e. lake of Bitumin)" (117).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bale, casting down or devouring: (62) cf. Hebrew Questions "Bale in the Hebrew is gulping or devouring" (17).

194. Belanos (Belanus). Genesis 35:8; K. 42:6; L. 246:18.

Simple translation of Hebrew with biblical summary. Not properly a place name.

195. Barad. Genesis 16:14; K. 42:8; L. 246:20.

The latter part of this entry and the beginning of the next are missing in the Vatican manuscript by an obvious scribal error easily corrected by the Latin. The Syriac text agrees with the Latin.

Apparently quoting Genesis 16:14 the tradition of a well was perpetuated into the fourth century. There is a jebel Umm el Bared in the Negeb which perpetuates the name. Some would see the site at Bir Ma 'in.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Barad, hail" (62).

196. Bēthlehem. Genesis 35:19; K.42:10; L. 246:22.

Textual variant Bethlem (Latin).

There are two startling facts about this entry: 1 - The Greek text has none of the New Testament references. But the Syriac has an addition "city of David where our Savior was born, of the tribe of Judah." 2 - Neither Greek nor Latin mention the Church which was important spiritually and economically (also not mentioned for Jerusalem K. 106:1). But Eusebius knew of the building in Bethlehem (Laud. Const. ix and Vita Const. iii, 25, 43). The itinerary mentions "a basilica built by command of Constantine" (Itin. Bourd 25: 3, PPT  I, 12). The Madaba Map shows a Basillica with the tomb of Rachel not far away.

The Onomasticon has no reference to Bethlehem's size. Josephus reports only on pre-exile Bethlehem. It may be of interest that Origen reports on a cave near Bethlem where Christ was born (Contra Celsum I, 51) which tradition Eusebius also knows (Laud. Const. ix and Vita Const. iii, 41. Jerome knows of this in his Epistle 46.

Bethlehem is six miles from Jerusalem in the Onomasticon which agrees with the Bourdeaux Itinerary which notes: Bethlehem is off "to the left of the road" going to Hebron.

The tradition of the tombs is overwhelming in the pilgrims. In addition to Tessai and David, they report that Ezechikel, Asaph and Solomon are also buried nearby. The reference to Archalaeus is unique. The town of Archalaeus is 12 miles from Ierichō in Tabula Peutinger but no strong tradition of burial recorded there. Perhaps refers to Herodium.

The name Ephratha for Bēthleem region covers the Tomb of Rachel one or two miles away from Bēthleem itself (K. 82:12,K. 83:14, K 148:1, K. 172:4, cp LXX of Joshua 15:59a). Itin. Bourd. also has the two mile distance.

The tower of Ader is possibly equated by the Greek with Geder of Joshua (K. 68:11 but note Jerome on the absence of the guttural K. 63:3). The tower and the real tomb of Rachel most likely should be looked for north of Jerusalem toward Bethel. The tradition of Eusebius is maintained in Jerome's Epistle 108: 10 (Paula PPT I, 8) "Not far from there (Bethlehem) she descended to the tower of Ader, i.e. of the flock, near which Jacob fed his flocks and the shepherds watching at night were worthy to hear the Gloria." The mystery of the shepherds receiving the news before the event is noted by Jerome here and in Hebrew Questions (43).


197. Beelsephōn (Beelrefon). Exodus 14:2; K. 44:2; L. 246:27.

Textual variant "through the waters" is not in the Latin.

Many of the stations are from a separate list and probably were not in the original Eusebius text since for the most part they are out of the geographical range of the Holy Land. Occasionally in the early writers this is the boundary of Palestine. Old Testament site probably Ras Baron.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Beelsefon, having hope" (74) and "Beelsofon Ascent of hope" (79).


198. Banēiakan (Baneiacan). Numbers 33:31f.; K. 44:5; L. 246:31.

Simple entry of station but out of biblical order.

199. Banōth. Numbers 21:19, 20; K. 44:7; L. 246:33.

Textual variant Babōth (Greek).

In the Vatican manuscript the entry does not start on a new line but follows laou of the previous one. On Arnon cf. K. 10:25 (Josua 13:17)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Banoth, in death or high" (79).

200. Basan. Numbers 21:33; K. 44:9; L. 246:35.

Textual variants of substitute "kingdom" for "king" or add kingdom to king. The Latin addendum is confusing. Basan has not been mentioned "above" as an entry, but in a similar type of reference (cp. K. 13:11and K. 18:4). It is Auoth Iaeir (K. 18:4) and also Machathi (K. 128:9). Only the Latin gives the etymology of Auoth. The biblical summary is from Deuteronomy 3:14, Numbers 32:33, and Joshua 13:30.

The region of Galaad (cf. K. 60:15f.) is here called Basanitē or Batanaia, regions of Transjordan. Basan usually is the area between the Jarmuk and a line between Hermon and Damascus. It is very similar to the Arabic Hauran. Galaad varies in size from all the hill country of Transjordan, to the territory of Manasseh, to that which is equal to Basan. Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah2:13 writes, "The region of Basan is Arabia which Og who is called king of Basan ruled." In the Onomasticon it includes Cerasa (K. 64:1) and possibly Nemra (K. 138:10). Galaad is the biblical name of the area of Basan. Batanaea is apparently the contemporary name for the village on the site of Basan (K. 64:8) from which the region is named (K. 138:7).

201. Beelphegōr (Baelfegor). Numbers 25:3; K. 44:12; L. 246:38.

Another of the references to idols (cf. K. 36:15) in the Onomasticon which technically should be listing only place names (Appendix II). Jerome in Commentary on Hosea 9:10 also makes the identity, "Beelphegor, idol of the Moabites, which we call Priapus" (cf. identity of Ariel K. 37:24). Priapus was the god of gardens and vineyards. It is probably, for our text, the same as Bethphogor (K. 48:3). The location of Mt.Phogō is in Moab (K. 168:25).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Behelfegor, bone having skin" (79) and "Behelfegor, bone having skin or bone covered with skin" (86).

202. Baian (Baean). Numbers 32:3; K. 44:14; L. 246:40.

Simple biblical summary, cp. K. 44:21.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baian, in wickedness" (79).

203. Bēthnamran (Bethamnaram). Numbers 32:36; K. 44:19; L. 246:42.

Textual variants for the contemporary village Bēthnabran (Greek), Bethamnaris (Latin).

This site has moved three times (see Introduction). Tell Nimrin retains the name and represents the Roman-Byzantine city. The Old Testament site is farther northeast up the wadi (cf. Bethnemra K. 48::6 and Nemra K. 138:10).

Tell Nimrin is 5 miles from Tell er Rameh which is said to be Livias and was used frequently as a referent (K. 12:22, K. 16:126, K. 48:4, K. 48:17, and K. 168:26). The name was given to the restored Roman town in honor of Augustus' wife (K. 49:13). In Jerome's Commentary on Joel3:18 he places Livias (Iulias) at 6 miles from the Dead Sea. The change in name is reported by Josephus in Wars II, 13, 2 and IV, 7, 6. There was a bishop from here at Nicea. Livias may be Old Testament Bethharan (K. 48:13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethanamra, house of the panther or house of bitterness" (79).

204. Betharran. Across the Jordan. Numbers 32:36; K. 44:19; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This item is missing in the Vatican manuscript. It seems also to be Bēetharam (K. 48:13) the first part of which is also missing in the Vatican manuscript.

This is closely related to the previous entry and some see Livias as the site for Old Testament Betharran at Tell er Rameh but better at Tell Iktanu where more ancient remains are found. Rameh does preserve the ancient name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Betharan, house of the ark or mountains or ascent of the ground" (79).

205. Beelmeōn. Numbers 32:38; K. 44:21; L. 246:45.

Textual variant for contemporary village Baarau and Barum (Latin). Vulgate Baalmaon and Baalmeon. Probably identical with next entry Baal (K. 46:3).

The Onomasticon confused this site with Abelmaelai (K. 34:21) of which Elissaios is also a native (I Kings 19:16). The city of Ma 'in southwest of Madela (K. 128:9) fits the location given from Esbous (84:1). It is close enough to the hot springs of hamman ez Zerqa Ma 'in which could be Baarou. The Madaba map has Baarou at this location following Eusebius. Another healing spring is reported at Balthainaia (K. 30:7). Some think Barēn (K. 112:17) is the same as Baaron.

Arabia (K. 10:17) is a frequent designation for this area. In Ptolemy's Arabia Petraia there is a town near Esbous and Madela called Magouza which could reflect the Old Testament name with G for the Hebrew guttural.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bahalmeon, having little habitations" (79).

206. Baal. Numbers 32:38; K. 46:3; L. 247:50.

The same as previous entry. Simple biblical information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Baal, having" (90) and "Baal, have judgement or superior or having a brawl" (100).

207. Bouthan (Buthan). Numbers 33:6; K. 46:4; L. 247:51.

Textual variants: Atham and possibly ētham (Greek cf. K. 94:15) and Butham (Latin).

Apparently both entries are transliteration for "in" which is the letter B in Hebrew then followed by an alef. (cp. Exodus 13:20).

208. Bēla. Numbers 34:11; K. 46:6; L. 247:53.

Simple entry of biblical information. For Arbēla see K. 14:18 above.

209. Bosor. Deuteronomy 4:43; K. 46:8; L. 247:55.

The Onomasticon confuses the city of refuge Bezer (Joshua 20:8, 21:36) with the metropolis of Bostra (K. 12:14). This was a bishop's seat at the time of Council of Nicea. It was a metropolis of Arabia from the 2nd century and an important military post according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:21) as well as main transportation center. It is 25 miles east of Der 'a and is the modern Arabic Busra (cf. K. 166:3). It is in the Trachonites area (K. 112:22).

The Edomite city (Isaiah 63:1) is probably to be located at the rich site Buseirah south of Taffilah. II Maccabees 12:8 notes Timotheus has a garrison there. It was not too significant in the fourth century but was very important in the Iron Age. In the Onomasticon Edom usually refers to the biblical area and era; Idoumaia to the Roman period; while Gaibalene or Gebalitikē to Eusebius' time (cf. K. 102:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bosor, in distress" (86).

210. Bēroth. Deuteronomy 10:6; K. 46:14; L. 247:61.

This is not a contemporary village only a place. It is located in reference to Petra (K. 8:11, K. 142:7 etc.). This puts it on a mountain near the outlet of the Wadi Musa perhaps at Biyar et Taiyibe. The mountain is also called ōr (K. 176:7).

This is to be distinguished from the Bērōth (K. 48:9) near Babaōn (K. 66:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Beroth, wells" (86).


211. Bounos. Joshua 5:3; K. 46:18; L. 247:65.

The Latin translation is perhaps better than a Greek place name. Galgala (K. 64:24, cf. 64:18) is a complicated problem (Joshua 4:3) but it seems likely that Josephus and Eusebius identified the "hill" of Gilgal with Tell es Sultan which is two miles from New Testament or Roman Iericho (K.104:25). See K. 104:20 on the Jordan.

212. Bēthōrōn. Joshua 10:10; K. 46:21; L. 247:69.

Summary of biblical information interrupted by a location. This order suggests several hands have been at work on the entry. The Levitical city (Joshua 21:22) is another addition by an editor.

The Madaba map has Bēthōrōn following Eusebius on the road from Jerusalem to Diospolis (K. 8:14). Paula ascended from Emmaus along this road, "beholding Ajalon (K. 18:13) and Gabson (K. 66:11) on her right." She adds from Kings the fact also that Solomon founded the two cities, (Jerome's Epistle 108:8, PPT 1, 5) later destroyed by the fortunes of war (I Maccabees 3:16, Josephus Wars II, 5, 16). They are on the map as one of the stations for Roman couriers.

The distance in the Onomasticon is appropriate for Beit Ur el Foqa and Beit Ur et Tahta twin towns which retain the sound of the old name. A milestone 14 from Aelia has been found half way between the two villages, the upper being nearer Jerusalem.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethoron, house of wrath" (106) and "Betharan, house or wrath or house of mountain" (90).

213. Barnē. Joshua 10:41; K. 46:26; L. 247:74.

Identified with the desert stretching south of Petra (K. 142:7) and more frequently Kadēs Barnē (K. 112:8).

214. Baalgad. Joshua 11:17; K. 48:1; L. 247:76.

Textual variants. Baalgōd (Greek). Procopius 1024A has Balgad but otherwise quotes Eusebius. It is probably also Algad (K. 22:22).

It is located only generally on the basis of biblical information (cf. Libanon (K. 122:27) and Hermon (K. 20:6). Some suggest this could be Baalbek.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baalgad, he had equipment or man of arms or pirate or man of fortune" (90).

215. Bethphogor (Bethfogor). Joshua 13:20; K. 48:3; L. 247:78.

The location of this place depends in Eusebius on Livias (K. 44:17 and K.48:15) and Phogōr (K. 16:4 and K. 168:25) which is only 6 miles from Livias. It is quite possible that Eusebius has in mind Kh Ajan Musa, but other scholars hold to Kh sheikh jayil, for the Old Testament site.

216. Bēthasimouth (Bethsimuth). Joshua 12:3; K. 48:6; L. 247:81.

Textual variants: Bethaisimouth (Greek) and Bethsimouth (Greek and Syriac) reflect the occasional insertion of the Hebrew article between two elements when transcribed into Greek. It is Bēsimō in Josephus' Wars IV, 7, 6 and a "city" located near Iulias (Livias 44:17). In the Madaba map a palm tree is here but no name in the vicinity.

The nearby sites of Tell el 'Azeimeh and Kh sweimeh are candidates for the biblical site. Sweimeh contains some reminiscence of the name and may be Isimouth (or Isemouth) of the Onomasticon while the Tell closer to the edge of the mountains may be the biblical site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethaisimouth, desert home or home bringing death" (90).

217. Bērōth (Beeroth). Joshua 9:17, 18:25; K. 48:8; L. 247:83.

A number of towns in the Onomasticon are related to Gabaon (K. 66:11, cf. 172:15) but even its location at el jib is contested. Here Bērōth is near Jerusalem while Gabaon is usually located with respect to Bethel. Eusebius' biblical remark on Gabaon, however, is more political and economic than geographic.

Archaeologists and geographers have had a lively debate over Bērōth and Gabaon which was not ended with excavations of el-jib. The Madaba Map is inconclusive because it requires emendation. Only erouta is written. It could be for Berouta and northwest of Jerusalem could fit our entry. But it has also been related to Capheruta which is not in the Onomasticon.

For some reason Jerome has a different road than Eusebius. Procopius 1020C follows the Greek text with a Bēthōr on the road to Nikopolis (K. 30:27) at the seventh milestone. Neither say from where, but it is usually assumed from Ailia since it is "near." Jerome has Neapolis (K. 4:18) either as a correction of the Greek or because his Greek manuscript was in error. The correction could be based on Josephus Wars II 5, 16. This Latin text is one of the few using "stone" for "mile."

If the Neapolis road is intended the majority of scholars fix Jerome's Beroth at el bire which has carried that name at least since the Middle Ages but as far as archaeological remains are evident it cannot be the Old Testament site. More recently it has been suggested at Tell en Nasbeh which is often identified as the Old Testament Mizpeh, and closer to the 7 miles than el bire.

On the basis of Nikopolis in the Greek text many possibilities are suggested. Some scholars give up the puzzle. It must be in the vicinity of el jib. Pritchard has no objections to Roman-Byzantine Beroth at el jib, but feels the evidence that it is the Old Testament Gabaon is determinative. Others suggest Kh 'id and Nebi Samwil. A possible solution is that the Greek text does not locate Bērōth except as in the vicinity of Gabaon which then is properly located 7 miles from ("near") Jerusalem on the Nikopolis road at el-jib.

218. Botnia (Bothnim). Joshua 13:26; K. 48:11; L. 247:85.

Textual variants: Botanin (LXX) and Bothnin (Latin).

The location of Old Testament and Byzantine site is probably at Kh Batneh which has the proper sherds.

The "also Poteein" is omitted in the Latin text. Variant is Botenein.

219. Bētharam. Joshua 13:27; K. 48:13; L. 247:87.

The first part of this entry is missing in Vatican manuscript. Curiously so is its parallel Bētharran (K. 44:19). As in the note on Livias (K. 44:17) this is possibly at Tell er Rameh. Recent Iron Age pottery in the vicinity makes it possible that it could be the Old Testament site as well. But Tel Iktanu is still to be preferred.

220. Bethnema. Joshua 13:27; K. 48:16; L. 247:89.

Textual variants: Bethramta and Bethramthit (Latin).

See K. 44:16 and K. 138:10.

221. Bethagla. Joshua 15:6; K. 48:18; L. 248:91.

Part of the beginning of this entry is missing in the Vatican manuscript. This is not to be confused with Bēthagla (K. 8:19) in the Jordan valley.

One site which the Onomasticon equates with Bēthagla is the village Agla. It is 10 miles from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) probably at Kh 'Ajian. Text notes turn off from main Roman road.

The second site closer to Gaza (K. 62:22) called Bethagla is probably Tell el 'Ajjul, considered by some to be old Gaza (K. 63:23) but probably Eusebius is wrong in both instances for the Old Testament site. This is one of the few entries where the Latin uses "milestone."

The Madaba map has a Bēthagidea which could have confused a Delta for a Lambda and seems to fit Tell el 'Ajjul south of Gaza.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethaglan, house of their festivities" (91).

222. Bētharaba. Joshua 15:6; K 48:21; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Betharaba, house of earth or evening" (91).

223. Baal. Joshua 15:9; K. 48:22; L. 248:94.

The same as Kariathiareim (K. 114:23). In that latter entry it is nine miles instead of ten as here on the road to Diospolis (K. 8:14), at joryat al Inab.

224. Baala. Joshua 15:11; K. 48:25; L. 248:97.

The alternative is not in the Latin text but occurs in some manuscript variants.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baala, it or above" (91).

225. Balōth. Joshua 15:24; K. 48:26; L. 248:98.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baaloth, on the ascent or ascents in the plural" (91).

226. Bethphalei (Bethfali). Joshua 15:27; K. 48:27; L. 248:99.

The alternative is not in the Latin text. LXX has Baithphaleth.

Textual variant is Belphalei (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethafelet, house of health" (91).

227. Bērsabee. Joshua 15:28, 19:2; K. 50:1; L. 248:00.

The Madaba Map, following the Onomasticon and the Old Testament (Genesis 21:32, 26:33) has its limits north and south expressed by Dan and Bērsabee. "Bersabee which is now Berossaba. The borders of Jordan extend this far to the south from Dan (K. 16:6) near Paneas (K. 16:14) which forms the border to the North." This is the limit of Palestine. The west is the sea and the east Damascus (K. 16:4), Bostra (K. 66:3), Petra (K. 142:7) and Ailath (K. 34:25). These limits for Eusebius and the Madaba map may come from Josephus' Wars I, 12, 1.

The location twenty miles south of Chebron (K. 6:8) is repeated in Jerome's Epistle 103:32. This is about six miles short of the present Beersheba. The derivation of the name is reported in K. 166:20 which also notes it to be in the Geraritikē. The Geraritikē has wells (K. 166:21, 24; and K. 168:3).

Bersabee was an administrative headquarters of the Negev region. It is called a large village in Eusebius, with a garrison in Notitia Dignitatum (73:18). Ruins of the Roman fort have been found. In Questions on Genesis21:30 Jerome called it an "oppidum." A camp seems to be on the Madaba map about 20 miles from Chebrōn to the south.

Jerome notes a political and military reason why a town could be allotted to two different tribes.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bersabee, well of abundance and seven wells" (63) and "Bersabee, well of abundance" (63).

228. Balaam (Balam). Joshua 15:29; K. 50:13; L. 248:12.

Simple tribal listing. See K. 48:25.

229. Baskōth (Bascath). Joshua 15:39, 19:2; K. 50:14; L. 248:13.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Basecoth, soft fat or defecation" (91).

230. Bethdagōn. Joshua 15:41; K. 50:15; L. 248:14.

Textual variant Bēdagōn and Kai paradagōn (Greek) a scribal error for the contemporary site.

On the Madaba Map is a Bēthodegana which could be the present Kh Dajun retaining part of the name and fitting Eusebius' location if the road runs from Ioppa (K.110:24) to Diospolis (K. 8:14) rather than from Iamnia (K. 106:20). It is off the Roman road.

The Roman-Byzantine site must be at Beit Dajun. The Greek kepara or kapher reflect the Hebrew kapher for "village" (cf. 52:21).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethdagan, house of wheat" (91).

231. Bēthalōth. Joshua 15:59; K. 50:17; L. 248:16.

Simple tribal listing. This seems to be a scribal error for Bethanōth and is located near Chebrōn is Bethenim (K. 94:20). Out of order and suspect.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethanoth, house of prediction" (91).

232. Bēthphou (Bathaffu). Joshua 15:53; K. 50:18; L. 248:17.

Textual variant Bethtaphou (Greek) follows the MT.

This entry is about the same as Tapphou (K. 98:7) but may be mixing up two Old Testament sites. It is on the road to Egypt on the border of Palestine beyond Raphia (only mentioned here) but before Rinokoura (K. 148:3). The site is perhaps near Sheih Zuweiyd. Raphia is another change point on the Roman-Byzantine itineraries and is probably at Tell Rifah. The Madaba map has a Raphia to cover this point on the sea as well as an inland city. Just below it is the wording on the map "Border of Egypt and Palestine."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Beththafue, house of apple tree not evil, but we understood a tree" (91).

233. Betharaba. Joshua 15:61; K. 50:21; L. 248:20.

Hexaplaric information only. Vatican manuscript faulty in several spots here.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Betharaba, house of many or grand" (91).

234. Beesthara. Joshua 21:27; K. 50:22; L. 248:21.

Summary of biblical information. On Basanite see K. 44:11. Out of order.

235. Bethaun. Joshua 18:12; K. 50:24; L. 249:23.

Cf. the etymology and identification with Baithēl in K. 43:3. LXX has Baithōn. On Gai (K. 4:27). The identity of the two is not clearly accepted in K. 66:8 where Gai is near Bēthaun and Beithēl. Some suggest it is the enigmatic ruin of et Tell. If Eusebius knew a real location with late occupation it could be Tell Mirjam.

For Machmas see K. 132:3. Jerome has confused the issue of location by adding Bethel (K. 51:23) but refers to the previous identification.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethauen, home of futility" (90).

236. Baliloth. Joshua 18:17; K. 50:26; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing which has a G not a B in the MT and may be same as Galeilōoth of K. 70:17.

237. Bethsour (Bethaur). Joshua 15:58; K. 52:1; L. 249:25.

Textual variants: Bedsour (Greek), Bethsor and Bethsoron (Latin).

All the witnesses combine Philippos' well with Bethsour (Acts 8:38). In the Madaba map they are adjacent: "Bethsoura, the shrine of Philip where they say Candacē the eunuch was baptized." This follows the error of the Greek which confused the name of the queen with that of her eunuch. Jerome corrects this.

The pilgrim texts note the well of Philip at Bethasora, fourteen miles from Bethleem (Itin. Bourd. and PTT I, 21). The road to Gaza went by the well. "From there she turned to the right through Bethsur and came to Escol" (Jerome's Epistle 108:11 (Paula PPT I, 9). It is the border of Juda and Edam.

The Madaba map and Eusebius point to the vicinity of modern Beit sur. Since Kh et Tabeiqah the Old Testament site has no Byzantine or Roman remains and was apparently abandoned in the second century before Christ, the Burj es Sur may be the Onomasticon's Bethsōrō. The well is 18 miles from Jerusalem. The Burj is to the west as Paula noted.

The "other" Bethsour is also linked with Iouda. The distance from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) is missing from the Vatican manuscript. This site is not identified but could be deir esh shur.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethsur, house of strength" (91).

238. Boon. Joshua 18:17; K. 52:6; L. 249:31.

Simple tribal listing.

239. Bēthalōn. Joshua 18:19; K. 52:7; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of this entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. A variant is Betholon (Latin).

Simple tribal listing plus Hexaplaric data. Not in MT of Hebrew.

240. Bēthagla (Bethalla). Joshua 18:19, 21; K. 52:8; L. 249:32.

A simple tribal listing cf. K. 48:18, K. 8:11.

241. Bērōth. Joshua 18:25; K. 52:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Vatican manuscript.

A simple tribal listing cf. K. 48:9.

242. Bola. Joshua 19:3; K. 52:10; L. 249:33.

Textual variant Bala (Latin).

Simple tribal listing cf. K.130:6.

243. Bathoul. Joshua 19:4; K. 52:11; L. 249:34.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethula, virgin" (91).

244. Bēth. Joshua 19:5; K. 52:12; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Vatican manuscript. Variant Bethis (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

245. Baaleth. Joshua 19:8; K. 52: 13; L. 249:35.

Simple tribal listing cf. K. 54:20.

246. Bērammōth. Joshua 19:8; K. 52:14; L. 249:36.

The Greek has separated the previous entry and this one differently. At times the Beer is the suffix to Baaleth and at times prefix to Ramoth.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Beram, well of the heights" (91).

247. Bēthlabaōth. Joshua 19:6; K. 52:15; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Vatican manuscript and is out of order in the text.

Simple tribal listing cf. K. 122:4.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethlebaoth, house of coming" (91).

248. Bethleem. Joshua 19:15; K. 52:16; L. 249:37.

A simple tribal listing plus a note to distinguish it from the more renowned Bethleem of Iouda (K. 42:10). The note may be an addition. This other Bethleem according to Jerome's Commentary on Matthew 2: 5 is in Galilaea.

249. Bēthphasis (Bethfases). Joshua 19:21; K. 52:18; L. 249:39.

Textual variant in Vatican manuscript has this listed for Iouda not Issachar.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethfese, house of the flowing mouth" (91).

250. Batnai (Batnae). Joshua 19:25; K. 52:19; L. 249:40.

Textual variant for contemporary village Bebeten (Greek).

The site is really unknown despite many suggestions. Name recurs in Abtun southeast of Acre Ptolemais (K. 30:10) is Akehō and is a territory or a region.

251. Bēthdagōn. Joshua 19:27; K. 52:21; L. 249:42.

Textual variants: Bēthphagōn (Greek) and Bethdago (Latin).

Simple tribal listing cf. K. 50:15. Jerome gives a second reason why a site could be listed for two tribes (cf. K. 50:10f.). It could be a different town and in the Nablus area, either Ras ed Diyar or Shuweiha.

252. Bēthaemek (Bethemec). Joshua 19:27; K. 52:23; L. 249:44.

Symmachus note plus late gloss on tribal history.

253. Bēthanatha (Bethana). Joshua 19:38; K. 52:24; L. 249:45.

The text has confused several sites. But clearly 'anin is intended cf. K. 30:5, K. 26:9, 13. Note the caution on healing baths, almost a rumor.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethanath, house of humiliation or house of answering" (91).

254. Banē. Joshua 19:45; K. 54:1; L. 249:48.

Simple tribal listing that perhaps should be combined with the next into one entry.

255. Barakai (Barac). Joshua 19:45; K. 54:1; L. 249:49.

Textual variant Bare (Latin) and in Greek for the contemporary site Barēka and Barba. LXX has Barak.

Eusebius' identity of the Old Testament site errs, but he intended barqa near Ashdod.


256. Bezek (Bezec). Judges 1:4; K. 54:5; L. 249:52.

Two sites about a mile apart are clearly the Onomasticon's Bezek. One was a Roman road station. Perhaps Kh Ibziq and Kh Jebrish with good Roman and Byzantine sherds. But which of these has any Iron Age pottery needs study so the Old Testament site is elsewhere. Perhaps this site moved three times as did Nimrin (see Introduction).

257. Bēthsan. Joshua 1:27; K. 54:8; L. 249:55.

This is a famous city of Palestine in the Jordan Valley (K. 16:2). The identity of Bethshan with Skythopolis is clearly made. It is used as a referent by the Onomasticon and has been well excavated at Tell el Husn, near Beisan revealing heavy third to sixth century occupation (see Appendices VII and VIII). There was a bishop present at the Council of Nicea. The road from Skythopolis to Neapolis (K. 4:28) was important to Eusebius (K. 26:23, K. 34:23, K. 54:7, K. 100:13 etc.). The eastern portion toward Damascus (K. 76:4) is not mentioned as frequently.

The etymology is added almost as a later gloss and without the usual formula (I Samuel 31:10 and I Kings 4:12).

In Latin it is both urbs and oppidum (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

258. Bethsames. Joshua 1:33; K. 54:11; L. 249:59.

In K. 32:26 it is Bethsamys (cf. 158:20) located at 'ain Shema. A garrison was located there according to Notitia Dignitatum (73:22). The 10 miles marks turn off from the main road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethsames, house of the sun" (110).

259. Bathma (Bethnath). Judges 1:33; K. 54:11; L. 250:62.

In LXX Baithanath.

A simple biblical report.

260. Bethsames. Judges 1:33; K. 54:16; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Vatican manuscript by simple haplography. This is to be distinguished from the one above in K. 54:11.

261. Baalermōn. Judges 3:3; K. 54:18; L. 250:64.

Simple biblical reference (cf. K. 20:9). Note Jerome's use of Allofylorum rather than translating to Filistine (see Appendix I).

262. Baleth (Baaleth). Judges 19:44; K. 54:20; L. 250:66.

Textual variants: Baalōn and Gebeelan (LXX) and Baalech (Latin).

Simple tribal listing which seems to be out of order (cf. K. 52:13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baaloth, on the heights or heights in the plural" (91).

263. Bethbēra. Judges 7:24; K. 54:21; L. 250:67.

Etymology plus simple biblical note. Perhaps reference to the fords of the Jordan (cp. K. 54:26 below).

264. Bēthasetta. Joshua 7:22; K. 54:22; L. 250:68.

Variants Betthasetta (LXX) Bethtasetta and Bethasepta (Latin).

Simple biblical note.

265. Balanos (i.e., oak of) Sikimōn. Judges 9:6; K. 54:23; L. 250:69.

This is the oak of Sychem (K. 150:1 and K.158:1) near Neopolis (K. 4:28) at Tell Balata. The grave of Joseph is still pointed out south of Balata. The Madaba map indicates the "shrine of Iosēph." Another oak is recorded in K. 42:6 and the terebinth in Sikimos in K. 164:11. Out of order, so this or next entry is suspect.

266. Borkonneim (Borconni). Judges 8:7, 16; K. 54:25; L. 250:71.

Simple Hexaplatic information, repeated by Procopius 1069A. Not a place.

267. Bēra. Judges 9:21; K. 54:26; L. 250:73.

The Onomasticon locates the Old Testament site in the wrong region. The Byzantine Bera is probably Kh el Bireh near 'ain shems. Bera of Old Testament is in the area of Bethbera (K. 54:21 above).

268. Baalthamar. Judges 20:33, 16; K. 56:1; L. 250:75.

Textual variant for the contemporary site Bethamari (Latin).

Apparently the Onomasticon locates this near Tell el Ful a little village for Jerome which may be Ras et Tawel where there are Byzantine remains. Uncertain!

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baalthamar, having palms" (99).


269. Bēthchōr (Bethchur). I Samuel 7:11f.; K. 56:5; L. 250:79.

Simple biblical notation. Onomasticon equates this with Ebenezer (I Samuel 7:12 and cf. K. 32:24 above).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethcar, house of lambs or house of lamb" (103).

270. Bama. I Samuel 9:12; K. 56:7; L. 250:81.

Simple biblical note plus Hexaplaric information.

The Aquila meaning is more exact than Jerome's Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rama in which" (103).

271. Bōsēs. I Samuel 14:4; K. 56:10; L. 250:84.

Simple biblical note. As is frequently the case Jerome refers to Hebrew Questions but nothing new is given there, suggesting this is not the Church Father's reference for more information but a marginal gloss cross-reference.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Boses it flourishes in it or precipitous" (103).

272. Basōr (Besor). I Samuel 30:9; K. 56:11; L. 250:85.

Simple biblical note. There are several wadies or torrents listed in the present text of the Onomasticon which were probably not original with Eusebius. It is difficult to distinguish the two Greek words being used (cp. K. 92:10, K. 102:19, K. 116:23, 25, K. 118:11, K. 160:2. K. 168:15,20, K. 174:16 etc.).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bosori, announcement or flesh" (103).

273. Bōrasan. I Samuel 30:30; K. 56:12; L. 250:87.

Textual Variant Bōsasan (Greek).

Simple report on David's spoils (cf. K. 34:13).

274. Baoureim (Baurim). II Samuel 3:16; K. 56:13; L. 250:88.

Simple biblical note.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baurim, choices" (106).

275. Baalasōr. II Samuel 13:23; K. 56:15; L. 250:89.

Simple biblical quotation. The Greek omits "sheep" and perhaps can be emended.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Balasor, having arrows of light or ascent of the hall" (106).

276. Bēthmacha. II Samuel 20:14; K. 56:17; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Vatican manuscript (cf. II Kings 15:29). The Latin suggests it is to be identified with Macham 8 miles from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) possibly at Kh Mekeuma. Not the Old Testament site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethmacha, house of ground or of forum or of tax" (106).

277. Balth (Balaath). I Kings 9:18; K. 56:20; L. 250:91.

LXX has Balath.

Simple biblical note.

278. Baithsarisa (Bethsarisa). II Kings 4:42; K. 56:21; L. 250:92.

Textual variant Baithsarisath (Greek).

In the region of Diospolis (K. 8:14) is the Thamnitikē (K. 24:4). At the proper distance for turn off from main road is Kh Sirisiah and a bit farther on the Old Testament site at Kefr tilt, which retains the name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Baalsalisa, having three" (114).

279. Baithaggan (Bethagan). II Kings 9:27; K. 56:24; L. 251:95.

Simple biblical entry. Perhaps not a proper name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "'Bethagan, house of the garden."

280. Basekath (Bazeoath). II Kings 22:1; K. 56:25; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican manuscript and is out of the proper order and therefore is suspect as a late intrusion. LXX has Basourōth but the spelling of Onomasticon is closer to MT.

281. Baithakath (Bethacath). II Kings 10:12; K. 56:26; L. 251:96.

Textual variant Bazechath (Latin).

The region of Samaria or the Samaritans is frequently mentioned in the Onomasticon. In this instance it said to be in the area of village dependent upon Samaria (K. 162:13). Legeōn is here called an "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix).

This village is located by reference to Legeōn (K. 14:21) and a similar sounding name is still to be heard at Beit Qad east of Jenin. It is probably not the Old Testament site.

The Vulgate and other versions do not have a proper name here. It has "chamber of the shepherds" (cf. Hexaplaric data also with more detail in Latin).

282. Baithannē (Baenith). II Kings 17:30; K. 58:3; L. 251:99.

The Latin gives only one form for this entry which appears in several variations in the Greek and LXX.

A simple biblical fact is presented.

283. Bublos (Byblus). Ezekiel 27:9; K. 58:5; L. 251:1.

This is almost out of the geographical limits of the Holy Land. It is the most northern identifiable site in the text. It is listed as a Phoenician city but it is unclear whether this refers to biblical or Byzantine terminology, probably the earlier. The Tabula Peutinger has it seven miles from Beirut and 206 from Aelia. The distances are not quite correct but the present well-excavated site seems to be intended. It is never used for any other purpose in the Onomasticon. The difference comes to the vicinity of Nahr Qelb.

284. Boubastos (Bubastus). Ezekiel 30:17; K. 58:7; L. 251:3.

Textual variant Boubatos (Greek).

This is out of the area of the Onomasticon's interest in the Holy Land. Perhaps most of the entries from the prophetic books are suspect as incidental addenda by a later editor. Other sites in Egypt are K. 80:11, K. 134:4, K. 148:3, K. 162:17, K. 164:23,24.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bubastus, mouth or lip of experience" (13).

285. Bōz. Jeremiah 25:23; K. 58:8; L. 251:4.

Textual variant Bōzan (Greek).

This is just on the edge of the limits of the Holy Land as defined by the Onomasticon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Buz, despising or contempt" (126).

286. Bēl. Jeremiah 50:2; K. 58:9; L. 251:5.

Another of the "idols" included by a later editor among the place names (cf. K. 36:15 and Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bel age" (126).


287. Bēthsaida. Matthew 11:21; K. 58:11; L. 251:7.

Textual variants: Bethsaidan (Latin) and also Genesar and Genessareth (Latin).

The location is given largely from the New Testament. In Joseph Wars II, 9, 1 and Antiquities XVIII, 2, 1 he notes it was later also called Ioulias after Augustus' daughter. Formerly only a village it seems to be raised in status. In the New Testament it is called both terms (Matthew 8:26 and John 1:44). Probably et Tell on northeast side of the Sea of Galilee with the port at Kh el 'Araj (cf. John 1:44).

Galilaia is the northern portion of the land west of the Jordan (K. 72:18). It includes the hill country above the great plain and is sometimes "upper" and "lower" in the LXX and Vulgate. In Onomasticon it includes Bēthsaida, Capharnaoum (K. 120:2), Nazareth (K. 138:24) and Chorazein (K. 174:23).

Gennēsaritis is used only twice in the Onomasticon (cf. K. 120:2). The term Tiberias is preferred (cf. K. 16:1).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethsaida, house of fruits or house of hunters" (135).

288. Bēthphagē (Bethfage). Matthew 21:1; K. 58:13; L. 251:9.

The conclusion of this entry and the beginning of the next are missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript but properly supplied from the Latin.

Traditionally this is located at Kefr et Tur where the Palm Sunday processions begin, coming down the Mt. of Olives (jebel et Tur) in Bible and Onomasticon as a referent (K. 58:16, K. 74:17, K. 118:19, K. 175:28). There was intense Roman-Byzantine occupation on the area from 2nd BC to 8th A.D. Eusebius describes the Mt. of Olives in other writings also as in Vita Const. iii, 41; Laud. Const. IX, 17 and Demonstratio Evangelica IV, 18, etc.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Bethfage, house of the mouth of the valley or house of cheeks" (135).

289. Bēthania. Matthew 21:17; K. 58:15; L. 251:10.

The continued identity of Bethany in the present Arabic el 'Azariyeh is uncontested. It is on the Mt. of Olives approximately two miles from Jerusalem. The present Arabic name is an approximation of the late Byzantine Lazarium.

The church known by Jerome (K. 59:17), but not by Eusebius, has been excavated (Note on other churches K. 7:3). The older city is up the slope farther near the medieval tower.

Paula (Migne, Patrologiae Graecae Cursus Completus 22, 888) following the Lord went from Bethany to Bethfage (K. 58:13). The later pilgrims point to both a church and a place of the tomb (John 11:1).

290. Bēthaabara (Bethabara). John 1:28; K. 58:18; L. 251:12.

Textual variant Bethtabera (Latin).

This place is sometimes called the "other Bethany," or the "Bethany across the Jordan." The location is not precisely given, possibly because it was as well know as the previous New Testament villages to the authors. Origen probably began the written tradition of Bethaabara combining the crossing of the Israelites into the Promised Land and the baptism of John. Jerome and Eusebius follow this East bank tradition which by the time of the Madaba map had come to the present traditional location on the West bank near Bethagla (K. 8:19). Madaba map reads, "Bēthabara the place of St. John the Baptist." Origen in his Commentary on John writes, "But the place named Bethania is across the Jordan. It is said that a Bethabara is pointed out beside the bank of the Jordan where as it is reported John Baptized" (Migne, Patrologiae Graecae Cursus Completus, 14, 269). Perhaps Kh el Medesh near the Wadi Nimrin is the place. Some believe the Madaba map refers to two locations, but the influence of Origen and Eusebius is still seen. On the tradition of Ainon for place of Baptism see K. 40:1.

The "brothers" of course mean in general Christians, but it is unclear whether loutron refers to general bathing, liturgical renewals of baptism or the original baptism of each Christian. In spite of Constantine there are only three Christian "towns" in the Onomasticon: Anaia (K. 26:14, Ietheira (K. 108:3) and Kariatha (K. 112:16).

291. Bēzatha (Bethsaida). John 5:2; K. 58:21; L. 251:15.

Textual variants: Bethesda (Latin), Josephus has Bezatha.

Eusebius again follows Origen (Migne, Patrologiae Graecae Cursus Completus 14, 269) in his description of the twin pools and in the general location. The pools apparently gave their name to the quarter of the city. The Church of St. Ann is in the general area of the church on the Madaba map.

This explanation is curious. Such explanations are not common in the Onomasticon. In Eusebius only one of the twin pools is involved in the miracle. The pilgrims report similar happenings. "There are in Jerusalem two large pools at the north side of the temple, that is one upon the right hand and one upon the left where were made by Solomon; and further in the city are twin pools with five porticoes which are called Bethsaida. There persons who have been sick for many years are cured; the pools contain water which is red when it is disturbed" (Itin. Bourd. PPT 1, 20).



292. Gaiōn (Geon). Genesis 2:13; K. 60:3; L. 251:24.

This entry is out of the geographical range of the Holy Land as perceived in the Onomasticon just as entries appearing first in A and B sections also. This is a river which makes it doubly suspect.

The information is dependent on Scripture and Josephus. "Lastly (of the 4 rivers in Paradise) Geon which flows through Egypt means 'that which wells up to us from the opposite world' and by the Greeks is called the Nile" (Antiquities I, 1, 3). For another such river see K. 82:7, K. 164:7, and K. 166:7).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Geon, breast or broken off" (66).

293. Gomorra. Genesis 10:19; K. 60:5; L. 251:26.

Biblical information on the Pentopolis of Sodom (K. 150:10). Jerome in Hebrew Questions seems to suggest the vicinity of the hot springs of Callirhoe (14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names he notes that the Latin G is not here but rather a vowel should be used to begin these words (cf. his note on Gader (K. 63:4). "Gomorra, fear of the people or sedition" (67).

294. Gerara. Genesis 20:1; K. 60:7; L. 251:28.

Procopius 309C follows the first sentence almost exactly but shortened the remainder into "a royal city of the Phylistiems located between the deserts of Sour and Kadēs." The Madaba map also follows Eusebius "Gerara-once a royal city of the Phylistia and the southern border of the Chananaia thence the salton Geraritikon."

Gerara is located from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) in the southwest area of Palestinē. A vignette on the Madaba map fits the legend and the Onomasticon's information. The name is still to be found at Kh Um Jerrar but this is not the location for either the Old Testament site or that of the Onomasticon. The biblical site is possibly at Tell Abu Hureira. Eusebius does not say if he knows a village or city existing there in his day so he could have had this tell in mind. But if a Byzantine town is needed it may be Tell ash Shari'a on the wadi of the same name which is largely a Roman-Byzantine site.

The area was named for the city back in patriarchal times (Genesis 26:1). It is on the border of Chananite territory (Genesis 10:19). The Geraritikē is probably the same area south of the region of Eleutheropolis and west of the Daroma (K. 26:10) or Negeb (K. 136:14). It may be parallel to Barsama a military area. Later this was a bishop's seat.

Apparently Sur is the southern and western portion of the Sinai Peninsula (K. 152:6). Kades (K. 112:8) is central and eastern while that belonging to the Saracees is the northern caravan area which in Transjordan probably extended to the Syrian Desert (K. 118:21 and K. 124:10). The biblical information is here summarized from I Samuel 15:7, Exodus 15:22, and Numbers 27:14.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gerara, he saw a chewing of the cud or a garden wall" (66).

295. Galaad. Genesis 31:21; K. 60:15; L. 252:36.

Originally the area was just south of the Jabboq. In the widest use as in the Onomasticon it included all the Transjordanian territory ever claimed by ancient Israel. Procopius 1060B has, "Galaad is located back of Phoenikē and Arabia, linked with the Libanon and extending through the desert beyond the Iordan Peraia (to Petra?). Here Sēon the Amorite dwelled. It was received by the two half tribes. In Jeremia it says, "You are to me like the peak of Lebanon." There is also a mountain Galaad with a city set upon it which Galaad the son of Macheir, son of Manassē took from the Amorites." Jerome in Commentary on Ezekeil 14:18 writes, "Galaad, which is connected by hills with Mt. Leban fell by lot to Ruben and Gad and the half tribe of Manassē. It is back of Phoenice and Arabia. To this mountain Jacob came fleeing from Charran and was caught by Laban. Jeremia says of it, 'Galaad, you are to be the beginning of Libani.' Galaad the son of Machir, the son of Manassē took this from the Amorites." Jerome repeats this in Commentary on Jeremiah 22:6.

The hill country today includes a jebel jel'ad which is near Kh Jel 'ad, the probable town Eusebius had in mind. It has Roman-Byzantine sherds but the Old Testament site must be elsewhere.

The biblical information is from Deuteronomy 3:16, Joshua 13:8.11, Jeremiah 22:6 and Numbers 32:39. Charran although out of the Onomasticon's area is discussed in K. 170:23.

There is a Latin variant Charris.

Mesopotamia is probably here used as the Roman province which includes Euphratēs (K. 82:7, Phathourra (K. 168:22) and the above Charran (K. 170:23).

Arabia is confusing in the Onomasticon since it is not always the Roman province. Different editors may be using it differently.

Libanon (K, 10:24), Iordan (K. 104:20) and Petra (K. 142:7).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Galaad, heap of evidence or migration of evidence" (67).

296. Gader. Genesis 35:21; K. 62:5; L. 252:45.

Textual variant Adda (Syriac).

A simple biblical report.

Apparently in K. 68:11 the Onomasticon confuses this with the Canaanite royal city. The Tower or Migdal is in the Chebrōnrea (K. 43:23). In Hebrew Questions Jerome locates it near Bethleem (43). Jerome's text frequently makes note of transliteration problems from Hebrew to Greek and Latin.

297. Gethem (Gethaim). Genesis 36:35; K. 62:7; L. 252:47.

Textual variants: Gethea (Greek), Geththaim, and Adda (LXX).

Here Idumaia is identified with the Gebalēne (cf. K. 26:10 and K. 102:23).

Gethem without the G in Hebrew is Avith but location still unknown.

298. Gesem. Genesis 45:10; K. 62:10; L. 252:50.

Textual variant Gesen (Latin).

This is also out of the geographical area of the Holy Land.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names ""Gesen, approaching flatteries or vicinity" (67). But, "If as in our codices the final M is written Gesem, which doesn't please me at all. it signifies fall land" (49).


299. Gasiōn (Gaber). Numbers 33:35; K. 62:13; L. 252:53.

Cf. K. 36:1. The Onomasticon has only a report on Asian not personal identification. Cf. the Latin variants Esaiam and Aialam and cf. also Deuteronomy 2:8.

300. Gai. Numbers 33:44; K. 62:17; L. 252:57.

Gaia is called a city of Petra (K. 142:7) but lacks any other identification or location.

301. Gelmōn Deblathaeim (Gelmōn Deblathaim). Numbers 33:46; K. 62:19; L. 252:59.

Biblical note on the station but a different formula from the usual.

Also out of order.

302. Gadgad. Numbers 33:23; K. 62:20; L. 252:60.

Another note on the station. Probably a confusion of Dibongad (K. 76:23) Numbers 33:46.

303. Gaza. Deuteronomy 2:23; K. 62:22; L. 252:62.

Gaza has always been a significant or famous city of Palestine. It once formed the border of the Chanaanites (Genesis 10:19). It was one of the Philistine cities (K. 22:6, 11, 15 and K. 68:4). They (foreigners-Philistines usually) were not driven out by Israel (Joshua 15:47, Judges 1:18)

The Madaba Map locates Gaza and describes it as a splendid town with columned streets and a basilica.

Tabula Peutinger locates it 15 miles from Askalon (K. 22:15).

It had suffered under Diocletian but had a bishop at Nicea (Historia Ecclesiastica VIII, 13, 5).

The region of Gaza was important in the Onomasticon and the Roman road system (cf. Jerome's Epistle 108:11). The city is probably still ghazzeh.

The Greeks and after them, Jerome, seems to have distinguished another older Gaza. Jerome for some literalistic theological reasons does not expect such a splendid city to still exist after all the prophetic woes pronounced against it. Some suggest this old site was Bethaglaim (K. 48:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gaza his strength" (66) and "Gaza strength, but probably one should know that the Hebrews do not have as the first letter a consonant, but the word begins with a vowel and is pronounced Aza" (87).

304. Gergasei (Gergasi). Deuteronomy 7:1; K. 64:1; L. 252:68.

Textual variants: Gergesa (Greek) and Gargasi (Latin).

This is equated with an important city in Arabia (Coele Syria) called Gerasa. Some falsely equate it with Gadara (K. 74:10). Both were cities of the Dekopolis (K. 80:16). The equation with Gerasa, probably modern Jerash, seems more correct than with the city Galaad (K. 62:2) since the Onomasticon locates it as near Galaad (Josh 12:5). This Gergasei is distinct in the Onomasticon from the New Testament site (K. 74:13) (cf. Mark 5:1).

Gerasa has been well excavated to become known as the "Pompeii of Palestine." According to the Onomasticon the Jabbok flowed between it and Philadelphia only four miles from Gerasa (K.102:22). Many villages depended on it in Roman-Byzantine times.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gergesaeum, attached to the farm" (87).

305. Gadgada. Deuteronomy 10:7; K. 64:5; L. 253:73.

A simple entry with no real identity or location (cp. Gadgad (K. 62:20)).

Either this or the next entry out of order and suspect as late additions.

306. Gaulōn or Gōlan (Gōlam). Deuteronomy 4:43; K. 64:6; L. 253:75.

The city gave its name to a region in Roman times, but is not used as such by the Onomasticon since it apparently overlaps the region Batauaia (K. 44:10). The city may possibly be located at Sahem el Jolan cf. Joshua 20:8. See previous entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gaulon, his rolling about" (87).

307. Gaibal (Gebal). Deuteronomy 11:29; K. 64:9; L. 253:79.

Textual variant Gebal (Greek).

This and the following entry can be treated together. The Onomasticon begins by recording the simple biblical information here.

The generally accepted tradition is to follow the Samaritan tradition as given here. The two mountains are on either side of Neapolis (K. 4:28) and are Jebel es-Slamiyeh and Jebel et Tur. The Madaba Map reflects this tradition by having them near Shechem (K. 150:1) called Garizin and Gōbel. The pilgrims also recognize this identity. "At Neapolis is Mt.Agazaren where the Samaritans say Abraham brought the sacrifice. And to ascend up to the summit are 300 steps. At the foot of the mountain is located a place by the name of Shechem" (Itin. Bourd. PPT I, 18). Zeno and Justinian built churches on Garizein according to Procopius Buildings V, vii, 5-17. Excavation of this area is going on.

But Eusebius and Jerome prefer to follow an anti-Samaritan location. The Madaba map hesitates between the two opinions and so locates Gebal Garizeini near Ierichō (K. 104:25). The use of the LXX names in Ierichō region and the Aramaic in the Neapolis area may signify some preference. Since Josephus and the later Byzantines had the correct tradition, this rabbinic tradition must have developed in the late first and early second centuries. Procopius 905C is also confused: "This is situated at the Eastern part of Ierichō beyond Galgal" and he continues by denying the Samaritan tradition. Yet in 908A he seems to accept the Samaritan location and tradition. The two mountains near Jericho are probably those above Aqaba jabr sometimes called Tyros and Thrax. The Roman road to Jerusalem passed between them.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gebal, ancient abyss or stone building" (87).

308. Garizein (Garizin). Deuteronomy 11:29; K. 64:16; L. 242.

See previous entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Garizin, division or stranger" (87).

309. Golgol or Galgal. Deuteronomy 11:30; K. 64:18; L. 253:88.

Textual variants: Golgōn and Galgan (Greek).

The argument of the previous two entries is continued here in Greek and developed by Jerome. A Galgal could be located near Neapolis on the basis of the text quoted (K. 66:7) but the Onomasticon uses the Galgala (K. 64:24) on the Jordan to move mountains.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Galgal, wheel or revelation" (87).

310. Gai. Deuteronomy 34:6; K. 64:21; L. 253:91.

This is not a proper name. It is equated with Bēthphogōr (K. 48:3) with Beth translated "house" of Phogor (K. 168:7, 25). On the Madaba map there is "AIA" which could be related to Bethpeor.

The general area could include the Gai near Petra as in K. 62:17 but it probably does not. The Gai of K. 66:8 is the same as Aggai (K. 4:27).

Here and in K. 70:1 it is better simply "valley."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gai, chasm" (87).


311. Galgala. Joshua 4:19; K. 64:24; L. 253:94.

Textual variant. The distance is omitted in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Gilgal has been a problem for the Onomasticon's editors, pilgrims and modern scholars. "East of Jericho" is a biblical reference not a contemporary geographical one (cf. Joshua 5:11f., Joshua 15:7, I Samuel 7:16, Amos 5:5, II Kings 2:1, and 4:38 etc.). Even if it were being used the quadrant NE to SE could be involved. But the location two miles from Ierichō does not include direction or road. The Madaba map locates it slightly NE of Jericho and records "Galgala also dōdekalithon" (12 stones). Procopius 1009C records the etymology "wheel" and the location at second mile from Ierichō. The 12 stones were said to be visible according to K. 46:20 and Procopius reaffirms this evidence. Paula only contemplated the "field" of Gilgal on her way from Jericho to the Jordan (PPT 1, 4 cf. Jerome's Epistle 108, 2).

Biblical Gilgal is not certain but the measurements of Josephus and Eusebius taken from tubul abu Aliviq (New Testament Jericho) suggest Tell es Sultan was the revered site of Gilgal, the "hill of foreskins" where stones were pointed out.

The Galgala near Bethel could be the same- on the road to Bethel- or it could be one of sites in the hill country related to Garizein and Gaibal (cf. K. 64:18).

312. Gai. Joshua 7:2; K. 66:8; L. 253:2.

Textual variants: Bēthaunōn (Greek) and Bethan (Latin).

The same as Aggai (K. 4:27) probably already in the 4th century the tradition was settled on the ruined place et Tell. In this entry the identity of Bethayn with Baithēl is not made clear (K. 43:3 and Joshua 12:9).

313. Gabaon. Joshua 9:9ff.; K. 66:11; L. 253:6.

The complications on Gabaon have been noted in discussion of Bērōth (K. 48:9). It is further complicated here by 4 miles west of Baithel (K. 40:20). Both the Latin of Jerome and Procopius 1020C accept this reading. This would make the Gabaon in Onomasticon near Ramallah. In the Onomasticon Gabaon, Rama, Galgala, Ailon and Aggai are near Baithēl (cf. Joshua 10:2, 18:25, 21:17; I Kings 3:4).

The Madaba map has a Gabaon at the location generally preferred for the Old Testament site el jib.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gabaon, hill of walls" (94).

314. Gaibe (Gaba). Joshua 18:24; K. 66:17; L. 254:13.

Textual variants: Gabaa (LXX), Gebe (Latin) and Gabe (Syriac).

A simple biblical note (Joshua 21:7) but it is out of order. The last part has been emended from the Latin since it is missing in the Vatican manuscript along with the first part of the next entry. However, Hebrew, Greek and Latin names with G-B are all confused in parts of all the versions.

315. Gazer. Joshua 10:33; K. 64:19; L. 254:14.

The first part of this entry is missing in Vatican manuscript along with the end of the above.

A summary of biblical information from Joshua 21:21, I Kings 9:17, Joshua 16:10, and Judges 1:29. Josephus, Eusebius and the Madaba map seem to be confused about Gazara (K. 72:12), Gedour (K. 68:22) and this Gazer.

The Old Testament site is being excavated at Tell jezer. Seems to have ceased being important before the time of Constantine. But the direction of 4 miles north of Nikopolis (K. 30:27) cannot fit unless WNW is the quadrant. Some have corrected it to be west and then it would be about 5 miles from 'Amwas.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gazer, mutilation or division" (94).

316. Goson. Joshua 10:41; K. 68:3; L. 254:19.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gosnam, next to him or located near" (94).

317. Geth. Joshua 11:22; K. 68:4; L. 254:20.

Another of the Philistine cities (cf. K. 22:6, 11, 15; K. 62:22). Since "foreigners" has been used for 'Enakeim' this is one of the few places in the Onomasticon where it is clearly stated Phylistaioi were not driven out.

Madaba map has "Geth now Gitta once one of the Satrapies." The Bible and the Onomasticon as well as the Amarna letters are confusing with several spellings of similar names (or of the same?) (cp. K. 48:28; K. 70:14; K. 72:2, 4 etc.). The Madaba map has combined Geth with Geththa (K. 72:2) in the vicinity of Ramle which may be at Tell Ras Abu Hamid.

The Onomasticon has 5 miles from Eleutheropolis which points northwest to Kh Dikrin (Dikkriya) others see it at Tell es Safi a bit farther away at 8 miles. This cannot be Canaanite or Philistine Gath (if they are the same?). The latest suggestions for Old Testament Gath are Tell en Najilah which has no Philistine remains and Tell esh sheri'a which does. Jerome's Commentary on Micah1:10 says, "Geth one of the five cities of Palestine a village on the border of Judaea. There is now a large hamlet on the road from Eleutherpolis to Gaza, home of Goliath the Gethite." This points to one of the many earlier candidates for Philistine Gath, Araq el Manshijeh (but see K. 160:9).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Geth, wine press" (94).

318. Gesoureim (Gesom). Joshua 12:5; K. 68:8; L. 254:24.

Textual variants: Gegassi and Gergasi (Latin)(cf. K. 64:1 and K. 74:14).

319. Gader. Joshua 12:13; K. 68:11; L. 254:27.

Textual variant in Latin we find "torrentem" (wadi) for "tower."

This unknown Canaanite city is equated by the Onomasticon with the Tower of Genesis 35:16, 22 (cf. K. 62:5). The Hebrew MT is itself questionable.

320. Gōein of Gelgel (Goim in Gelgel). Joshua 12:23; K. 68:13; L. 254:30.

Textual variant Galgalis (Latin).

Simple Hexaplaric information. See next entry.

321. Gelgel. Joshua 12:23; K. 68:14; L. 254:31.

Textual variant Galboulis (Greek).

This points to the road going north from Antipatris and is perhaps indicative of Jaljuliya which is about 5 miles north. Paula reports Antipatris "a small half ruined town" (PPT I, 4). It is on the road between Diospolis (K. 8:14) and Caesaria according to the Tabula Peutinger 12 miles from the former. Today this is Ras el 'ain. It was a station on the Roman courier route. It was redeveloped by Herod, and seems to have been less significant for our editors than it was in 4th century A. D.

322. Golathmaeim (Golathmaim). Joshua 15:19; K. 68:17; L. 254:34.

The interpretation is missing in Vatican manuscript but properly emended from the Latin. This is a "place" but not a proper name. The etymology is from the translation of Symmachus.

323. Gadda. Joshua 15:27; K. 68:18; L. 254:35.

Another border village of Judaea in the Daroma (K. 26:10). The Onomasticon equates it with an unidentifiable village which is nameless in the Engaddi region (cf. K. 86:16 and K. 96:9).

324. Gadeira (Gadera). Joshua 15:36; K. 68:20; L. 254:37.

Textual variants for the contemporary village Gadara, Gedora (Latin).

About 5 miles from the Terebinth (K. 6:8 and K. 76:1) is Kh Jedur which must be the site the Onomasticon's writer has in mind for Gidora but it is not Old Testament Gadeira, which is in the Jerusalem region, near Gezer and Latrun probably at Kh Jederah (see K. 68:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gadera, his hedge" (94).

325. Gedour (Gedur). Joshua 15:58; K. 68:22; L. 254:39.

Textual variants: Gedrous (Greek), Gahedur and Cedrus (Latin).

This is often located at the same spot as the previous entry but not according to the Onomasticon which probably has Qatra in view. So Old Testament Gedour at Kh Jedur (K. 68: 20). The Madaba map conflates these sites after the Onomasticon and has "Gedour which is also Gidirtha" in the general vicinity of Gezer (K. 66:19). Perhaps Gazara (K. 72:13) and Gedrous have been confused with Gezer. This site fits the general distance given here but could also point to Abu Shusha.

326. Gabli. Joshua 13:5; K. 68:24; L. 254:41.

Textual variants: Gabbli and Gamblē (Greek).

Note again rare use of transliteration of Allofylorum in Latin (cf. K. 23:14; see Appendix I).

327. Gisōn. Joshua 15:51; K. 68:25; L. 254:42.

Simple tribal listing.

328. Gelōn. Joshua 15:51; K. 68:26; L. 254:43.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 172:24).

329. Gadērōth. Joshua 15:41; K. 68:27; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Geddōr (LXX) and Gederoth (Latin).

This entry is missing in Vatican manuscript (cf. K. 68: 22). Out of order and suspect.

330. Gethemmōn. Joshua 21:25; K. 68:28; L. 255:44.

This entry in Manassē is distinct from that of Dan (K. 70:14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gethremmon, high press or elevated press" (94).

331. Gai. Joshua 18:16; K. 70:1; L. 255:46.

Simple etymology. See next entry. A number of wadies or ravines are listed in the present text but do not belong to the original manuscript (K. 168:15, 20 etc.).

332. Galennoum (Geennom). Joshua 18:16; K. 70:2; L. 255:47.

Variant Enom (Latin).

One of several detailed notes about Jerusalem. The etymology is from the Hebrew (cf. K. 170:8). The valley forms the border of Benjamin and Jouda. In Byzantine tradition as here, it is equated with the Kedron (K. 118:11 and K. 174:26).

333. Geththepher. Joshua 19:13; K. 70:5; L. 255:50.

Textual variant Geththepha (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gethhaafer, his press of ground or excavated" (94).

334. Gēephthael. Joshua 19:14; K. 70:6; L. 255:52.

The name is missing in Vatican manuscript but supplied correctly from Latin (cp. K. 110:1).

335. Gabathōn. Joshua 19:14; K. 70:7; L. 255:53.

The Onomasticon has added a number of items from the confused Old Testament Geba concordance.

a) The Onomasticon identified Gabathon of Dan with the city (polichnē in Greek cp. K. 22:11) of Gabe near Kaisareia. This is probably in error. This Gabe is accurately located southeast of Mt.Karmel at present Jeba.

b) A little farther located generally east in the Great Plain of Legeōn is the first Gabatha at Jebata (or Gevat) southwest of Nazareth.

c) In the Daroma (K. 26:10) the Onomasticon has a Gabaa and Gabatha. Possibly these are double names for the same village (plural only in Latin). Perhaps this is same as Gabatha (K. 70:23) twelve miles from Eleutheropolis but this is toward Jerusalem and not in the Daroma. Possible near Ziph.

d) The Gabatha of Benjamin and Saoul (Joshua 18:28 and I Samuel 10:26) is located by our text and is not the Old Testament site Tell al Ful which had no Byzantine remains, but the nearby Jaba which is close to er-Ram and fits Jerome's location of Gabaa of Saul next to Rama (Commentary on Hosea 5:8).

e) The Babathon of the heathen (I Kings 16:15) may be the region of Dor half-way between Kaisareia and Mt.Karmel. The Latin is confusing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gabathon, height or high press" (94).

336. Gethremmōn. Joshua 19:45; K. 70:14; L. 255:58.

This is one of several instances where "another" is in its proper biblical order (Joshua 21:24). Usually in the Onomasticon "another" is out of order and suggests some late marginal gloss has been incorporated into our manuscripts (cf. K. 68:28 above). The confusion suggested it is equated with K. 72:3.

The contemporary city is hardly from Dan. There is a possibility the direction of the road has been reversed, but 12 miles is almost midway, so little is changed, possibly Ras abu Hamid. If it is to be distinguished from the Madaba map site near Ramle, it could well be Tell es safi, long a candidate for Philistine Gath which is 8 Roman miles north of Eleutheropolis, but biblical Gethaemmon is located way north at Tell Jerishe.

337. Galeilōth (Galiloth). Joshua 22:10; K. 70:17; L. 255:61.

Textual variants: Galiloth, Gaieiloth (Greek).

Since the LXX transliterates the Hebrew for "borders" it is listed here as a "place" but not a contemporary village (cf. Josh 18:17).

338. Gaas. Joshua 24:30; K. 70:19; L. 255:63.

A mountain and so properly not original in the Onomasticon's text.

There are several references to tombs. This Thamna (cf. K. 96:24) is northwest of Ramalla at Tibne. Paula viewed the "tombs on Mt. Ephraim of Joshua, son of Naue and of Eliazar, son of Aron, the priest, one of whom is buried in Thamathsare on the north side of Mt. Gass and the other in Gabaa of Phinees" (PPT I, 12 and Jerome's Epistle 108:13). On Thamathaare (cf. Thannathsara 100:1) Thamna is near Gouphna (K. 76:2 in Josephus Antiquities V, 1, 29.

339. Gabass (Gabath). Joshua 24:33; K. 70:22; L. 255:66.

Textual variants: Gabaath (Greek) and Ambacuc (Latin).

The tomb tradition of Paula is recorded in the note on the previous entry. This Gabatha may be the same as that in the Daroma (K. 70:10). But it is best at el jeba' north of Eleutheropolis. For another tradition of the tomb of Ambakoym see K. 88:22 and K. 114:17. Probably the first and last parts of this entry refer to the Gabatha (K. 70:6) of Saul and Benjamin located by the Onomasticon and Paula as near er-Ram. Ephraim and Benjamin have also been confused (Joshua 18:24).

340. Gabaan (Gabaam). Joshua 21:17; K. 70:26; L. 255:70.

This is either the above Gabatha of Saul or another Geba of Benjamin (cf. K. 70:7). "In Gabas, a city destroyed even to the ground, she stayed for a short time remembering its sins and the concubine cut into pieces and the 300 men of the tribe of Benjamin reserved for the sake of the Apostle Paul" (Jerome's Epistle 108:8; Paula PPT I, 5; cf. Judges 20:43). It is out of order and a late addition.


341. Geththa. I Samuel 5:8; K. 72:2; L. 255:73.

Textual variant for the second contemporary town Giththim (Latin).

The biblical information on Gath is confused (cf. K. 68:4). There is debate whether Canaanite and Philistine Gath are identical or not. In the Onomasticon Giththam is equated with Geththa, but probably also with the previously discussed Geth (K. 70:14) or Gehtremmon (K. 68:20).

The road between Antipatris (K. 68:15) and Iamnia (K. 106:21) is not very important in the Onomasticon so some have tried to emend to Antipatris to Ioppa (K. 110:24). If the text is correct then the Madaba map Gitta has followed that road and placed it near Ramle at Tell Ras Abu Hamid. If we emend the text and change the road it may be Saqya.

The second Geththeim is not located. It may be related to Gethem (K. 62:7).

342. Gallei (Gallim). I Samuel 25:44; K. 72:5; L. 255:77.

A biblical note (Isaiah 10:30) and then a tradition of a similar sounding name Gallaia. This may be reflected in Jilya half way between Akkarōn (K. 22:6) and Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) beyond the area of Benjamin and which has no relationship to the biblical site at Kh Kakul.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gallim, transmigration or revelations" (104).

343. Gelamsour (Gelamsur). I Samuel 27:8; K. 72:8; L. 255:80.

Simple record of an enemy city.

Jerome does not translate as usual and does not equate with Philistines but simply transliterates. The entry is the result of a poor LXX transcription.

344. Gelboue (Gelbua). I Samuel 28:4; K. 72:9; L. 256:81.

Textual variant Geboue (Greek).

The mountain is not proper for Onomasticon. The village of Gelbous is probably Jelbun southwest of Beisan. The mountain is Jebel Fuqua but out text errs in the equations.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gelboe, rolling about or running around or flowing heap" (104).

345. Geddour (Gedud). I Samuel 30:8; K. 72:11; L. 256:83.

Textual variants: Geddar (Greek) and Gedur (Latin).

Another transcription confusion from the LXX. Not properly a place name as the Hexaplaric notes show and therefore suspect.

346. Gazēra. II Samuel 5:25; K. 72:13; L. 256:85.

Simple biblical note (cf 66:19).

347. Gessour (Gessur). II Samuel 15:8; K. 72:15; L. 256:87.

In region of Syria.

348. Gilōn. II Samuel 15:12; K. 72:16; L. 256:88.

Textual variant Achittophel (Greek).

Simple biblical note.

349. Gob. II Samuel 21:19; K. 72:17; L. 256:89.

Simple biblical note.

350. Gailaia (Gailaea). I Kings 9:11; K. 72:18; L. 256:90.

Textual variants: Gennesar and Gennesareth (Latin).

Summary of biblical information from Isaiah 9:1 and Job 20:7.

On the lake see K. 58:12. The latter part of this entry seems to be an addenda after "another."

351. Geiōn (Gion). I Kings 1:33; K. 72:22; L. 256:95.

Simple biblical note. Out of order and suspect late addition.

352. Gēr. II Kings 9:27; K. 72:23; L. 256:96.

Simple biblical note with biblical location (cf. K. 56:26).

The LXX has the Gur of MT transcribed as it is here. It also appears in variant form as Gair. Ieblaam (K. 108:24) is probably Tell bel 'ameh just south of Jenin. Only a "place" in the Onomasticon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gir, division or broken off" (111).

353. Geththachopher. II Kings 14:25; K. 72:25; L. 256:97.

Textual variant Geththarchopher (Greek).

Jerome in Commentary on Jonah writes "Geth which is in Ofer, about two miles from Saphorim which is Diocaesarea, is a not large hamlet on the way to Tiberias where his tomb is shown. There is another near Diospolis, i.e., Lyddat." This village is just east of Diocaesarea near Mash-had where a shrine is still shown. This is out of biblical order and a late addition.

354. Gaddei (Gaddi). II Kings 12:18; K. 72:26; L. 256:98.

Simple biblical note (cf. K. 68:18) with no location possible for either. But also see K. 86:16 Engaddi.

355. Gēmela. II Kings 14:7; K. 72:28; L. 256:00.

Generalized biblical location in Edom (K. 102:23) with Hexaplaric information.

356. Gebein (Gebin). Isaiah 10:31; K. 74:1; L. 256:2.

Onomasticon is confused with Geba (K. 70:7). The town falsely equated with Gebim is north of Jifneh , which is this Gouphna (cp. K. 26:2 and K. 168:16). This town is et tell on the Wadi el jib which preserves the Byzantine name. The biblical site was in vicinity of Mt.Scopus.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gebim, cisterns" (121).

357. Gōzan. Isaiah 37:12; K. 74:3; L. 256:4.

Textual variant Gōzath (Greek).

This is outside the normal limits of the Holy Land. Probably an addition.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gozan, their nut" (121).

358. Garēb. Jeremiah 31:39; K. 74:5; L. 256:6.

Textual variant Garēy (Greek).

Simple biblical note. The next 3 entries and this are late additions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Garab, scabs or many people" (127).

359. Gēbarōth (Gebarth). Jeremiah 41:17; K. 74:6; L. 256:7.

Textual variant Gebaroth (Latin).

Simple Hexaplaric information. Not properly a place name. One of a series of late additions.

360. Gaimōd (Gemen or Gamon). Isaiah 60:6; K. 74:9; L. 256:8.

Textual variants: Gaimōn or Gaimōl (Greek) and Gamen or Gamol (Latin).

Simple reference to a dubious place. Only the Latin text has the double tradition of spelling (cf. K. 78:20 and K. 138:8). One of a series of late additions.

361. Gaipha (Gefa). Isaiah 60:6; K. 74:9; L. 256:8.

The order of these last two entries is reversed in the Latin. This is also out of the territory of the Holy Land and is suspect as are many of the prophetic entries. Called a region (cp. K. 138:22) perhaps by interpretation in a marginal gloss.


362. Gadara. Matthew 8:28; K. 74:10; L. 256:11.

This is a city of the Decapolis (K. 80:16) which is generally located at Umm Qeis overlooking the Yarmuq. On the Tabula Peutinger it is 16 miles from Tiberias. It was a strong military city. A bishop was at the Council of Nicea. The hot baths of Amatha are not far away (K. 22:26). Origen in his Commentary on John 6:4 remarks about the renowned hot baths of Gadara (cf. K. 64:1 where it is confused with Gerasa).

363. Gergesa. Matthew 5:1; K. 74:13; L. 256:14.

Textual variant Gergessa, Gerges (Latin).

At this point we have a distinction made with Gerasa (K. 64:l). Procopius 349B follows Eusebius "Gergasenes lived near Gadara. Now Gergesau the desert reaching Lake Tiberias." This location is dependent upon Origen who in his Commentary on John 6:4 remarks "The Gergasenes are from an old city near Lake Tiberias on a cliff extending down to the Lake. Nearby they show (the hill) of the pigs thrown down by the demons." This probably is present Chorsia (el Kursi) on the East shore of the Sea above Hippos (K. 22:21).

364. Gethsimanē (Gethsimani). Matthew 26:36; K. 74:16; L. 257:18.

Another site on the Mt. of Olives (cf. Bēthania (K. 58:15) and Bethphagē (K. 58:13)). The "faithful" are the Christians who bath at Bethabara and here are called "brothers" (K. 58:18). Helen planned a church there and Eusebius knew of it but only the Latin text (cf. Note on K. 7:3) reports the church (cf. Vita Const. iii, 43 and Demonstratio Evangelica vi, 18). In the itinerary it is across the Valley of Josafath (Itin. Bourd. PPT I, 25). The Madaba map has "Geths" and the remainder must be emended. Perhaps two locations are involved: the betrayal spot and the place of prayer, one at the foot and another higher up.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Gethsemani, valley of fatness" (136).

365. Golgotha. Matthew 27:33; K. 74:19; L. 257:21.

The tradition of Golgotha has been of long standing. Some feel it was never lost sight of. The Itinerary notes "on the left side is the little hill Golgotha" (PPT I, 22). This means a short distance from the ConstantinianChurch of the Holy Sepulchre. In Vita Const. iii, 25f., Eusebius describes the pagan temple to Venus on the site of the Holy Sepulchre and the subsequent work of Constantine. Curiously he does not speak of Golgotha. Here it is in the area north of Mt. Zion (K. 162:12) which is not clearly located in the Onomasticon, perhaps because the tradition continued strong to the 4th century A. D.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Golgotha, skulls" (136).



366. Dasem. Genesis 10:12; K. 74:24; L. 257:25.

The LXX has misread the MT with a D for an R (cp. K. 142:21). This is also outside the area of the Holy Land and so is doubly suspect, as are many first entries in these alphabetic sections.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dasem, bridle" (64).

367. Drus (Drys i.e., oak). Genesis 13:18; K. 76:1; L. 257:23.

The emended reading of the Madaba map is "drus mambre and terebinthos." The first name is in black letters and the second in red, but no tradition that they were really separated. It is near Chebrōn (K. 6:8) on the map and also here in the Onomasticon. The pilgrims place it 8 miles from Bethsur (K. 52:1) and two miles from Chebrōn (Itin. Bourd. PPT I, 27). Constantine built a church there which Eusebius knew about (Vita Const. iii, 51) but only Jerome mentions it in the Onomasticon (K. 7:2). It is probably the excavated site of Ramet el Khalil. Mamre (K. 124:5) and the terebinth are frequently used for referents (K. 6:13, K. 24:16, K. 68:21 and K. 94:21).

368. Damaskos (Damascus). Genesis 15:2; K. 76:4; L. 257:30.

This city is the limit of the Onomasticon on the east along with Bostra (K.46:10). Damaskos is one of the Dekapolis (K. 80:16). In Tabula Peutinger it is 56 miles from Caecarea Paneas. It was a seat of a bishop at the time of Council of Nicea. Later pilgrims locate Paul's conversion as a few miles out of the city. In Interpretation of Hebrew Names (15:3) Jerome notes that Hebrew is quite different and lacks the idea of a proper name for a slave.

369. Dan. Genesis 14:14; K. 76:6; L. 257:18.

The border of Joudaia went from Dan to Bērsaba (K. 50:1). It is in the general region of the sources of the Jordan (K. 104:20 and cf. Josephus' Antiquities I, 10, etc.). Jerome calls one of the sources Dan and the other Ior close by (Interpretation of Hebrew Names 19). He also gives Greek etymology in an unusual way. The Syriac text and Procopius 333A have the little village of Dan 14 miles from Paneas on the road to Tyre which would be almost midway and so, much too far. In Commentary on Ezekiel 48:18, Jerome identifies Dan with Paneas (cp. K. 16:4).

The site is probably Tell el Qadi which preserves reminiscences of the meaning of the Hebrew Dan, namely "judge."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dan, judgment or judging" (64).

370. Danaba (Dannaba). Genesis 36:32; K. 76:9; L. 257:35.

Part of this entry has been emended from the Latin since it is missing in the Vatican manuscript. The Old Testament site is not identified.

The village of Dannea is probably Kh ed denn about the proper distance north of Areopolis (K. 10:13). The other Danaba comes near Mt.Nebo (K. 136:6) but its location is uncertain. Silva speaks of a city of Job called Dennaba which is Carneas now (PPT I, 29). This may relate to Karnaea or Karnaeim (K. 112:3-4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dennaba, bringing judgment" (65).

371. Dōthaeim (Dothaim). Genesis 37:17; K. 76:13; L. 257:38.

This well excavated site is on the Samaria to Jenin road at Tell Dothan. It has extensive Roman-Byzantine remains, it was junction for the road east to Merrous (K. 128:4).

For Sebaste-Samaria see K. 162:13.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dothaim, food or his greens or successful rebellion" (65).


372. Daibōn (Debon) or Dibon. Numbers 21:26f., 30; K. 76:17; L. 257:42.

Textual variant Dabōn (Greek).

Biblical information from Joshua 13:26, Isaiah 15:2, and Jeremiah 48:18.

The Onomasticon does not equate the station of the Israelites with the Moabite Dibōn (K. 80:5). But no doubt the large village was Dhiban which has been excavated. Probably a garrison was there according to Notitia Dignitatum (81:27). But curiously it is not on the Tabula Peutinger. This is the only listing of this important town unless Dēbous (K. 104:12) is equated with Dibōn rather than Hesbous (K. 84:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dibon, sufficient intelligence or abundant understanding" (80).

373. Daibōngad (Dabira). Numbers 33:45; K. 76:23; L. 257:48.

Simple listing of station of Israel. This and next are late additions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dibongad, intelligence is sufficient for the test" (80).

374. Dusmai Moab (Dysmae Moab i.e., to the west of Moab). Numbers 22:1ff.; K. 78:1;

L. 257:49.

Textual variants: Balaak (Greek) and Balaac (Latin).

Not a place and out of order so this is quite suspect is a late editing or marginal gloss. The "plain" of Moab is northwest of the Dead Sea in the Aulōn (K. 14:22 and cf. Deuteronomy 31:9, 32:49, 34:1).


375. Dabeira (Dabira). Joshua 10:38; K. 78:5; L. 257:53.

The Onomasticon does not see a village near Chebrōn (see below K. 78:12). In the north another village is a dependent of Diokaisarea (K. 16:131) and reported near Mt.Thabōr (K. 98:23). It is another village of the Jews (cf. Note in K. 22:9 and Appendix II) but remains unidentified but possibly Daburyeh.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dabir, speaking or speech or fearing the bear" (92).

376. Dor of Naphath (Nafeth). Joshua 11:2; K. 78:8; L. 258:56.

The Tabula Peutinger locates it 8 miles from Kaisarea and 20 miles from Ptolemais. The directions and mileage are missing in the Vatican Greek manuscript of the Onomasticon but are properly emended from the Latin and from K. 136:16. Paula visited the ruins (Epistle 108:8). These are either the site of ancient Dor at Tantura or just north of it at Kh el burj where Iron Age and Hellenistic remains are evident (cf. Joshua 17:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dor, generation" (92).

377. Dabeir (Dabir). Joshua 11:21; K. 78:12; L. 258:59.

The city of letters is also Iabeir (K. 106:22 and cf. K. 78:18).

Summary of biblical information with no Byzantine location (Joshua 15:15, 21: and Judges 1:11). The Old Testament site is contested for identification with Tell Beit Mirsim most preferred.

378. Dabeir (Dabir). Joshua 13:26; K. 78:15; L. 258:62.

Simple biblical notation.

379. Deimōna (Dimona). Joshua 15:22; K. 78:16; L. 258:63.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dimona, full count or high" (93).

380. Dalaan (Dadan). Joshua 15:38; K. 78:17; L. 258:64.

Textual variant Daian (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dalani, needy pauper" (93).

381. Denna. Joshua 15:49; K. 78:18; L. 258:65.

Another form using the biblical equation with Dabir (cf. K. 78:12).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dana, cause or his judgment" (93).

382. Dauid (Dauia). Joshua 15:49; K. 78:20; L. 258:67.

Textual variants: Dad (Greek) and Dabuia and Dauhid (Latin).

Here Jerome has two forms of the name and the Greek only one. Possibly also the same as the above Dabir as confused in the LXX.

383. Douma (Duma). Joshua 15:52; K. 78:21; L. 258:68.

This is in the Daroma (K. 26:10) 17 miles from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) and probably located at Kh dumah ed deir, just north of dhahiriyeh which is southwest of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). In Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah21:14 he locates Idumaea to the south of Duma and locates the village 20 miles from Eleutheropolis. The 17 marks turn off from main road.

384. Damna. Joshua 19:13; K. 78:23; L. 258:70.

Simple tribal listing plus Levitical addition. This and K. 78:25 may be late additions.

On Levitical city see Joshua 21:35.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Domna, silence" (93).

385. Dabasthe (Dasbath). Joshua 19:11; K. 78:24; L. 258:71.

Textual variants: Dabasse, Damasse (Greek) and Dabasthe (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dabbasth, slope" (93).

386. Dabrath. Joshua 19:22; K. 78:25; L. 258:72.

Simple tribal listing plus Levitical addition (cf. Joshua 21:28).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dabrath, speech" (93).


387. Drus. Judges 6:11; K. 80:2; L. 258:74.

Not a legitimate entry for the place names, but see Oak of Mambre (K. 76:1) and terebinthos (K. 164:11) for similar items.

Simple biblical information with no location.


388. Deibon (Dibon). Isaiah 15:2; K. 80:5; L. 258:77.

Cf. K. 76:17.

389. Deseth. Isaiah 16:7; K. 80:7; L. 258:79.

Textual variant Desek (Greek).

Simple Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Deseth, shoe or anointing" (120).

390. Dōdaneim (Dodanim). Isaiah 21:13; K. 80:8; L. 258:80.

Textual variant Dodaneimi (Greek).

This must be distinguished from Daidan of K. 80:14. Possibly ed dedan.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dodanim, cousin" (120).

391. Darōm. Ezekiel 20:46; K. 80:10; L. 258:82.

Hexaplaric information. One of the several words for the southern quadrant (cf. Daroma (K. 26:10), Negeb (K. 136:14) and Theman (K. 137:16).

392. Diospolis. Ezekiel 30:14; K. 80:11; L. 258:83.

Outside the geographical limits of the Holy Land. Not to be confused with the Diospolis of the Palestinē (K. 8:14). On Egypt sites see K. 58:7.

393. Dadan. Jeremiah 25:23; K. 80:12; L. 258:84.

Probably also outside the limits of the Holy Land. Both suspect.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Dedan, this judgment or such judgment" (126).

394. Deblathaeim (Deblathaim). Jeremiah 48:22; K. 80:13; L. 258:85.

Textual variant Debaōthaeim (Greek).

Simple biblical location.

395. Daidan (Daedan). Jeremiah 49:8; K. 80:14; L. 258:86.

Textual variants: Foeno (Latin) also Seno for Faeno.

The mines are at Phainon (K. 114:3 and K. 168:8) near Petra (K. 142:7). The Onomasticon's site is uncertain.


396. Dekapolis (Decapolis). Matthew 4:25; K. 80:16; L. 258:89.

Only three of the ten cities are named in this list. No complete list is in Josephus either but he lists Hippos (K. 22:21), Pella (K. 14:18), Gadara (K. 74:10) along with Dion and Skythopolis (K. 16:2). There are Twelve (sig.) cities that are usually accepted as part of the Dekapolis, but Ptolemy lists 18.



397. Edem (Eden). Genesis 2:8; K. 80:20; L. 259:95.

Outside the normal limits of the Holy Land just as each first entry in the previous alphabetic sections.

The etymology is not introduced as Hexaplaric material, but is from Aquila.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eden, pleasure or delicacies or embellishments" (65).

398. Eueilat (Euila). Genesis 2:11f.; K. 80:22; L. 259:95.

Textual variants: Euēlat (Greek) also Cepene and Cephene (Latin).

Also outside the normal limits of the Holy Land (Genesis 10:29, 25:18). The Latin has Hebrew etymology as explanation of the Scriptural annotation. The quotation is from Josephus' Antiquities I, 6, 4 and is repeated in K. 150:15 and K. 176:15.

Phisōn is also Pheisōn (K. 166:7). The Gaion (K. 60:3), Euphratēs (K. 82:7) and Tigris (K. 164:7) are also rivers outside the Holy Land.

On Kophenos and Sērias see reference in K. 150:15.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Evila, sorrowing or bringing forth" (65).

399. Euphrates. Genesis 2:14; K. 82:7; L. 259:4.

River outside the Holy Land. See previous entry. For rivers of Eden see Note on K. 60:3.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Euphrates, fertile or waxing" (65).

400. Ellasar. Genesis 14:1; K. 82:9; L. 259:6.

Outside the Holy Land. Syriac had Telarsar.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ellasar, turning aside of God or his separating" (69).

401. Ephratha. Genesis 35:16, 19; K. 82:10; L. 259:6.

Summary of biblical information from I Samuel 10:2, Genesis 48:7 and I Chronicles 2:50, 4:4. Ephratha on the Madaba map may be separated from Bēthleem (K. 42:10). But Eusebius may be identifying them here (cp. K. 172:5). The Tomb of Rachel is located differently in the Greek and Latin texts. The Syriac text and the Latin agree with "tribe of Iuda" but Syriac omits Benjamim. Some doubt if Rachel died here rather than north near Ramah.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Efratha, fruitfulness or dust" (65).


402. Eirōth (Iroth). Exodus 14:2; K. 82:16; L. 259:13.

Outside the normal limits of the Onomasticon's Holy Land. Only a "place" not even a station.


403. Empurismos (Conflagration. i.e., empurismos). Numbers 11:3; K. 82:19; L. 259:16.

Another "place" rather than a station. The Latin does not have this as a proper name by transliteration of the Greek or Hebrew, but rather from a translation.

404. Enthaath (Inthaath). Numbers 33:26; K. 82:21; L. 259:18.

Simple biblical notation. The b of Hebrew is translated (cf. K. 98:4). Out of order. Probably a gloss.

405. Ebrōna. Numbers 33:34; K. 82:22; L. 259:19.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ebrona, going over or passage" (K. 81). Out of order. Late addition.

406. Emath. Numbers 13:22; K. 82:23; L. 259:20.

Simple biblical notation.

407. Ermana (Errma). Numbers 14:45; K. 82:24; L. 259:21.

Summary of biblical information, Deuteronomy 1:44.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Erma, his condemnation" (61).

408. Essebōn. Numbers 21:26; K. 84:1; L. 259:24.

Summary of biblical information from Joshua 21:38, Isaiah 15:4, Jeremiah 48:2, Numbers 32:37, and Joshua 21:39. A frequent referent in the Onomasticon. An autonomous famous city in the Roman Province of Arabia from 106 A.D. on. Esbous now Hesban between Philadelphi (K. 16:15) and Madaba (K. 128:19). It had a bishop at Council of Nicea and is being excavated.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esebon, thinking or girdle of the wall" (81).

409. Edraei (Edrai). Numbers 21:33; K. 84:7; L. 259:30.

Eusebius seems to identify this with Adra (K. 12:13) west of Bostra (K. 46:10). It is 24 or 25 miles away. It is also 16 miles from Capitolias on Tabula Peutinger.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Edraim, descent of shepherds" (81).

410. Elealē. Numbers 32:3; K. 84:10; L. 260:33.

Summary of biblical information from Numbers 32:37, Isaiah 15:4, and Jeremiah 48:34.

About one mile north of Esbous (K. 84:1) is a site of this large village and nearby Tell el 'Al.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Elale, to the height" (81).

411. Enna. Numbers 34:4; K. 84:14; L. 260:37.

Simple biblical notation.

412. Erman. Deuteronomy 3:9; K. 84:15; L. 260:38.

Cf. K. 20:9.

JOSUE (of Naue)

413. Emekachōr. Joshua 7:26; K. 84:18; L. 260:41.

Etymology plus location. Notes taken by Jerome of the problem of popular etymology (cf. K. 18:17).

414. Eglōm. Joshua 10:3, 12:12; K. 84:22; L. 260:45.

Biblical information plus location. Greek and Latin disagreement on the distance (cf. K. 24:22 and K. 40:20). Ten is in agreement with K. 24:22 but that is probably not Old Testament Eglon.

415. Enemek (Inemec). Joshua 10:12; K. 84:25; L. 260:49.

Hexaplaric information.

Hebrew b is translated "in" or En (cf. K. 18:13).

416. Esōr (Esrom) also Asor. Joshua 11:1; K. 84:26; L. 260:50.

Simple biblical notation (Joshua 15:23 and cf. K. 20:1).

417. Enakeim (Enacim). Joshua 11:21; K. 84:28; L. 260:52.

Probably a people and not a place as Jerome correctly indicates.

418. Ephrōn. Joshua 15:9; K. 86:1; L. 260:54.

Textual variant. For north of Ailia the Vatican manuscript has "region of" Ailia.

This appears in both the Bible and the Onomasticon with several similar names: e.g. Ephraim, Ophrah, Ephron, and Aphaerema. Probably the same as K. 28:4 which is five miles from Baithēl (K. 40:20) and to be found at et tayibeh. However, Baithēl is must less than 16 miles from Ailia. In K. 90:19 Eusebius' cross reference seems to distinguish this entry from Ephraim (K. 90:18). In the Ephraim New Testament entry (K. 90:18) it may be referring to the area or province around the village.

419. Edrai (Edre). Joshua 15:21; K. 86:3; L. 260:56.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Edrai, a flood supports men" (81).

420. Ethnan. Joshua 15:23; K. 86:4; L. 260:57.

Textual variants: Ethman (Greek), Ethnam and Ethna (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

421. Ebeziouthia. Joshua 15:28; K. 86:5; L. 260:58.

Several Hexaplaric variants are not given. This Greek form apparently confuses the Hebrew conjunction before the Hebrew proper names which begins with a B.

Simple tribal listing.

422. Euein (Euim). Joshua 15:29; K. 86:6; L. 260:59.

Simple tribal listing.

423. Elthōlad (Elthōlath). Joshua 15:30; K. 86:7; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in the Greek Vatican Manuscript. Latin variant Elolath.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 98:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eltholeth, to the birth" (93).

424. Ereb. Joshua 15:52; K. 86:8; L. 260:60.

Textual variants: Erem (Greek), for the contemporary village Heremetitha and Eremetatha (Latin).

Jerome gives the etymology for Daroma i.e. "south." It may be at Kh er-rabiyeh southwest of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). It must be distinguished from K. 16:13, but the Vatican manuscript has noted "this is in Galilee of the nations. Kadesh (for Kana?) of tribe of Nephthaleim, former priestly city."

425. Essan (Esan). Joshua 15:52; K. 86:10; L. 260:33.

Simple tribal listing. Vulgate has Esaan. Possibly same as K. 164:16.

426. Eloul (Elul). Joshua 15:58; K. 86:11; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek. The Latin seems to point to the present Halhul just north of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). A Moslem memorial to the prophet Jonas is located there. Probably the Alouros or Alulos of Josephus Wars IV, 9, 6.

427. Eltheke. Joshua 15:59; K. 86:13; L. 260:63.

The first part of this entry is missing in Greek but properly emended from the Latin. Textual variant for the contemporary village Theka (Greek). The Greek also lacks note about dependence on Ailia. Greek has 12 miles east and Latin has 9 miles south. It is almost due south at present Tequ but about 12 miles, so both entries seem to be confused even if quadrants are assumed. Latin reflects turn off from main road. Jerome's Commentary on Jeremiah 6 "A little village in the hills 12 miles from Jerusalem which we can still see. But in his introduction to Commentary on Amos, "a town (oppidum) six miles from Bethlehem to the south next to the desert." The Madaba map has Thekoya near Bethsur (K. 52:l). This is spelling of the contemporary site but not the Onomasticon's spelling for the biblical site (cf. K. 98:17).

This records another of several "tombs" or memorials in the Onomasticon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Elthecem, he brought forth" (93).

428. Engaddi. Joshua 15:62; K. 86:16; L. 260:66.

Textual variant Latin for the contemporary city- Engaddia, Engadila.

Probably also in K. 68:18, K. 72:26, and K. 96:10. The Aulon is described in K. 14:22. This is another of the "large" villages noted by Eusebius (cf. Notes on 22:9; cp. Appendix II; K. 86:20 and K. 88:17). There are Persian, Roman and Byzantine ruins. Josephus' Antiquities IX, 1, 2 locates it 300 stadia from Jerusalem. Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel 47:6 locates it on the Dead Sea where the Jordan enters. He also identifies it with Asasonthamar (8:6). It must be the present 'ain jidi. The notation on palms and balsams is also from Josephus where it is called a "city" (cf. I Samuel 24:1ff.). It has been excavated.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Engaddi, well of goat" (93).

429. Esthemō. Joshua 15:50; K. 86:20; L. 261:70.

Textual variant Esthema (Greek).

Cf. K. 26:11 and Job 21:19 Asthemō.

430. Emekraphaeim (Emecrafaim). Joshua 18:16; K. 86:22; L. 261:72.

Simple tribal listing with Hexaplaric information. Emek for "valley" as Gai also several times in LXX and Onomasticon.

431. Edōmim (Edomia). Joshua 18:17; K. 86:24; L. 261:74.

The first part of the entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. Textual variants: Edomaia and Edumea (Latin).

This is probably at ed Duma to the southeast. Note that K. 108:21 Ianō is also 12 miles east of Neapolis. Edouma is off main road from Akkrabbein.

432. Erma. Joshua 19:4; K. 88:1; L. 261:76.

Simple biblical summary. Possibly same as K. 34:13.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ermon, his condemnation" (93).

433. Ether. Joshua 19:7; K. 88:3; L. 261:78.

Textual variants: Ieththira and Malatham (Latin) for contemporary sites.

Madaba map has "Iethora which is Iethēra." Eusebius identifies Ether of Simeon with that of Iouda. It is possibly at Kh 'Attir. The Ietheira is probably found in K. 108:3 and K. 110:18. Malaatha is used as a referent in K. 14:3 and K. 108:3. It is south of Chebrōn (K. 6:8) in the Daroma (K. 86:8) at Tell Milh.

434. Eththa. Joshua 19:13; K. 88:5; L. 261:80.

Simple tribal listing. LXX has confused the Hebrew here.

435. Elkath. Joshua 19:25; K. 88:6; L. 261:81.

Textual variant Ethaē (Greek).

Simple tribal listing plus added Levitical city of Job 21:31. Sometimes identified with Tell Harbij.

436. Elkōk (Icoc). Joshua 19:34; K. 88:7; L. 261:83.

LXX has Ikak and Iakak.

Simple tribal location from Scripture.

437. Edraei (Edrai). Joshua 19:37; K. 88:10; L. 261:86.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 86:3 in Iouda).

438. Elthekō. Joshua 19:44; K. 88:11; L. 261:86.

Simple tribal listing plus added Levitical city (cf. Joshua 21:23).

439. Esthaol. Joshua 19:41; K. 88:12; L. 261:87.

Summary of biblical information of Judges 13:25.

This and the previous entry are inverted in the Latin text. Latin is in the biblical order but both Latin and Greek are out of order for the next entries. In K. 106:10 it is located near Ierimouth. The 10 miles is too short for the distance to 'Ishwa, but may mark turn off from main road to a lesser road (cf. Saraa also 10 miles north (K. 156:15) and Iermochos (K. 106:24).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Esthahol, pregnant with fire." (93).

440. Elba. Joshua 19:28; K. 88:15; L. 261:90.

Simple biblical summary of Judges 1:31. Out of order.

441. Eremmōn. Joshua 19:7; K. 88:17; L. 261:92.

Textual variant: Erembrōn (Greek). The direction "South in Daroma" is missing from Vatican manuscript. Another of the villages inhabited by Jews (cf. Note on K. 22:9; Appendix II; cp. K. 86:16). It is probably the same as Remma (K. 146:24). It is located at Umm er ramamin between Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) and Bērsaba (50:11) about 15 1/2 miles away. Out of order.

442. Emmathdōr. Joshua 21:32; K. 88:19; L. 261:94.

Textual variants: Emmachdōr (Greek) and Chamōth (LXX).

Simple tribal listing plus added Levitical city. The Vatican manuscript Emmachdor may have confused this with Emekachōr (K. 84:18).

443. Emath. Judges 3:3; K. 88:00; L. 261:96.

Another instance where "foreigners" is transliterated by Jerome rather than translated and identified as Filistines. Simple biblical location (cf. 122:10).

Possibly the same as K. 96:12; cf. 23:30 and K. 90:4.

444. Enlechi (Inlechi). Judges 15:16, 19; K. 88:21; L. 261:97.

Textual variant in Lechi (Greek).

Simple Hexaplaric data. The Greek has translated Hebrew B (cf. K. 122:16). Out of order. This and next entry are glosses.

445. Eniakebzēb (Inaczeb). Judges 7:25; K. 88:22; L. 261:99.

Textual variants: Eniam and zēm. The LXX again has "in" for the Hebrew B and so "In Iakebzēb." Perhaps the same as K. 94:3 (see K. 88:21, a gloss).


446. Ergab. I Samuel 20:19; K. 88:24; L. 261:00.

Biblical summary plus Hexaplaric data.

447. Echela. I Samuel 23:19; K. 88:26; L. 261:3.

Textual variant Eccla (Latin) for contemporary village.

A different tradition for the tomb at Gabatha (K. 70:22). The site must be Kh Kilah (cf. K. 114:15) where it is 8 miles compared with the 7 here, Keeila.

448. Elmōni. I Samuel 21:2; K. 90:1; L. 262:6.

Out of the biblical order. In Hebrew this means "such and such a place." Jerome repeats his philosophy for a translator rather than a corrector (cp. his preface 3:10f).

449. Esthama. I Samuel 30:26, 28; K. 90:2; L. 262:7.

Textual variant Esthma (Greek).

Simple biblical note on the spoils (cf. K. 34:13, 14).

Probably the same as Asthemō (K. 26:11).

450. Elōth. II Kings 14:22; K. 90:3; L. 262:8.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 6:16; K. 26:11; K. 36:1 and K. 62:13).

451. Emath. II Kings 14:25; K. 90:4; L. 262:9.

These are all the same as Aemath (K. 23:30 and K. 88:20) the present Syriac Hamath (cf. K. 36:10). Jerome in Commentary on Amos 6:2 distinguishes "little Emath" which is Epiphania and "great Emath, which is now called Antiochia."

Summary of biblical information from Isaiah 36:19; Zachariah 9:5; Ezekiel 47:16 and Amos 6:2.

452. Eser. II Kings 15:29; K. 90:9; L. 262:14.

Simple biblical notation. Same as K. 20:1, etc.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eser, falsehood" (65).

453. Enacheim (Inachim) or Enbachein (Inbachim). Micah 1:10; K. 90:10; L. 262:15.

Textual variant en bachein (Greek).

Simple Hexaplaric information. Another instance of Greek en for Hebrew B. LXX has en Akeim.

454. Enaraba (Inaraba). II Samuel 2:29; K. 90:11; L. 262:17.

Textual variant en araba (Greek).

Out of order and again as previous entry Greek en for Hebrew B.

Hexaplaric information only (cf. K. 12:25 and K. 16:12).

455. Elkese. Nahum 1:1; K. 90:12; L. 262:18.

Vulgate has elcessaeus.

In Jerome's Commentary on Nahum, Introduction, he knows a little village in Galilaea called Elcesi which has old ruins around it, but this site should be in Judaea.

456. Emakeim (Emacim). Jeremiah 49:4; K. 90:13; L. 262:19.

Textual variants: Enakeim (Greek) and Enacim (Latin). Symmachus missing in Vatican manuscript.

Simple Hexaplaric information.


457. Emmaous (Emmaus). Luke 24:13; K. 90:15; L. 262:28.

The identification with Nikopolis (K. 30:26) at Amwas is clearly made here as well as in Jerome's Epistle 108:8 (Paula PPT I, 4). In the Epistle Jerome remarks ambiguously on a church consecrated at the house of Cleopha. A bishop was at the Council of Nicea. Since Jerome, sometimes adds such information to the Greek Onomasticon it is surprising that he does not do so here. "Emmaous" is not on the Madaba map but Nikopolis is. On the Tabula Peutinger it is 12 miles from Diospolis and 19 miles from Gophna. In Itin. Bourd. it is 10 miles from Diospolis and 22 from Jerusalem. The distance in Luke does not agree with this location since it is too near to Jerusalem. Some feel the New Testament text has been changed from 160 to 60 stadia (also 60 in the Vulgate).

458. Ephraim. John 11:54; K. 90:18; L. 262:24.

Cf. K. 28:4 and K. 86:1. The Madaba map has "Ephron and Ephraia, where the Lord went." Probably the Map and Eusebius have the village at Et-tayibeh in mind as the nearest village to the wilderness.



459. Zaphōeim (Zafoim). Genesis 36:43; K. 92:3; L. 262:28.

Textual variant Zofoim (Latin).

Simple biblical information plus general location.

On Gabalenē see K. 10:62.


460. Zoob. Numbers 21:14; K. 92:6; L. 262:31.

Quotation from Scripture and a biblical location (cf. K. 81:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zoob, gold" (85).

461. Zephrona. Numbers 34:9; K. 92:9; L. 262:34.

Textual variant Idoumaia for Ioudaia (Greek).

Simple border notation from Scripture.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zeferuna, you saw this face, from mouth not from bone" (85).

462. Zared. Deuteronomy 2:13; K. 92:10; L. 262:35.

The Madaba map has Zarea but the A must be an error for D. One of several ravines in the Onomasticon and of course suspect (cf. K. 168:20).


463. Zeiph (Zif). Joshua 15:24; K. 92:12; L. 262:37.

Textual variant Zit (Latin). Also in Greek Vatican manuscript this entry comes before the Jēshua division (cp. Below K. 92:15).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zif, sprouting" (98).

464. Zanaoua (Zannoua). Joshua 15:56; K. 92:13; L. 262:38.

Textual variant Zanaousa (Greek) for contemporary town Zannua (Latin).

The village is dependent on Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) and probably at Kh Zanu'a. The last part of this entry and the first part of the next entry are missing because of the scribal error of shifting his eyes to the second occurrence of Eleutheropolis. It is also out of order and may be a late addition.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zanoe, he drove back or he threw yours back" (98).

465. Ziph. Joshua 15:55; K. 92:15; L. 263:40.

Latin reverses the order of information in the Greek text.

The distance is double that for tell Zif but it is more south than east of Hebron. It is southeast of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) and could be considered in the East Quadrant. Perhaps the text meant to give mileage from Chebrōn (K. 6:8) but the distance seems to be taken from Eleutheropolis (cf. I Samuel 23:14). It could refer to a second village with the same name in the Negev.


466. Zeib (Zif). I Samuel 23:14; K. 92:19; L. 263:43.

Cf. previous entry Ziph. Region or hill country nearby are intended (cf. I Samuel 26:2and I Chronicles 2:42.

Karmelos (K. 118:5) is about 10 miles south of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). It is another village of the Jews (cf. Note on K. 22:9 and Appendix II). It is probably at Kh el Kamel, where Roman fort is found.

467. Zogera (Zogora). Jeremiah 48:34; K. 94:1; L. 263:48.

One of the Pentapolis of Sodam (cf. K. 42:4).

468. Zēb. Jeremiah 49:4; K. 94:3; L. 263:51.

The Mia of Josephus Antiquities XX, 1,1 and XIV, 8,1. An important battle took place in the area. The site Kh Zeiy is on the old Roman road near es Salt (cf. K. 88:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zeb, wolf" (101).

469. Zōeleth. I Kings 1:9; K. 94:5; L. 263:53.

Out of order and not a true place name so suspect as an editorial addition or marginal gloss. The words "spring of Rōgēl" are not in Greek Vatican manuscript (see Rōgēl K. 144:13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Zoeleth, dragging or dragging forth" (103).



470. Ēlath. Genesis 36:41; K. 94:9; L. 263:57.

Possibly related to K. 6:16 and K. 90:3 but that is south southwest not east of Petra (K. 142:7). More probably Udruh which is east at the proper distance.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Elath, terebinth or trees" (87).

471. 'Erōōn (Eroum). Genesis 46:28f.; K. 94:11; L. 263:59.

In Egypt and out of the Holy Land proper for the Onomasticon (see Note on K. 58:7). Out of order as well, so doubly suspect as late addition.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Eroon, i.e. heroum, in his form or of sorrowful watch" (68).

472. Elioupolis (Eliopolis, city of the sun). Genesis 41:45; K. 94:13; L. 263:61.

In Egypt and out of the Holy Land proper for the Onomasticon (cf. K. 176:3; cf. Genesis 41:50 and Exodus 30:17.

473. Etham. Exodus 13:20; K. 94:15; L. 263:64.

Textual variants: Ebuthan (Latin) and Buthan (Syriac).

Simple listing of station as Numbers 33:6 (cf. Onomasticon K. 46:4 above).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Etham, complete or respecting ships" (75).


474. Ēngannim. Joshua 15:34; K. 94:18; L. 263:67.

Textual variant Egannim (Latin). The long E is used here after the LXX.

This is a faulty identification. Perhaps the Onomasticon had 'ain Sinjah north of Baithēl (K. 40:20) and Gophna (K. 26:2) in mind.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Engannim, well of gardens" (93).

475. Ēnaim. Joshua 15:34; K. 94:20; L. 263:68.

Cf. K. 24:16 above.

476. Ēndōr. Joshua 17:11; K. 94:22; L. 263:70.

Summary of biblical information of I Samuel 28:7 and Luke 7:11. The New Testament material must be a later addition here but is not in K. 34:8 (q. v.). Located close to Nain (K. 140:3). If this text is correct in Joshua, 'Andur is the location.

477. Ēnganni. Joshua 19:21; K. 94:25; L. 263:73.

Textual variant Eganni (Greek).

The one city has only biblical information Joshua 21:29.

The other is near Gerasa (K.64:2) perhaps near 'ain jenna or 'arjam (cf. K. 16:21).

478. Ēnada. Joshua 19:21; K. 94:28; L. 263:76.

The distance puts Ēnadab at Beit Nettif if miles are measured as the road is here described. If coming the other way, the 10th milestone is from Jerusalem and points to location at 'Beit 'Itab. Neither have anything to do with the biblical site. The Madaba map has an "enetabe" between Diospolis (K. 8:14) and Iamneia (K. 22:10), but that is not this site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Enadda, accurate well" (94).

479. Ēnasōr. Joshua 19:37; K. 96:1; L. 264:79.

Cf. K. 84:26; K. 20:1 etc. LXX has "spring" but again the Onomasticon has Ēn. q.v. also Ain K. 24:15.

480. 'Ērakōn (Ereccon). Joshua 19:46; K. 96:3; L. 264:81.

Simple tribal border listing.

The Greek perhaps has E for the MT definite article or conjunction wav. (cf. K. 110:10).


481. 'Ētam. Judges 15:8; K. 96:5; L. 264:83.

Textual variant Etham (Latin).

Simple biblical information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Etam, their bird." (100).


482. 'Ēla. I Samuel 17:2; K. 96:9; L. 264:86.

Textual variant Ēlath (Greek).

Simple Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ela, curse or self" (111).

483. Ēngaddi. I Kings 24:1; K. 96:9; L. 264:87.

Cf. K. 86:16.

484. Ēmath. II Samuel 8:9; K. 96:12; L. 264:90.

Another instance of transliteration by Latin of "foreigners" (cf. K. 88:20 and Jeremiah 49:23).

485. Ēnan. Ezekiel 47:17, 19; K. 96:14; L. 264:92.

Out of the Holy Land proper for the Onomasticon but part of the Promised Land boundary in Ezechiēl. The reference to Thamar is perhaps properly K. 8:6 with the same prefixed Hazar (cf. K. 14:16). For Thaiman see next entry (K. 96:18 and K. 102:7)

The city of Palm Trees is probably Palmyra (K. 100:21) northeast of Damascus (Latin variant has Palmetis). But Jericho also was called by this descriptive phrase (K. 104:25).



486. Thaiman (Theman). Genesis 36:11; K. 96:18; L. 264:96.

Summary of biblical information of Job 2:11 and Genesis 25:15.

The village Thafman may be in the same region as that of the princes of Edom (cf. K. 102:7). The distance of 25 miles brings us to Shobek which is 22 miles from Petra. Often thought to be at Tawilan but recent excavation has Iron through Hellenistic remains there and no Roman-Byzantine. The southern region in Hebrew is also called Daroma (K. 26:1); Negeb (K. 136:14) (see Jerome on K. 137:15 and Interpretation of Hebrew Names 44). If this is Thamana the garrison is verified by Notitia Dignitatum (74:46). In Tabula Peutinger Theman. Perhaps the 15 and 5 of the Greek and Latin texts respectively are both scribal errors.

487. Thamna. Genesis 38:12; K. 96:24; L. 264:3.

Simple biblical note of Joshua 19:43 and 15:57

The Madaba map seems to be quoting Eusebius, "Thamna where Ioudas sheared his sheep." It is a village dependent on Diospolis (K. 8:14) and one of three villages called "great" (cf. Apbeka K. 22:20 and Magdiēl 130:21). The biblical site has been held to be Kh Tibnē bur some claim to find no Israelite remains so Tell Batashi has been suggested. Kh Tibnah which retains the name has Roman-Byzantine remains and is southeast, that is in the Southern Quadrant from Diospolis and could approximate the location on the crowded map. Others on basis of K. 8:13 and K. 24:5 suggest it is northeast of Diospolis near Remphis (K. 144:28) and Aenam (K. 9:11 etc. cp. K. 70:20 and K. 100:1). Three sites combined in one place.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thanna, forbidding or failing" (73).

488. Thamna. Genesis 36:40; K. 96:27; L. 264:6.

Biblical summary of Genesis 36:12. "Another" is out of order and a late addition.

Cf. Thaiman as a son of Esau in K. 96:19.


489. Thophol (Thafol). Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 98:2; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The next three entries are missing in the Vatican Manuscript. This is also the only place where the section heading records "Deuteronomy" by itself rather than all under Pentateuch, or under Numbers. Here entries from Numbers follow one from Deuteronomy and may all be an editorial insertion.

Summary of biblical information and location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thofel, tastelessness" (88).

490. Thaath. Numbers 33:26f.; K. 98:4; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple biblical list of station (cf. K. 82:21). Missing in Vatican manuscript.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Theeth, beneath" (85).

491. Thara. Numbers 33:27f.; K. 98:5; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple biblical list of station (cf. K. 82:21). Missing in Vatican manuscript.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thare, investigation or pasture or worthlessness" (85).


492. Thaphphou (Thaffu). Joshua 12:17; K. 98:7; L. 264:10.

Simple biblical summary. Probably falsely equated with each other cf. Joshua 15:34

Cf. Bēthaphou K. 50:18. Variants Betthaffu and Bethaffu (Latin).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thaffue, apple from a tree not from wickedness or open drum" (98).

493. Thanak (Thaanac). Joshua 12:21; K. 98:10; L. 264:14.

Summary of biblical information of Joshua 17:11, 21:25.

The Onomasticon's data agree with the biblical location of the important mound retaining its name Tell Ta'anak recently re-excavated. Byzantine city in the plain rather than on the tell (cf. K. 100:10) where it is three, not four, miles from Legeōn (K. 14:21).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thaanach, answering or shallow" (98) and "Thanach, shallow or he answered you" (101) and "Thanach, "he answered you" (K. 113).

494. Thēnath. Joshua 16:6; K. 98:13; L. 265:16.

The direction and the distance suggest Kh Ta'na which contains part of the old name. The upper ruin is not far enough to be Eusebius' site Thēna which is at Kh Ta'na et tahta where much Roman-Byzantine remains are found. The Old Testament site may be Kh Ta'aa el foqa. Whether this is related to Silo (K. 156:28) is unclear from Eusebius.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thenath, fig tree" (98).

In Vatican manuscript these two entries are conflated. Simple tribal listings (cp. K. 98:7 above).

495. Thaphphoue (Thaffue). Joshua 16:8, 17:8; K. 98:15; L. 265:19.

Simple tribal listings (cp. K. 98:7 above).

496. Thaphphouth (Thaffuth). Joshua 17:8; K. 98:16; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple tribal listings (cp. K. 98:7 above).

497. Thekō. Joshua 15:59; K. 98:17; L. 265:20.

Cf. K. 86:13. It is out of order of biblical texts (cf. Amos 1:1).

498. Thersa. Joshua 12:24; K. 98:19; L. 265:23.

Simple biblical notation. Order of several entries mixed up.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thersa, pleasing which is what the Greeks call satisfying" (98).

499. Therama. Joshua 18:27; K. 98:21; L. 265:25.

Simple tribal listing.

500. Thōlad. Joshua 15:30; K. 98:22; L. 265:26.

Textual variant Thōdlad (Greek).

Simple tribal listing (Joshua 19:4 and cf. K. 86:7 above). Perhaps out of order.

501. Thabōr. Joshua 19:22; K. 98:23; L. 265:27.

This mountain is out of order so is suspect as a later editorial addition even if it were a town (cf. K. 118:8 and K. 150:14). All the traditions point to the same as Mt.Itabyrium in the Greek Fathers (110:20). Jerome in Commentary on Hosea 5:1 writes, "Thabor which the LXX interprets Itaburion" a mountain in the plain in Galilaea, "very round and high with all sides equal" (cf. Joshua 19:34). There is some evidence of a late fourth century church on Mt.Tabor. Procopius 1049A quotes our text accurately. Jerome's Epistle 108:13 (Paula Migne PL 22, 889) notes that Paula could see Aermon from here. There and in Epistle 108:13 (Paula, Migne PL 22:491) Jerome remarks on the tradition of the Transfiguration. But Eusebius and Origen are not yet sure which of the two mountains is the Mt. of Transfiguration.

For Diokaisareia see K. 16:13.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thabor, coming light" (98).

502. Thalcha. Joshua 19:7; K. 98:26; L. 265:30.

Simple tribal listing together with note on contemporary Jewish town (cf. Note on K. 22:9 and Appendix II) which fits the evidence for Kh or Tell Khuweilife. In Jerome K. 99:27 one variant has "east" instead of "south," but quadrant is acceptable (cf. Sikelak, 156:1).

For Eleutheropolis see K. 18:2.

503. Thamnathsara. Joshua 19:50; K. 100:1; L. 265:33.

Summary of biblical information of Joshua 19:43. Probably equated with Thanna (K. 70:20) where the tomb is also mentioned (cf. K. 96:24).Paula remarks on "one who is buried in Thamnathsare on the north side of Mt. Gaas" in Jerome's Epistle 103:13 (PPT I, 12). Now identified with Tibne.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thamnathsare, measure of a cover" (98) and "Thamnathares, enumeration of the sun" (101).

504. Thalassa. Joshua 18:19; K. 100:4; L. 265:36.

Out of order and not a place name but a sea and so suspect as late editorial addition. On Madaba map the three names all appear: Salt, Asphalt and Dead. In Jerome's Commentary on Ezekiel 47:6 "Bitter sea which in Greek is called AsphaltLake, i.e. pool of bitumen." Both lakes come at end of sections (cp. K. 172:12).

On Zoara see K. 42:1 above.


505. Thaanach. Judges 1:27; K. 100:7; L. 265:39.

Cf. K. 98:10 above where the distance is 4 miles. Procopius 1061A quotes this entry here accurately except for the name Thennach (cp. Judges 5:19 and Joshua 21:25).

506. Thēbēs. Judges 9:50; K. 100:11; L. 265:44.

Summary of biblical information of Judges 9:53.

A village dependent upon Neapolis (K. 4:28). In Old Testament times a "city." This is an accurate location from milestones which have been found. It is at modern Tubas.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thebes, a turning around or having an egg" (101) and "Thebes, they were in it or my deed" (109).

507. Thamnatha. Judges 14:1; K. 100:15; L. 265:49.

Textual variant Thamnam (Latin) (see above K. 96:24 and K. 100:2).


508. Thēlamou land of (Thelamuge). II Samuel 3:12; K. 100:17; L. 265:51.

Simple biblical notation with Hexaplaric information. A name only in LXX.

509. Thaad. II Samuel 24:6; K. 100:19; L. 265:53.

Only a biblical location. A confused entry (cf. K. 34:16 above).

510. Thamsa. I Kings 4:24; K. 100:20; L. 266:54.

Only a biblical location.

511. Thermōth. I Kings 9:18; K. 100:21; L. 266:55.

Biblical notation and location only. This is probably Palmyra (cf. K. 96:15).

512. Tharseis (Tharsis). I Kings 10:22; K. 100:23; L. 266:57.

This is out of the Holy Land proper (Ezekiel 27:25). Josephus Antiquities I, 6, 1 is interpreted in several of Jerome's commentaries as referring to Tarsus in Cilicia (cf. Commentary on Jeremiah 10:6 and Commentary on Isaiah2:16). The LXX interprets it as Carthage (cf. K. 119:12), In Epistle 37:2ff. Jerome repeats his argument used here.

513. Tharsa. I Kings 15:21; K. 102:3; L. 266:61.

A confusion in LXX but here a simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thersa, pleasing" (113).

514. Thersila. II Kings 15:14; K. 102:4; L. 266:62.

This is out of order and perhaps identical with K. 98:19 above as well as the previous entry K. 102:3 to which this may actually be a marginal gloss. It is located at Tsil northwest of Dera now in the Batanea (K. 44:11). The only contemporary Samaritan village reported in the text.

515. Thesba. I Kings 17:1; K. 102:6; L. 266:65.

Simple biblical notation. Elijah is also referred to in K. 162:1 and K. 175:16.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thesbi, capturing or revolving" (113).

516. Thaiman (Theman). Ezekiel 20:46; K. 102:7; L. 266:66.

An accumulation of biblical information from Ezekiel 25:13; Isaiah 21:14; Jeremiah 49:7; Obadiah 9, and Genesis 36:11. One cannot help wondering if these are editorial additions when they are so mixed up in order (cf. K.96: 18). Perhaps all Ezekiel references are late since many are out of biblical order in the text of the Onomasticon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Theman, south" (123).

517. Tharthak. II Kings 17:31; K. 102:11; L. 266:69.

Textual variant Tharak (Greek).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Tharthac, overthrown which is better in the Greek, upset" (118).

518. Thalasar. II Kings 19:12; K. 102:12; L. 266:70.

Textual variant Thalassar (Latin).

Syria does not occur often in the Onomasticon. It was a Roman province in 3rd and 4th centuries but it is not clear if that entity is intended here (cf. K. 72:15, K. 146:13 and K. 146:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thalasar, first weight" (118).

519. Thogarma. Ezekiel 27:14; K. 102:13; L. 266:71.

Textual variant Thourama (Greek).

Simple biblical reference but also perhaps out of the Holy Land proper and possibly out of order. A suspect entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thogorma, tearing away or a certain kind of people" (133).

520. Thapheth (Thafeth). Jeremiah 7:32; K. 102:14; L. 266:72.

Textual variants: Tapheth (Greek, K. 164:21) and for the other site Acheldema (Latin) and Acheldama (Latin cf. K. 38:20).

The fuller's field in K. 38:2. In Jerome's Commentary on Jeremiah7:30 Topheth is the Valley of Ennom which is watered by the springs of Siloe. The name survived for a place or area in the valley southeast of Jerusalem.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Tof gehenna (cf. K. 70:2), or cover of eyes" (128).



521. Iabōk (Iabōc). Genesis 32:23ff.; K. 102:19; L. 266:78.

The distance is missing from the Vatican manuscript and several other confusions occur (Deuteronomy 3:16). This is a river and not properly a place name as the Onomasticon. Possibly also it is out of order. Just as the first entry under many alphabetic sections it is highly suspect as a late editorial addition.

For Gerasa see K. 64:1.

This tributary to the Jordan is the Zerqa. Syriac and Latin agree on the 4 mile distance. The Vatican manuscript added note that some think this is the territory of Job while others say the land of Job is Arabia (see next entry).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iaboc, sand or wrestling" (68).

522. Idoumaia (Idumaea). Genesis 36:16; K. 102:23; L. 266:82.

Possibly the annotation of the Vatican manuscript as noted in the previous entry is really a marginal gloss on this entry. Edom is frequently mentioned in the Onomasticon; Idoumaia, less frequently. Petra (K. 142:7) is used as a referent often. The Gebalēnē (K.8:10) approximates the area.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Idumaea, red or earthy" (139).

523. Iather. Genesis 36:40; K. 104:1; L. 266:87.

Textual variant Ietheth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation. For Gabalenē see K. 8:10 as editor suggests.


524. Iatabatha. Numbers 33:33; K. 104:4; L. 267:90.

Textual variant Iegabath (Latin).

Simple listing of station. This one is out of order suggesting an editor may have added the list of stations (cf. K. 104:23 also).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Etebatha, of goodness or he turned aside to come" (82).

525. Ianna. Numbers 21:20; K. 104:6; L. 267:91.

Textual variant has Phasga (Greek) as also the Latin Fasga.

Summary of biblical verse to give location.

526. Iessa (Iassa). Numbers 21:23; K. 104:9; L. 267:94.

Textual variant Medaban (Latin).

Summary of biblical notations from Isaia 15:1 and Jeremiah 48:21, 34 with a very generalized location perhaps on border of the two regions. Vulgate has Iasa, Iassa and Iaser. Perhaps Khel Lirr for the Onomasticon's site and nearby Kh Iskander or 'Aleiyan for Iron Age.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iassa, halved or make a charge" (82).

527. Iazēr. Numbers 21:32; K. 104:13; L. 267:98.

Detailed location and summary of biblical information from Joshua 13:25, Isaiah 16:8, Jeremiah 48:32, and Joshua 21:37. Usually Perea (K. 12:28) is used for Transjordan not for the specific province. In K. 12:3 a Iazer is 8 rather than 10 miles from Philadelphia. The Latin omits the "of Palistinē." Did some editor, in his time, know that Perea should not be called Palestinē? Perhaps Onomasticon's location is at Kh sar, but Kh jazzir is biblical site. Others see Tell 'areme as Eusebius' site. All are near present Nau 'r.

528. Iordanēs. Numbers 22:1; K. 104:20; L. 267:6.

The rivers as noted before are all suspect in the Onomasticon but this one is in the proper order. The Jordan valley is the Aulon (K.14:22).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iordania, their descent or their possession or seeing judgment" (140).

529. Ietabatha. Deuteronomy 10:7; K. 104:23; L. 267:9.

Simple biblical notation (see K. 104:4).

530. 'Ierichō. Deuteronomy 32:49; K. 104:25; L. 267:10.

Summary of biblical events including New Testament times (I Kings 16:34 and Matthew 20:29) with incidental archaeological concern. No locations are given. The New Testament data may be an original contribution of Eusebius or may be a still later editor.

Procopius 905C says 52 miles to Neapolis. But in 1016A he quotes this entry exactly. The Madaba map follows Eusebius' spelling and location. In Tabula Peutinger it is 12 miles from Archaelaud (K. 45:1) and 32 miles to Neapolis (K. 4:28). A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea.

The three cities are not clearly located or identified. The New Testament one was at Tell abu Aliyiq and spread out to the flats nearby and has been partially excavated. The later Byzantine was in the general location of present er-riha extending westward toward Aliyiq. Usually Tell es-sultan is called Old Testament Ierichō. But it has its archaeological problems in spite of being twice thoroughly excavated. Tell es-sultan is for Josephus and the Onomasticon not Jericho but Gilgal (K. 64:24). What the Onomasticon pointed out as Old Testament Iericho is uncertain but perhaps no ruins. Paula however reports as did Josephus that after Joshua destroyed it, up to her time "nothing is to be seen of it except the place where the Ark of the Covenant stood and the 12 stones which the children of Israel brought out of the Jordan" (PPT I, 25). Obviously this refers to Gilgal as the near obliterated Ierichō. Only the site of Gilgal was seen. In the Onomasticon many sites are located in reference to the Roman-Byzantine Jericho region.


531. 'Ierousalēm. Joshua 10:1; K. 106:2; L. 267:18.

Adonibezek is LXX form for Adonsedek.

A summary of biblical information from Josua 15:63, Judges 1:21, 19:10, II Samuel 5:6, Genesis 14:18 and Joshua 18:28. Identification is made with Iebous (K. 106:7) and Salēm (K. 153: 4). It is also called 'Alōn Orna (K. 34:17). The Greek text on the later entry about Salēm is corrupt. Onomasticon mentions Ailia more frequently than any other name (see Appendices VII and VIII). It is not listed in this entry because it was still a contemporary name. In 135 A.D. Hadrian began the use of Ailia Kapitōlia. Paula writes "entered Jerusalem, the city of three names - Jebus, Salem, Jerusalem - which by Aelius, afterwards Hadrianus, was raised from its ruins and ashes into Ailia" (Jerome's Epistle 108:9 and PPT I, 5).

The Madaba map has a recognizable vignette and the "Holy City Ierousalēm." No mention is made to Church (cf. Note on K. 7:13 and Appendix I) in this entry although Eusebius knows of them (Vita Const. III, 31ff.) as did Paula (PPT I, 6). Some think Eusebius' praise of Constantine sermon was delivered in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Jerusalem or Ailia is often used as a referent in Eusebius and some details are given of its surroundings.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iērusalem, vision of peace" (121).

532. Iebous. Joshua 18:28; K. 106:7; L. 267:23.

Simple biblical quote to identify it with the above (K. 106:2). It is out of order and probably a gloss on the previous entry later incorporated by a scribe.

533. Iareim (Iarim). Joshua 9:17; K. 106:8; L. 267:24.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 114:19 and K. 114:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iarim, salt or of the woods" (94).

534. Ierimouth (Iarimuth). Joshua 12:11; K. 106:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of this entry and the end of the previous entry are missing in the Vatican manuscript. The distance is also corrupted with 7 appearing in the Vatican and 4 in the Latin. Some emend to 14 on the basis of Procopius 1020C [cf. K. 106:24 which locates an Iermochōs 10 miles away from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12)]. If near Esthaol (K. 88:12) it is on the way to Nikopolis (K. 30:27) rather than Jerusalem and must be at least 7 miles since Eathaol is 10 miles from Eleutheropolis. The turn off from the main road may be indicated. Probably Kh Marmita, south of Ishwa is intended by the Onomasticon but it is not the Old Testament site which is probably Kh Yarmuk (cf. Joshua 15:35).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieritnoth, fearing death or to the heights of death" (94).

535. Isimōth. Joshua 12:3; K. 106:11; L. 268:26.

Biblical information with Hexaplaric data (cf. K. 48:6 and I Samuel 23:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Isimoth, he brought death" (82).

536. Iedna. Joshua 15:23; K. 106:15; L. 268:30.

This may be out of order. About halfway between the two major referents is Idna, the site which the Onomasticon has in mind.

537. Iekkomam (Ieconam). Joshua 12:22; K. 106:17; L. 268:32.

Simple biblical information (perhaps see K. 116:21).

538. Iaeir. Joshua 13:30; K. 106:19; L. 268:34.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 18:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iair, making clear" (94).

539. Iamneia (Iamnel). Joshua 15:11; K. 106:20; L. 268:35.

Called a "polichne" and "oppidum" both relatively infrequent terms in the Onomasticon (K. 22:11, K. 10:25 and Appendix I and II). It was made into a municipality by Vespasian. Tabula Peutinger has it 10 miles from Azotus (K. 20:18) and 12 miles from Ioppē (K. 110:24). Its former name was Iabnēl and this name appears with Iamnia on the Madaba map at the generally agreed on location. There was a maritime Iamnia also but that is not the one intended here. A bishop was present at the Council of Nicea.

It is used as a referent in the Onomasticon (K. 22:10, K. 50:16 and K. 72:4). It is the present Iebna.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iabnehel, building of God" (94).

540. Iabeir (Iabir). Joshua 15:15; K. 106:22; L. 268:37.

Confused entry probably for Dabeir (K. 78:12). A similar confusion is in K. 78:2 Dayid.

541. Iagour (Iagur). Joshua 15:21; K. 106:23; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iagur, colony or stranger" (94).

542. Iermous (Iermus). Joshua 15:35; K. 106:24; L. 268:38.

Just north of Beit Nettif is Kh Jarmuk which preserves part of the name and is about 10 miles from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) to the turn off from main road. It is probably to be distinguished from Ierimouth (K. 106:9) nearer to Nikopolis (K. 30:27).

543. Iechthaēl. Joshua 15:38; K. 106:26; L. 268:40.

Textual variants: Iechthael and Iethael (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecthahel, honor of God" (94).

544. Iephthan (Iecthan). Joshua 15:43; K. 106:27; L. 268:41.

Simple tribal listing

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iepte, opening or uncovered" (94).

545. Iether. Joshua 15:48; K. 108:1; L. 268:42.

Textual variant Malatham (Latin).

Eusebius erroneously identifies this with Ether (K. 88:3) of Symeon (Joshua 21:14). Here the information is added that it is entirely Christian, one of two such in the south (K. 26:13). Kh 'Attir is probably this Christian town. Not on the main road (cf. K. 110:18), represented on the Madaba map as a small tower south of Gerara.

For Malathen see K. 14:3 and Appendix II.

546. Ianoun (Ianum). Joshua 15:53; K. 108:5; L. 268:46.

Textual variant Ianun (Latin). The strange addendum may be an editor's questioning the source.

The biblical site is not clearly identifiable but near Kh Gile 'adi with Iron and Persian evidence. But Ianoua is perhaps el Yamun south of Taanach (K. 100:7) about 5 miles instead of 3 from Legeōn (K. 14:21) or Kh Niba with some Roman sherds. The 3 miles may be where one left the main road via Taanach.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ianum, sleeping" (94).

547. Iettan. Joshua 15:55; K. 108:8; L. 268:49.

Textual variant Iethan (Latin).

Another of the all Jewish towns of the fourth century (cf. Note on 22:9 and Appendix II). The localization points to the present Yatta 6 miles south of Chebrōn (K. 180:25). It is southeast of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but within the Eastern quadrant (cf. Joshua 21:16).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ietta, they will stretch out" (94).

548. Iezrael. Joshua 15:56; K. 108:11; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. Jerome's notation is obscure. What entry "above" is intended? Possibly 34:11? A marginal gloss?

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iezrahel, seed of God" (95).

549. Iezrael. Joshua 17:16; K. 108:12; L. 268:52.

Textual variant Efratae (Latin).

This entry is out of order unless confused with the previous one from Iouda. The Greek Vatican manuscript perhaps conflated the two. In the Commentary on Hosea 1:5. Jerome identifies Jezraelem as near Maximianopolis which is Legeōn (K. 14:21). The plain or valley was named after this town. The Itin. Bourd. 1, 19 (PPT I, 17) locates it 10 miles from Maximianopolis and 12 miles from Skythopolis (K. 16:2). This points directly to Zir 'in (cf. Joshua 19:18 and I Chronicles 4:3).

550. Iekdaan. Joshua 15:56; K. 108:17; L. 268:57.

Textual variant Iekdaad (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecdom, the people dwelled in" (95).

551. Iephlithi (Ierflethi). Joshua 16:3; K. 108:18; L. 268:58.

Textual variant Iefleti (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

552. Iano. Joshua 16:6; K. 108:19; L. 268:59.

Summary of biblical information (cf. II Kings 15:29). Very close to Akrabbein (K. 14:7) is modern Yanum which fits the location and retains the sound of the Onomasticon's place name. Just north is Kh Yanum with Roman-Byzantine remains.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ianua, rest" (95).

553. Iamein (Iamin). Joshua 17:7; K. 108:22; L. 268:62.

Hexaplaric information. In LXX this is a place name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iamin, right hand" (96).

554. Iasēb. Joshua 17:16; K. 108:23; L. 268:63.

Hexaplaric information. Out of order and doubly suspect as a gloss.

555. Ieblaam. Joshua 17:11; K. 108:24; L. 268:64.

Textual variant Iebalam (Greek).

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 72:24).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieblaam, foolish people" (95).

556. Ierphēl. Joshua 18:27; K. 108:26; L. 268:66.

Textual variant Ierdēl (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ierfel, God sent forth" (95).

557. Ieknal. Joshua 19:11; K. 108:27; L. 269:67.

Simple biblical notation (Joshua 21:34).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iecnaam, possession of the people" (95).

558. Iapheth (Iafthie). Joshua 19:12; K. 108:29; L. 269:69.

Iapheth is said to be the coastal port of Ioppē. Apparently it was sometimes confused with 'ēpha or Sykaminos around Mt.Karmēl. Neither 'ēpha nor Sykaminos are important to the Onomasticon but Ioppē is (cf. 110:24).

In Joshua 19 an Iaphia in v.12 and an Iapho in v.46. The former is in Zebulōn and the latter in Dan. The Onomasticon conflates the two in this entry unless they switched loyalty in biblical times. Iaphia-Iapheth is falsely equated with Ioppēe. The identity of Iaphia and 'Epha are not made clear.

Four sites are involved. Iaphia of Zabulōn is not really localized in the Onomasticon. It is probably Yafe near Nazareth. Ioppē was a well known port and referent for the Onomasticon and needed no localization. Sykaminos is located near Mt.Karmēl identified with 'ēpha but Sykaminos is probably south of Mt.Karmēl, Tell es Samak and Epha is north and is ancient area of present day Haifa. Sykaminos is an "oppidum" in Latin (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). Iapho which is probably Ioppē is not mentioned here or in the entry at K. 110:24. But Vespasian made Ioppē a municipality.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iafie, open or exposed or surface" (95).

559. Iephthaēl. Joshua 19:14; K. 110:1; L. 269:72.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 10:6).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iafthehel, God reveals" (95).

560. Iadela. Joshua 19:15; K. 110:2; L. 269:73.

Textual variant Ioudēla (Greek)

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iedala, abuse of the hand" (95).

561. Iermoth. Joshua 19:21; K. 110:3; L. 269:74.

Summary of biblical information from Joshua 21:29 and Hosea 5:8 (cf. K. 106:9).

562. Iamnēl (Iabnel). Joshua 19:33; K. 110:5; L. 269:76.

Textual variant Iamel (Latin).

Simple tribal listing (cp. K. 106:20).

563. Ierōn. Joshua 19:38; K. 110:6; L. 269:77.

Textual variant Ierron (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieraon, they will fear" (95).

564. Iethlan (Iethlam). Joshua 19:42; K. 110:7; L. 269:78.

Jethela (Vulgate) Seilatha (LXX).

Simple tribal listing.

565. Iēlōn. Joshua 19:43; K. 110:8; L. 269:79.

Simple tribal listing.

566. Ioud (Iud). Joshua 19:45; K. 110:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry missing in Greek Vatican Manuscript

Simple tribal listing.

567. 'Ierakō (Ieracon). Joshua 19:46; K. 110:10; L. 269:80.

Some take "waters" me (mai) as the first syllable of a proper name.

Simple tribal listing. This may be the same as K. 96:3, but the Greek may have conflated or confused two Hebrew place names. LXX has "sea of Ierakōn with border near Ioppē." The words border and mountain are quite similar in Greek and Hebrew for mountain is har which could be found in MT harakkon.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieracon, yellowish which Greeks call jaundiced" (95).

568. Iabeis Galaad. Judges 21:8; K. 110:11; L. 269:81.

In K. 32:6 Iabis is a large city, but a village of Iabeis here. Procopius 1049A has the distance 20 from Pella (K. 14:19) and 60 from Gerasa (K. 64:2) which are obviously wrong unless the milestones were taken from other referents than those now in our text.

The name continues in the Wadi Yabis. Onomasticon seems to point to Kir Isna or nearby Deir el Halaweh, with the former a Roman-Byzantine site to be preferred. This is not necessarily the identification of the biblical site, which may be Tell Maqlub.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iabes, dry or dryness" (100).


569. Iaar. I Samuel 14:25; K. 110:15; L. 269:86.

The etymology is in the LXX. This is not a proper name in the MT.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iaare, salt" (108).

570. 'Ieramēlei. I Samuel 30:29; K. 110:16; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript and out of order in Latin. Jerome transliterates rather than translates the "foreigners."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ierameheli, God have mercy on me" (104).

571. Iether. I Samuel 30:26; K. 110:17; L. 269:87.

Textual variants: Iethoeira (Greek) and Ieththira (Latin).

Onomasticon identifies this with K. 88:3 and K. 108:2.

572. Iekmaan. I Kings 4:12; K. 110:19; L. 269:89.

Simple biblical notation.

573. Itaburion. Joshua 5:1; K. 110:20; L. 269:90.

Cf. K. 98:23. Thabor, perhaps out of order and suspect.

574. Iekthoēl. II Kings 14:7; K. 110:22; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Interpretative biblical comment (cf. K. 142:7).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ieethel, meeting God or help of God" (116).

575. Ietaba. II Kings 21:19; K. 110:23; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Iothaba, sinning in him" (116).

576. Ioppē. Jonah 1:3; K. 110:24; L. 269:92.

Madaba map notes this was the home of Jonah. So also does Paula (PTT I, 4) (cf. K. 108:30 and Joshua 19:46. No details regarded as necessary for a flourishing "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25; K. 163:6 and Appendix I).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ioppe, beauty" (124).


577. Itouraia, Also Trachonitis. Luke 3:1; K. 110:27; L. 269:93.

This is the extreme northeast of the Onomasticon. On Trachonitis see K. 166:1. It is related to Basan (K. 44:9) and Batanaia (cf. K. 12:11). Arabia (K. 10:17) is the most frequently used of these geographical names but they are not clearly delineated in the Onomasticon, probably because the lists developed over several centuries of Jewish compilers, Eusebius and later editors and glossators. In the early fourth century there was an important town Maximianopolis not to be confused with the similarly named town in Jesreel.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ituraeae, mountainous; this in Syria" (140).



K. 112:2; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

In Greek the sub-division under this alphabetic section is "Genesis" but in Latin it is more correct as "Pentateuch."

578. Karnaeim. Astaroth Karnaeim. Genesis 14:5; K. 112:3; L. 269:98.

The large village in Batanaia is one of the two villages of K. 6:4. The probability is that it is Sheikh Sa'ad about 16 miles northwest of Dera near Tell 'ashtarah (K. 12:11). The home of Job is noted in K. 142:3 and such a tradition from pilgrim times continued into the 20th century at Sheikh Sa'ad (cf. K. 76:10)

For Batanaia see K. 44:11.

The second Karnaia (I Maccabees 5:27ff.) belonging to Ailia perhaps is Ataroth (K. 26:25). Nine miles marks the turn off from main road northwest toward Bethoron from Jerusalem. All these are to be distinguished from Ataroth of Ephraim (K. 26:19) near Bir Zeit.

579. Kadēs. Genesis 14:7; K. 112:7; L. 269:3.

Simple biblical notation. In Hebrew Questions Jerome says "Cades is a place near Petra called the spring of judgment where God judged the people" (18).

580. Kadēa Barnē. Numbers 32:8; K. 112:8; L. 270:4.

Textual variant city of Palestinē (Greek) instead of Arabia. This reflects again the uncertainty of editorial additions and of the use of Arabia in the Onomasticon (K. 110:27). Latin combines K. 112:7 and K. 112:8. Some confusion in order of this and the next three entries.

A summary of biblical information from Numbers 21:1, 11; Numbers 27:14 and Genesis 14:7. A tomb tradition is here. No location is given other than near Petra (K. 142:7). Procopius repeats the entry in 332D and 1021D. It also is reaffirmed by Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel 38:23(cf. K. 46:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cades, holy or change" (63); "Cades, alteration or holy" (80); "Cadesbarne, selected change or changeableness" (80).

581. Kenaz. Genesis 36:11; K. 112:13; L. 270:9.

Simple biblical notation. In Hebrew Questions (44) Jerome equated Theman (K. 96:18), Cenaz, Amalec (K. 16:5) with Idumaia (K. 46:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cenez, jealous or his possession" (63).

582. Kariathaeim. Numbers 32:37; K. 112:14; L. 270:10.

Textual variants: Kariathieim (Greek). For contemporary site Coroiath and Eoraiatat (Latin).

Another wholly Christian town (cf. K. 26:14) is located west of Madaba and probably indicates Kh el Qureiyat which is near the hot springs of Barē (cf. K. 44:22). Mileage indicates turn off from main Roman highway. Must be distinct from Kariathiareim of Jerusalem (K. 14:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathaim, towns or their city (oppidum)" (80).

583. Kariatharbo. Genesis 23:2; K. 112:18; L. 270:14.

Textual variants: Kariathirbo (Greek) and Ceriath arbeae (Latin).

Etymological information and identification with Chebrōn (K. 6:8 and K. 170:25). It is out of regular order and probably suspect as addition. See all three entries above.

584. Kanath. Numbers 32:42; K. 112:20; L. 270:15.

Vatican manuscript is incomplete here. Textual variants: Cannatha and Chanatha (Latin).

Summary of biblical information and generalized location. The village is probably el Kanawat and along with Damascus and Bostra forms the eastern limit of the Onomasticon. In Tabula Peutinger it is 20 Miles from Bostra.

Onomasticon confused Nabo (Numbers 32:42) and Naboth (Numbers 32:3, 78 and K. 136:6, 9) and perhaps is too far northeast for the biblical site. The Syriac has this "near Petra" which is an attempted correction getting nearer to Kerak.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Canath, striving after or zealous" (80).

585. Kata ta Krusea (Catatachrysea, i.e. to gold). Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 114:1; L. 270:19.

Vatican manuscript adds "Deuteronomy" division marker here.

The LXX and Vulgate translate the biblical Dizahab. The area is located by the Onomasticon as near Phainon (K. 81:16 and K. 168:8) in the Arabah (K.12:25) somewhere near Aqabah (cf. Deuteronomy 1:5 and Numbers 33:42). Perhaps Umm el Dahab which retains the sound and etymology. The mines were worked in Roman-Byzantine times as well as earlier. Smelters also in later era.

586. Kadēmōth. Deuteronomy 2:26; K. 114:5; L. 270:23.

Simple biblical summary (cf. K. 114:10 below).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cademoth, beginning of death" (86).

587. Kariath. Joshua 9:17; K. 114:7; L. 270:25.

Simple biblical summary (cf. K. 114:23, K. 48:9, K. 48:24, and K.172:15). And for Gabaon see K. 66:11.

588. Kades. Joshua 12:22; K. 114:8; L. 270:26.

Simple biblical notation (cf. Joshua 15:3).

589. Kademoth. Joshua 13:18; K. 114:10; L. 270:28.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 114:5). Here "another" is in the proper order. One of six only in the Onomasticon. All others are out of order.

590. Kedsōn. Joshua 21:37; K. 114:11; L. 270:29.

Part of this entry missing in Vatican manuscript possibly by scribal homoioteleuton after Roubin. Gloss.


591. Kapseēl. Joshua 15:21; K. 114:13; L. 270:31.

Note "Iesoue" division here but four previous entries were from that book.

Simple tribal listing. Possibly the same as K. 118:10.

592. Kina. Joshua 15:22; K. 114:14; L. 270:32.

Simple tribal listing (cf. Tina (K. 164:14)).

593. Keeila. Joshua 15:44; K. 114:15; L. 270:33.

Textual variant in Vatican manuscript 17 miles.

Probably at Kh Qila today about 7 miles east of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) but 7 miles more properly a turn off. The tomb is also indicated as elsewhere (K. 70:24 and K. 88:27). This is also called Enkēla (K. 88:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cena, throw a slingstone or arousing him or bearing oneself" (92).

594. Kariathbaal. Joshua 15:60; K. 114:19; L. 270:37.

A simple biblical notation (cf. K. 106:8, K. 114:23 and K. 48:24).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathbaal, he possessed cities or had possessed cities" (92).

595. Kana. Joshua 16:8; K. 114:20; L. 270:38.

Simple tribal listing. A river (cf. K. 114:22).

596. Kabsaeim (Capsaim). Joshua 21:22; K. 114:21; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in Vatican manuscript and out of order. Textual variant Camsaim (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

597. Kane. Joshua 17:9; K. 114:22; L. 270:39.

Simple tribal listing. A river (cf. K. 114:20).

598. Kariathiareim (Kariathbaal). Joshua 18:14; K. 114:23; L. 271:40.

Summary of biblical items which are divided into two sections by a location indication. The additions after are perhaps from a later hand (Joshua 26:22, I Chronicles 2:50, Joshua 15:60, and Judges 10:4). Same as K. 114:19 above.

Procopius 1024A agrees with the location and distance. In K. 48:24 however it is 12 miles not 9 as here (cf. K. 106:8 and K. 128:1). This location generally points to Qaryat al 'Inab area for the Byzantine site; possibly Deir el Azhar (cf. K. 116:20).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cariathiarim, city or village of the woods" (91).

599. Kisōn (Kision). Joshua 19:20; K. 114:28; L. 271:46.

Simple biblical notation (Joshua 21:28).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cison, they drive against or their hardness or joy" (99).

600. Kartha. Joshua 21:34; K. 116:1; L. 271:47.

Simple biblical notation, possibly out of order.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cartham, complete a summons" (92).

601. Katta. Joshua 19:15; K. 116:2; L. 271:48.

Textual variants: Kouta (Greek) and Cotta (Latin).

Simple biblical notation, also possibly out of order.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Catath or Caath, bite or society" (92).

602. Kana. Joshua 19:28; K. 116:4; L. 271:50.

Summary of biblical information including New Testament (John 21:1,2 and John1:48). Only a general location is given. The Latin text calls the contemporary town an "oppidum" (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). The Onomasticon equates Kanah with Cana. Kanah of Asher should be near Aidōn and possibly is at Qanah 6-7 miles southeast of Tyre (K. 162:15). The New Testament site is quite older, being in Galilee. It is close to Nazareth (K. 138:24) and Kapharnaum (K. 120:2), according to Jerome's Epistle 108 (Migne PL 22, 889 and PPT I, 15). In Epistle 46 (Migne PL 22, 91) it is very near Nazareth. It is probably to be located at Kh Qana but could possibly be Kefr Kenna closer to Nazareth. A late 4th century church is there.

Some scholars think Jerome's note on greater and lesser refer to Kana rather than to Sidōn. If so, the greater is the New Testament site and the lesser the Old Testament site. However, the text hardly supports this opinion.

603. Kades (Cades). Joshua 19:37; K. 116:8; L. 271:53.

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 21:32, Joshua 20:7 and II Kings 15:29). Procopius 1049A has the first part of the entry only.

Kydissos probably also known as Cadasa is located southeast of Tyre (K. 162:15) and is still known as Qades in Upper Galilee, north of Safed.

604. Kartham. Joshua 21:32; K. 116:12; L. 271:57.

Simple biblical notation.


605. Ketrōn. Judges 1:30; K. 116:15; L. 271:60.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cetron, their darkness or incense" (99).

606. Karka (Carcar). Judges 8:10; K. 116:17; L. 271:62.

Biblical summary plus location. No direction is given. If north, it is near Shobek but it could just as well refer to south or southeast area (cf. Kerak sound).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carcar, investigation" (99).

607. Kamōn. Judges 10:5; K. 116:20; L. 271:65.

The identification by the Onomasticon is probably erroneous for the biblical site which should be in Transjordan. Kammona is near present Qamun which retains the sound of the name and is approximately 8 miles northwest of Legeōn (K. 14:21) and may be the Jokneam of the Old Testament for Iaeip (see K. 48:24 and K. 114:23).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Camon, unprofitable reappearance" (99).

The next four entries are all out of order and are not really names of places so are suspect as later editorial or scribal additions.

608. Kisōn. Judges 4:7; K. 116:23; L. 271:69.

Simple biblical summary for the Wadi (cf. K. 114:28).

609. Kadēmim (Cademi). Judges 5:21; K. 116:25; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Procopius 1061B puts these two places together and notes the possible confusion of Kisōn and Kadēmim in the Sisara and Debbōra story.

610. Koilas of the Titans (i.e. valley of giants). Judges 1:19; K. 116:26; L. 271:71.

Procopius 1125C suggests "valley of the giants who are called Titans" (cf. II Samuel 5:18ff.). A gloss.

611. Klauthmōn. Judges 2:1; K. 118:1; L. 271:72.

Etymological information not customary in the Onomasticon. This and the previous three entries are suspect on various grounds.


612. Keni. I Samuel 27:10; K. 118:4; L. 271:75.

The order of entries in this entire section on "Kingdoms" is confused. Here the Latin identifies the "foreigners" as Pylistii.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ceni, my copper or my bereaved or passion" (80).

613. Karmēlos. I Samuel 25:2; K. 118:5; L. 271:76.

In the Vatican manuscript this and the following item have been conflated.

The village still retains its old name at Kermela 10 miles south (not east) of Chebrōn (K. 6:8). This direction in the Onomasticon is obviously an error since even the East quadrant which is sometimes intended in directions in the Onomasticon would not cover the road to Malatha. The "South" is in the entry for Chermel (K. 172:20 and cf. K. 92:21). Near Zeif is the home of Nabal at Chermela. Chermala probably had been fortified by Herod along with Zelph. The garrison is reaffirmed by Notitia Dignitatum (72:6 and 73:20)(cp. Procopius 1020C). Chebrōn is an "oppidum" in Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

614. Karmēlos. Mountain. I Kings 18:42; K. 118:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The confusion with the above is possible because most mountains are suspect entries in the Onomasticon. The Greek manuscript lacks the first two words. The Latin does not have this entry. Jerome in Commentary on Amos 1:2 sees two mountains: one the home of Nabal, the other near Ptolemais. He repeats this distinction in Commentary on Isaiah 29:17. The home of Nabal near Chebrōn (K. 6:8) is in the previous entry as well as K. 172:20. This item is one of the few entries in the Onomasticon giving borders of the Roman-Byzantine period. The northern boundary of the Province of Palestinē is marked by the mountain.

615. Kabseēl II Samuel 15:23; K. 118:10; L. 272:81.

Simple biblical notation not in the Latin text. Perhaps same as K. 116:13.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cabseel, assembly of God" (107).

616. Kedrōn. I Samuel 15:23; K. 118:11; L. 272:82.

Not originally a place name entry. The Latin adds New Testament John 18:1 note.

Simple biblical location (cf. K. 174:26 and K. 70:2).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cedron, sadness or sorrow" (126).

617. Kurinē (Cyrene). II Kings 16:9; K. 118:13; L. 272:84.

Probably outside the Onomasticon's limits for Holy Land.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cyrene, heir" (144).

618. Kōa. I Kings 10:28; K. 118:15; L. 272:87.

Textual variant Kōd (Greek). Not in MT, an LXX word.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Caue, endurance or sound of trumpet" (110).

619. Karchēdon (i.e. Carthage). Isaiah 23:1; K. 118:16; L. 272:88.

Probably outside of the Onomasticon's limits for Holy Land (Ezekiel 27:12 and cp. K. 100:25). The reference to Hebrew Tharseis is repeated by Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah 33:1 and Commentary on Ezekiel 37:12. The Latin makes the clear identification with Carthago.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carthaginis, investigation" (120).

620. Kollas Iōsaphat. Joel 13:2; K. 118:18; L. 272:89.

Another detail of Jerusalem. The location given is the same as that for the Chebrōn (cf. K. 70:2, K. 118:11, and K. 174:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome adds nothing new. This is possibly only a marginal gloss in the Latin text.

621. Kedam. Ezekiel 25:4; K. 118:20; L. 272:91.

Hexaplaric information.

622. Kēdar. Ezekiel 27:21; K. 118:21; L. 272:92.

Summary of biblical information (Jeremiah 49:28, Isaiah 21:16 and Genesis 25:13) and a generalized location. The desert of Sarakēnē (K. 60:13) is related to the area of the Ishmaelites by Jerome in his Commentary on Jeremiah 2:10.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cedar, sad or dark" (130).

623. Kariōth. Jeremiah 48:24, 41; K. 120:1; L. 272:95.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Carioth, meeting of signs" (126).

624. Kapharnaoum. Matthew 4:13; K. 120:2; L. 272:96.

No special section in this listing for New Testament text. This is an "oppidum" in Jerome (see Appendix I). Localization is general because in Eusebius' time this city at Tell Hum was flourishing. It was two miles from Chōrazein (K. 174:25). There is debate as to whether the New Testament site was here. Paula and the pilgrims visited this site (Epistle 108; PPT I, 16; Epistle 46 and Migne PL 22, 491).

Here ends our reading for the letter C i.e. the Greek Kappa the rest are under the letter Chi, which has aspiration in itself and of which there is very little use in Latin. At the end of this alphabetic section Jerome adds another of his linguistic notes differentiating Greek and Hebrew letters and pronunciation.



625. Lasan. Genesis 10:19; K. 120:7; L. 272:1.

Simple biblical location.

Jerome in Hebrew Questions has "Lece which is not Callirhoe where the hot water pours out and flows into the dead sea" (14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lesa, in salt" (68).

626. Louza (Luza). Genesis 28:19; K. 120:8; L. 272:2.

Textual variant Louzan (Greek).

General directions for Baithel-Louza are correct (K. 40:20ff and cf. Joshua 18:13). The road described in opposite direction in K. 40:20. Site is east and off the main road.

627. Louza (Luza). Judges 1:23; K. 120:11; L. 272:5.

This "another" entry is out of order as frequently appears and seems to be a marginal gloss on the previous entry which has been incorporated into the text by a later scribe. The Onomasticon confuses a contemporary, continuing city with the above. The Greek has 9 miles and the Latin 3 miles from Neapolis (K. 4:28). The Latin is probably correct for Luza on Mt.Garisim still known as Kh al-loze. The 9 miles northeast may point to at talluza.

628. Lōtan. Genesis 36:20; K. 120:13; L. 272:7.

Textual variant Lōtam (Greek).

Possibly a name of a person has been confused with a place.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Loyan, their chain or he was confined" (82).


629. Lebōna. Numbers 33:20; K. 120:15; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This and the next entry are missing in Vatican Greek manuscript.

Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lobna, white or shining white" (82).

630. Lobon. Deuteronomy 1:1; K. 120:16; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This and the previous entry are missing in Vatican Greek manuscript.

Simple biblical notation.

631. Lacheis. Joshua 10:3; K. 120:19; L. 272:9.

Summary of biblical information (Isaiah 36:2, Jeremiah 34:7, Joshua 15:19). The Old Testament Lachish being re-excavated at Tell ed Duweir is not Lacheis as far as the Onomasticon indicates. The Old Testament site is about four and half miles, from Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). Tell el Hesi (once identified as Old Testament Lachish) is almost twice the distance as here in the Onomasticon. A Byzantine site at Daweima is about 7 miles southeast and could be the one intended by Eusebius. Near Tell ed Duweir is an el Qubeibe which is more likely intended. Procopius 1020e repeats the Greek material here.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lachis, it is march or man himself" (95).

632. Lebna. Joshua 10:29; K. 120:23; L. 273:13.

Textual variant Leena (Greek).

After the biblical summary (Joshua 15:42, Joshua 21:13 and Isaiah 37:8) only a generalized location is given. The Old Testament may be Tell Judeidah or Tell es-Safi. The later is Saphitha for the Madaba map. Lobana is not on the map. Eusebius may see Tell Bernat.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lohna, dazzling white or tiles" (95).

633. Laserōn (Lasaran). Joshua 12:18; K. 122:1; L. 273:17.

Simple biblical notation.

634. Lithos Boen. Joshua 15:6; K. 122:3; L. 273:19.

Textual variant Boethou (Greek).

The "stone" has been translated into a proper name.

635. Labōth. Joshua 15:32; K. 122:4; L. 273:20.

Textual variant Labōn (Greek).

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 52:15).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lebo, entrance or coming" (5).

636. Lamas. Joshua 15:40; K. 122:5; L. 273:21.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Laamas, to iniquity" (95).

637. Labōth. Joshua 19:6; K. 122:6; L. 273:22.

Textual variant Laboth (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

638. Labanath. Joshua 19:26; K. 122:7; L. 273:23.

Simple tribal listing.

639. Lakoum. Joshua 19:33; K. 122:8; L. 273:24.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lacum, to honor" (95).


640. Labōemath. Judges 3:3; K. 122:10; L. 273:26.

Textual variant Lamoemath (Greek).

Hexaplaric information (cf. K. 88:20). Note order shift in these entries.

641. Lesem. Joshua 19:47; K. 122:11; L. 273:27.

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 76:6). Order confused.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lesem, to name" (95).

642. Louza. Judges 1:26; K. 122:12; L. 273:29.

"Another" is frequently suspect but if previous entries are confused this is one of the few in the proper biblical order (cf. K. 120:8, 11 and Baithēl K. 40:20).

643. Lechei. Judges 15:19; K. 122:16; L. 273:32.

Hexaplaric Information. The Latin lacks the first "in jaw" but it may stand for Enlechi and is not a translation (cf. K. 88:21).

644. Laisa. Judges 18:27ff.; K. 122:17; L. 273:33.

Textual variant Leisa (Greek).

Summary of biblical information and geography (Judges 20:1, Isaiah 10:30. Old Testament Laisa probably Tell el Qadi. Perhaps refers to K. 122:11 and K. 76:6 (Tell Dan) or else to other references to Paneas and sources of the Jordan.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Laisa, lion" (121).


645. Lemattara. I Samuel 20:20; K. 122:23; L. 273:38.

Procopius 1108A has Lamattaran.

Simple biblical notation and Hexaplaric information. Hebrew has become a proper name through transliteration (cf. K. 88:24).

646. Ladabar. II Samuel 9:4; K. 122:25; L. 273:40.

Textual variants: Lakamer (Greek) and Memphybosthe and Miphiloseth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

647. Lōdabar. II Samuel 17:27; K. 122:26; L. 273:41.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Lodabar, the word itself" (108).

648. Libanos. I Kings 5:9; K. 122:27; L. 273:42.

A mountain, therefore a suspect entry (cf. K. 18:8).

649. Loueith (Luith). Isaiah 15:5; K. 122:28; L. 273:43.

The location is very general. Some identify Loueitha near Mt.Nebo and others nearer Areoplis (K. 10:17). Perhaps still best at Kh Fas.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Luith, jaw or cheek" (121).



650. Manassē. Genesis 10:30; K. 124:3; L. 273:47.

Simple biblical notation. Outside of Holy Land proper according to Onomasticon's limits. Procopius 312B says "Massē territory in India is called thus".

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mesa, infrequent water or from the Lord" (69).

651. Mambre. Genesis 13:18; K. 124:5; L. 273:49.

Identified with Chebrōn (K. 170:25) and Arboc (K. 6:8) (cf. also Oak of Mamrē in K. 76:1). The "see above" interrupts the biblical information so the later notations after that are suspect (Genesis 14:13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mamre, division or clear" (69).

652. Madiam. Genesis 25:2; K. 124:8; L. 274:52.

Textual variants: Cethura and Cettura (Latin). Greek lacks "near Arnon."

Procopius 405A says, "City Madiam extends beyond the Arabian desert, formerly Pharan, to the east of the Red Sea. Whence the Madianites, the people of Madiam, son of Abraam and Chettoura as is clear. Iothor, the father-in-law of Mōuses was descended from Abraam and of the family of Madiam" (cf. Exodus 2:16 and Numbers 10:29). Josephus Antiquities II, 2, 1 reports a town of Madian situated by the Red San "named after one of Abraham's sons by Katura (cf. Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 60: 6 "now Saba" is added by way of identification. Text does not really locate this city.

The second deserted city near the Arnonas (K. 10:15) and Areopolis (10:17) is perhaps el middin southeast of Kerak.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Madan, measuring or answering" (69).

653. Mōab. Genesis 36:35; K. 124:15; L. 274:59.

Genealogical reference to Genesis 19:37.

Moab is around Areopolis (10:17) which is also called Rabbath Moab (cf. K. 10:13 and K. 36:24). In Jerome's Commentary on Amos 2:1 "Moab or metropolis of the Moabites which is applied to the whole complete province." In his Commentary on Zephaniah 8 "Moab which is now called Areopolis." Probably the present town of Rabba.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Moab, from the father" (69).

654. Masrēka. Genesis 36:36; K. 124:18; L. 274:62.

Textual variant Maasrēka (Greek).

A personal name becomes a place name. Located in general Gebalēnē (K. 10:62). The name may be preserved in jebel mushraq.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Masreca, void tax or hissing or dragging" (69).

655. Mabsar. Genesis 36:42; K. 124:20; L. 274:63.

Textual variant Masaris (Greek).

A large village dependent upon Petra (K. 142:7) in the Gebalēnē (K. 8:10). This may be a bastardization of Bosor (K. 46:11) in Idumaea, not Bostra north toward Damascus.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mabsar, fort" (69).

656. Magediēl. Genesis 36:43; K. 124:22; L. 274:65.

A proper name of a person given to a place (cf. K. 124:18 above).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Magdihel, from promise of God or tower of God or God makes me great" (69).


657. Magdolos. Exodus 14:2; K. 124:25; L. 274:68.

Vatican manuscript lacks the name at beginning of the entry.

A station (cf. K. 44:2) with additional biblical information (Ezekiel 29:10, Jeremiah 44:1 and Jeremiah 46:14). Possibly two places are combined in this entry. For Soene see K. 162:16.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Magdolon, how great or tower" (76).

658. Merra. Exodus 15:23ff.; K. 126:3; L. 274:73.

Summary of biblical information after etymology. No location given.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mara or Merra, bitterness" (76).


659. Mnemata epithumias. Numbers 11:34; K. 126:6; L. 274:76.

The MT proper name has been translated into Greek and etymology given.

Simple station listing.

660. Makēlōth. Numbers 33:25; K. 126:8; L. 274:78.

Simple station listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maceloth, church" (82).

661. Mathekka. Numbers 33:28; K. 126:10; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple station listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mathca, sweetness or satiated" (82).

662. Masourouth. Numbers 33:30; K. 126:12; L. 274:80.

Simple station listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maseroth, excluding or chains or succeeding or of discipline. In our codex we read Mazureth" (82).

663. Maththanem. Numbers 21:18; K. 126:14; L. 274:82.

This entry is out of order and is therefore suspect.

The location is on the edge of the desert. Kh or Tell el Medeiyineh is approximately at this indicated location and would be the eastern outpost for Madaba (K. 128:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mathana, gift" (82).

664. Misōr. Deuteronomy 3:10; K. 126:16; L. 274:84.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 128:17).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Misor, straight or plain or field" (87).

665. Machanarath. Deuteronomy 3:7; K. 126:17; L. 274:85.

Simple biblical notation. The MA may be the Hebrew "from." The LXX also has this form.

666. Madbaris. Deuteronomy 4:43; K. 126:18; L. 275:86.

Textual variant Mambrēs (Greek).

An etymological entry.

667. Misadai. Deuteronomy 10:6; K. 126:19; L. 275:87.

Greek confused the Hebrew R for D. Onomasticon and LXX often make this error.

Is this distinguished from K. 176:71? Bible and Onomasticon are not clear.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mosera, teaching or his instruction" (87).


668. Makēda. Joshua 10:10; K. 126:22; L. 275:90.

Procopius 1021A includes this same location. Eusebius does not agree with the biblical information on location. He seems to locate it southeast at Kh Beit Maqdum off the main road. Some think the text should read "North." Tell es Safi is northwest at this distance and may be the ancient Makkedah. The Old Testament site is still unidentified with scholarly debate.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maceda, burning or east or antecedent, that is prior" (95).

669. Madōn. Joshua 11:1; K. 126:26; L. 275:94.

Textual variant Modad (Greek) (cf. LXX Mōdōn).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Madon, contradiction or habitation" (95).

670. Massepha. Joshua 11:3; K. 128:1; L. 275:96.

A confused summary of biblical information (Joshua 15:38; I Samuel 7:1; Jeremiah 40:6 and Judges 20:1) seems to combine several different sites into this one entry (Judah, Galaad and Benjamin). It is quoted by Procopius 1024A (cf. K. 130:2 Masseba).

For Kariathiareim see K. 114:23.I

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Masefa, watchtower" (95).

671. Merran. Joshua 11:7; K. 128:4; L. 275:99.

The identity of this site is not known by the Onomasticon. Eusebius seems to be confused by the similar sound of Merrous (cf. Marous below K. 128:13). The distance is quoted exactly by Procopius 1021D. Probably just east of Dothan (K. 76:13) at Qasr Mahrun, in Sebaste Territory. Dothan is also "12 miles" so perhaps this was turn off to the east.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Marom, high or from height" (95).

672. Mastraiphōth Maim. Joshua 11:8; K. 128:7; L. 275:2.

Hexaplaric information. Procopius 1021D notes others call it the water or sea of Massepha (cf. above K. 128:1).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Masarfoth, fire or from the tribulation of the platform" (96).

673. Machathi. Joshua 12:5; K. 128:9; L. 275:4.

Simple biblical summary (Joshua 13:11, 13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maachathi, cut belly or broken by me" (96).

674. Marōm. Joshua 12:20; K. 128:12; L. 275:7.

Simple biblical notation. Perhaps "above" refers to K. 128:15. Most of this entry missing in Vatican manuscript.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Marom, another unpleasant or sadness" (96).

675. Maggedo. Joshua 12:21; K. 128:14; L. 275:9.

Textual variant Magsddō (Greek).

Simple biblical information. Jerome speaks of the plain of Megiddo in Epistle 103:8 (PPT I, 4). In his Commentary on Zachariah 12:11 he notes Hadadrimmon is in valley of Megiddo. Ancient Megiddo has been well excavated. No indication here is made of its connection with Legeōn (K. 14:21) or the Byzantine name Maximianopolis. Procopius also only summarizes biblical material without location (1048A and 1061A).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mageddo, of his fruit or his disgrace" (96).

676. Misōr. Joshua 13:9, 16; K. 128:17; L. 275:11.

Hexaplaric information plus biblical summary (Joshua 20:8 and 21:36). On Meddaba (cf. K. 128:19 and K. 126:16.

677. Meddaba. Joshua 13:9; K. 128:19; L. 275:13.

An important referent for the Onomasticon. It is an autonomous city in the province of Arabia between Esebōn (K. 84:1) and Dibōn (K. 76:17). The Valley (K. 128:17) may be the plain from Meddaba to Dibōn. The famous Madaba map is here, recently cleaned and in part restored. There are vast ruins at Medaha. The source of the Madaba map may have been the sketch Eusebius claims to have prepared for this work plus of course the entries of this work itself (cf. K. 2:8 and Introduction).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Medab, hunger of water" (96) and "Madaba, nativity" (96).

678. Mēphaath. Joshua 13:18; K. 128:21; L. 275:15.

Two sites combined here. One only a tribal listing. The other a similar sounding name in Transjordan. The second may be Mophath (K. 134:14). A garrison reported by Notitia Dignitatum (81:19) at a place called Mefa. This is near the Syrian or Arabian desert probably at Nefa'a northeast of Esebōn (K. 84:1) which in part preserves the name but it is not pre-Christian in date.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mefaath, motion of matter or from this time" (96 and 127).

679. Maspha. Joshua 13:26; K. 130:1; L. 275:18.

Textual variants: Massēma (Greek) and Messafa, Masafa, and Masfas (Latin).

Three items are combined in one in Greek. A simple tribal listing (Josh 21:36). A contemporary town near Eleutheropolis (18:12) and another near Aelia (Joshua 15:38). Jerome corrects this to make one separate item of the last. The best identification is Kh Safiyeh just over a mile northeast of Eleutheropolis. The biblical Mizpeh is most complicated and perhaps led to the confusion in this entry as well as in K. 128:1.

680. Manaeim. Joshua 13:26; K. 130:4; L. 275:21.

Textual variant Maanaim (Latin).

Simple biblical summary with generalized location (Joshua 21:36).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Manaim, camps" (96).

681. Mōlada (Moladab). Joshua 15:26; K. 130:6; L. 275:23.

Simple tribal listing (Joshua 19:2).

Perhaps same as Malaatha (K. 14:3).

682. Medebēna (Medemena). Joshua 15:31; K. 130:7; L. 276:24.

Textual variant kōmē (village) Noeis (Greek).

Eusebius makes an identity here which is followed by the Madaba map: "Madebēna which is now Mēnois." He has probably confused two similar Hebrew names with the contemporary site (Isaiah 10:31).

Madmannah is in the Negev northeast of Bērsaba and falsely equated with Menois.

Madmenah is near Jerusalem but not clearly identified as yet.

Menois is 11 miles southwest of Gaza just off the way to Raphia (K. 50:18). Probably it is at Kh Ma'in. It is possible that "near Gaza" reflects still a fourth site that increases the confusion of the Onomasticon perhaps pointing to Maiumas, the port of Gaza. At Menois the Notitia Dignitatum (73:19) reports a Roman garrison which is overlooked in our text. Called "oppidum" in the Latin (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I while Greek has Gaza polichne, a rare use (cf. K. 22:11 and Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Medabena, from burden" (96).

683. Magdala. Joshua 15:37; K. 130:9; L. 276:26.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Magdalgad, tower of pirate or tower of armed" (96).

684. Marēsa. Joshua 15:44; K. 130:10; L. 276:27.

The village no longer existed but ruins were identifiable in Eusebius' time just south of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) at Tell Sandahannah. No direction is given in the Onomasticon. Only five other villages are in ruins or deserted according to the Onomasticon. Near the Tell is Kh Mar'ash which retains the name. This town was destroyed in 40 B.C. and from then on the site which became Eleutheropolis began to be developed.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maresa, from the head" (96).

685. Maōn. Joshua 15:55; K. 130:12; L. 276:29.

Textual variant Manōn (Greek). Also by dittography from above K. 130:10 "it is now deserted" but could be correct information also (cf. K. 134:16).

The tribal entry has only a general localization. Possibly Tell or Kh Ma'in south of Chermēla (K. 92:20) and Chebrōn (K. 6:8). Perhaps border of Daroma (K. 26:10).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maon, little habitation" (96).

686. Marōth. Joshua 15:59; K. 130:13; L. 276:31.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maaroth, canes" (96).

687. Maddei (Maddi). Joshua 15:61; K. 130:14; L. 276:32.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Meddin, judgement" (96).

688. Maspha. Joshua 18:26; K. 130:15; L. 276:33.

Simple tribal listing. Possibly out of order.

689. Machtrōth. Joshua 17:7; K. 130:16; L. 276:34.

Textual variants in Greek sometimes ascribed to Zaboulōn or Beniamin.

Simple tribal listing.

690. Marala. Joshua 19:11; K. 130:17; L. 276:35.

Textual variants in Greek sometimes ascribed to Manassē or Beniamin.

Biblical information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Marala, bitter embarkation" (96).

691. Masan. Joshua 19:26; K. 130:18; L. 276:36.

Tribal listing plus biblical information and location (Joshua 21:30).

692. Meeleph (Maeleb). Joshua 19:33; K. 130:20; L. 276:38.

Textual variant Methlem (Greek).

Simple tribal listing but the Greek confused the Hebrew M of "from" with the proper name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maalaf, from thousand or from teaching" (96).

693. Magdiel. Joshua 19:38; K. 130:21; L. 276:39.

One of the few villages in the Onomasticon called "Great" in the Greek text (K. 22:10 and K. 96:25). Did the size of the town change in the century between Eusebius and Jerome or is it all a matter of relativity? The location is in error. Some Greek texts have 9 miles but the Latin 5 miles is well attested in Greek also. At 5 miles is Kh Maliha which is Migdal Malha of the Talmud. Nine miles brings one slightly beyond Atlit where road could have turn off to mitilia.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Magdalahel, tower of my God" (96).


694. Mosphetham (Mosfethaim). Joshua 5:16; K. 130:24; L. 276:42.

Textual variants: Mosphethaim (Greek) and Mosfethain, Mosfetham (Latin).

Hexaplaric information which is reflected in Procopius 1060A.

695. Mōre. Judges 7:1; K. 130:25; L. 276:43.

Biblical information only.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Mere, manifest or lightened or opening" (100).

696. Mannēth. Judges 11:33; K. 132:1; L. 276:44.

Textual variants Mensēth (Greek), Manith (Latin).

The geography in the biblical account itself is difficult to understand. The identity with Maanith by the Onomasticon is questionable since it is a battle area not a village. Some suggest Umm el Hanafish but the location is most uncertain especially since the Vulgate does not make the name that of a town but merely translates the Hebrew word.

697. Machmas. I Samuel 13:2; K. 132:3; L. 276:47.

Textual variant Machma (Greek).

Geographical identity made with present Mukhmas northwest of er-Ram. The distance given from Jerusalem is accurate for this identification.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Machemas, submission or misappropriated" (104).


698. Messab. I Samuel 14:1; K. 132:6; L. 276:50.

Textual variant Greek adds Gaba of Saoul.

Even though biblical information, Jerome calls this "oppidum." Here he is literally right since it is a fortified town. It is however difficult to consistently relate his use of "oppidum to fortified city" or "shrine with suburbs" in most other entries (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

699. Magdōn (Magrōn). I Samuel 14:2; K. 132:8; L. 276:51.

Textual variant Magaōn in Greek after LXX.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Margeddon, holding on" (104).

700. Massēpha "of Moab." I Samuel 22:3; K. 132:9; L. 276:52.

Simple biblical information.

Another of the many biblical Mizpeh's (cf. K. 128:1 and K. 130:1,15).

701. Masereth. I Samuel 23:14; K. 132:11; L. 276:54.

Biblical information plus Hexaplaric.

It is deserted in the 4th century according to the Latin. Greek may suggest biblical "wilderness."

702. Masbak. II Samuel 8:8; K. 132:13; L. 276:56.

The MT is confused but the Greek again seems to have used the Hebrew M "from" as part of the proper name. LXX has Masbach.

703. Mela (i.e.,) Gemela. II Samuel 8:13; K. 132:14; L. 276:57.

Textual variants: Malagēmala, Mala ē Gēmala (Greek), Latin has "valley of salts."

Hexaplaric information only (cf. K. 72:28).

704. Maacha. II Samuel 10:6; K. 132:15; L. 276:58.

Textual variant Malaka (Greek).

The text is confused in MT and LXX. It seems as if a personal name has been made into a place name.

705. Mōdeeim. I Maccabees 2:1; K. 132:16; L. 276:59.

Out of the order of the text. Madaba map has "Mōdeeim which is now Mōditha home of the Makkabai" located east of Diospolis (K. 8:14). This location fits el Midjeh. The interest in graves is high in our text but possibly not with the original text of Eusebius. The Madaba map alternate name is a late Aramaic name for this most significant site.

706. Mapsar Turou. II Samuel 24:7; K. 132:18; L. 276:61.

Textual variants are many and so are suggested emendations.

Hexaplaric information. It is the Fort of Tyre (K. 162:15).

707. Masa. I Kings 2:35 and I Kings 9:15; K. 132:20; L. 277:63.

Textual variants: Magaō and Magdō (Greek).

Simple biblical notation. Difficult to relate this to Megiddo in its present form (cp. K. 128:14). Possibly relates to Hazor (K. 34:18 and K. 90:9).

708. Meebra. I Kings 4:12; K. 132:21; L. 277:64.

Hexaplaric information. Perhaps emend to Meeber. A gloss.

709. Makes. I Kings 4:9; K. 132:22; L. 277:65.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Maces, from the end" (111).

710. Melō (Mello). I Kings 9:15; K. 134:1; L. 277:66.

Textual variant Melo (Latin).

Simple biblical notation plus Hexaplaric information.

Perhaps related to similar Millo at Shechem as in Judges 9:6, 20.

711. Maidan. I Kings 9:15; K. 134:3; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 132:20). Maidan often used for the eastern country beyond the desert but not here.

712. Memphis. Hosea 9:6; K. 134:4; L. 277:67.

Out of the proper Onomasticon's limits of the Holy Land.

Summary of biblical information (Ezekiel 30:13; Jeremiah 2:16 and Jeremiah 44:1).

On Egyptian sites see K. 58:7.

713. Macha. Hosea 9:16; K. 134:6; L. 277:70.

Hexaplaric information. Perhaps same as above. LXX text confused (cf. K. 164:24).

714. Milētos. Ezekiel 27:18; K. 134:7; L. 277:71.

This is from the LXX only and is not MT. It is also outside the proper Onomasticon's boundaries for the Holy Land and is therefore suspect as an entry from a later hand.

715. Maribōth. Ezekiel 48:28; K. 134:8; L. 277:72.

Textual variant Marimōth (Greek) and Marimoth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation plus Hexaplaric information.

These are near Kadēs (K. 112:8).

716. Mōrathei (Morasthi). Micah 1:1; K. 134:10; L. 277:74.

The village is northeast of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) as in the Madaba map, but the Onomasticon "east" means the quadrant and the road can be located in the eastern quadrant from Eleutheropolis. The map quotes Eusebius. The tomb was known in Jerome's day and was visited by Paula (Epistle 108:14 and PPT I, 15). In Commentary on Micah Jerome notes "Morasthia a little village near Eleutheropolis." The Madaba map notes a church which was built later than the time of Eusebius. The Byzantine site Kh Umm el Basak is not the Old Testament site which is more likely at Tell el judeideh. This is distinct from Marēsa (K. 130:10).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Morasthi, my heir" (123 and 127).

717. Masogam. Jeremiah 48:1; K. 134:12; L. 277:76.

Taken from the New Testament Qere reading. Not in LSX

Simple biblical notation.

718. Misōr. Jeremiah 48:21; K. 134:13; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This and the next entry are missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple biblical notation.

719. Mōphath. Jeremiah 48:21; K. 134:14; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This and the previous entry are missing from Greek Vatican manuscript (cf. K. 128:21).

Simple biblical notation.

720. Maōn. Jeremiah 48:23; K. 134:16; L. 277:78.

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 130:12).

721. Molchom. Jeremiah 49:1; K. 134:17; L. 277:79.

Textual variants: Melchon and Melconi (Latin).

Not an original entry. Other idols are also additions to the Onomasticon (see K. 36:15; K. 58:9; K. 138:19; K. 146:26 and Appendix II).

722. Magedan. Matthew 15:39; K. 134:18; L. 277:81.

No Gospel section division indicated here. Textual variant Magaidanē (Greek).

Summary of New Testament information. In the New Testament Magedan, Magdala and Dalmanoutha are all related. The Hebrew sound Migdol (K. 130:9) is suspected as background. In Matthew 15:39 there is a region of Magadan or Magdala. In Mark 8:10 it is a district of Dalmanutha located by the Onomasticon as near Gerasa (K. 64:2) but in New Testament times it seems to be in Galilea. The New Testament site is on the west side of the Sea at Mejdel. What site Eusebius had intended is unknown. This is one of three references to Mark in the Onomasticon (K. 64:4 and K. 74:13).



(Five Books of Moses)

Greek has the subsection division for Genesis but Latin for five books of Moses.

723. Naid. Genesis 4:16; K. 134:23; L. 277:86.

Textual variant Nain (Greek).

Simple biblical notation plus Hexaplatic information. Procopius 253A and Jerome in Hebrew Questions (7) follow the etymology of the bible.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Naid, motion or fluctuation" (69).

724. Nineve. Genesis 10:11; K. 136:1; L. 277:88.

Textual variants for the last line: Neneuen, Ninewen and Neuen (Latin).

Outside the normal limits of the Holy Land for the Onomasticon. The second city, one of the Jews, is the only contemporary Jewish city called a polis in the Onomasticon (cf. Note on K. 22:9 and Appendix IX). This probably is nawa 36 miles from Capitolias in the pilgrim itineraries. The Gōnia is part of the Hauron but not clearly identified.

In Hebrew Questions Jerome notes the derivation of the name Nineve and identifies it as Rooboth (K. 142:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ninive beauty or bud of beauty" (69).

725. Naaliēl. Numbers 21:19; K. 136:4; L. 277:91.

Textual variant Naaniēl (Greek).

Biblical location and station listing.

726. Nabau. Numbers 32:3; K. 136:6; L. 277:93.

Textual variant. Syriac lacks "where Moses died." Suspected entry.

Biblical summary (Deuteronomy 34:1) and location west of Esbous. The city of Naboth (K. 136:9) below is the 8 miles south. This could mean southwest since quadrants are involved. Agri specula (K. 12:16), Phasga (K. 168:28) and Phogōr (K. 168:7, 25) are names also in this general area. The Mt. of Siyahah with the Byzantine church fits the 6 miles distance. It could also be located at jebel Nebo.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nabau, we will come or in conclusion" (83).

727. Nabōth (Nabo). Numbers 32:38; K. 136:9; L. 277:96.

Textual variant Nabōr (Greek).

Summary of biblical information (Deuteronomy 32:49; Isaiah 15:2; Jeremiah 48:1 and Numbers 32:42). The city is in a different quadrant and is 2 miles farther than the mountain above (K. 136:6). It is abandoned or in ruins by the time of Eusebius. The city is probably Kh Mehaiyet. It was rebuilt as a shrine after the time of Jerome.

728. Nageb. Numbers 34:3; K. 136:14; L. 278:10.

Textual variant. Syriac lacks the Symmachus reference.

The etymology and the Hexaplaric information. The equation of Hebrew' names with the Latin and Greek is difficult. In Vitruvius on Architecture I, vi, 12, 13 Auster and Meridia are the southern half quadrant. Africas is southwest and Eurus is southeast. No evidence that Jerome and Fuschius were this scientific. Any name could be the entire quadrant from southwest through southeast or even from west-southwest and east-southeast.


729. Naphethdor (Nafeddor). Joshua 11:2; K. 136:16; L. 278:3.

Dor is located properly by the Onomasticon about 9 miles north of Caesarea. The emphasis in Latin suggests some change may have taken place in the fourth century since it is then deserted. An "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). Naphoth really means "hilly region" rather than Maritine (cf. K. 78:8)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nafeddor, change of generations" (96).

730. Naphthō. Joshua 15:9; K. 136:18; L. 278:5.

Textual variant Naphthae (Greek).

Summary of biblical information and tribal listing (Joshua 18:15).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Neptoe, of destruction or beguiling" (96).

731. Naam. Joshua 15:41; K. 136:20; L. 278:7.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Naama, comeliness" (112).

732. Nesib. Joshua 15:43; K. 136:21; L. 278:8.

Textual variant Negib (Latin).

The distance varies between Greek and Latin. The 7 miles brings the location to Kh Beit Nesib due east of Marisa off the main road. The 9 miles seems an error since it brings the location to Tricomias.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nasib, title or station" (96).

733. Nebpsan. Joshua 15:62; K. 136:23; L. 278:10.

Simple tribal listing,

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Naabsan or Nabas, dried up (96).

734. Naaratha. Joshua 16:7; K. 136:24; L. 278:11.

Textual variants: Narath, Naarta and Naurath (Latin).

The location fits 'Ain Duq better than 'Aujah which may be Archalais and is too far away. Perhaps the synagogue a few miles from Duq is Noorath. It is another of the all Jewish cities of the Onomasticon (cf. Note on K. 22:9 and Appendix II). This site does not fit the Old Testament location archaeologically.

735. Napheth. Joshua 17:11; K. 138:1; L. 278:13.

Simple tribal listing.

The word Napheth (see K. 136:16) becomes a proper name.

736. Naalōl. Joshua 19:15; K. 138:2; L. 278:14.

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 21:35 and cf. K. 138:6).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Naalal, they praise" (96).

737. Nakeb. Joshua 19:33; K. 138:4; L. 278:16.

Textual variant Nekem (cf. Annekem) (Greek).

Simple tribal listing.


738. Neala. Judges 1:30; K. 138:6; L. 278:18.

The Greek is closer to the MT than the LXX.

Perhaps entry is the same as K. 138:2 but falsely equated with a Transjordan Neeila, perhaps at Kh en Nile where the name is preserved.

For Batandea see K. 144:11.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nahellel, praise, hymns" (101).

739. Nobba (Nabe or Nobba). Judges 8:11; K. 138:8; L. 278:20.

Textual variant Nomba (Greek).

Summary of biblical information confusing two sites (I Samuel 22:19). In Epistle 108:8 (PPT I, 4) Jerome notes the tomb of those killed near Beit Nuba.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nobe, barking" (101).

740. Nemra. Joshua 13:27; K. 138:10; L. 278:22.

This seems related to the earlier entries K. 44:16; K. 48:16 and possibly K.138:20).

The location is vague and no evidence that the Onomasticon made an identification. The Batanaea usually does not include the valley. The large village maybe in the northern region at Nimra. This item is out of order.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Namra, panther or bitterness" (183).

741. Naniōth. I Samuel 19:18; K. 138:13; L. 278:25.

Summary of biblical information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nuath, beauty" (104).

742. Nachōn. II Samuel 6:6; K. 138:14; L. 278:26.

Hexaplaric information. At best a personal name is indicated.

743. Naphath. I Kings 4:11; K. 138:15; L. 278:27.

Simple biblical notation. Confused again with "region" (cf. K. 136:15 and K. 138:1).

744. Nērigel. II Kings 17:30; K. 138:16; L. 278:28.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nergal, lamp of the many" (117).

745. Nazeb. II Kings 17:31; K. 138:18; L. 278:30.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nabaaz, he prophesied thus or futile session" (117).

746. Nasarach. II Kings 19:37; K. 138:19; L. 278:31.

Textual variant Nesareth (Latin).

Another idol not original to the Onomasticon (cf. K. 134:17; K. 146:26; K. 58:4; K. 36:15 and Appendix II).

747. Nebēreim (Nemerim). Isaiah 15:6; K. 138:20; L. 278:32.

Textual variants: Memerein, Nebērein (Greek), Bennamerim (Latin) for contemporary site.

Summary of biblical information (Jeremiah 43:34.). The wadi or waters of Nimrin. Perhaps related to K. 138:1; K. 44:16; and K. 48:16. Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah 15:6 locates it by the Dead Sea and calls it there an "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). Tell Nimrin is Bennamareim (see Introduction).

748. Nabeōth. Isaiah 60:7; K. 138:22; L. 278:35.

Simple biblical notation. Perhaps out of limits of Holy Land. Region is an interpretation, perhaps from a marginal gloss (K. 74:9).


749. Nazareth. Matthew 2:23; K. 138:24; L. 278:37.

The Vatican manuscript does not have the "Gospel" division marker before this entry.

Textual variant for Christians in Latin is "Nazorei."

In Historia Ecclesiastica I, 7, 14 Eusebius notes that after the fall of Jerusalem the relatives of Jesus scattered throughout the countryside. It was a Jewish town in the third century. In the 4th century a few shrines were built by Christians but the Jews were dominant. A city Helenopolis was located in the general region, named after Constantine's mother, but it is never referred to in the Onomasticon any more than the two towns named after his sister Constantia. Origen didn't know of it. No church was built here by Constantine. First reference to a church is 355 A. D. Paula visited it but no church noted there either (PPT I, 15). It was near Cana (K. 116:4) and Caphernaum (K. 120:2) on the itinerary of Paula. It is adequately located at en Nasireh which was in the region of Legeōn (K. 14:21).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Nazareth, flower or his slip or of cleanness or separate or guardian." In Epistle 46 (Migne PE 22, 49) Jerome's etymology has "his flower."

750. Naein (Naim). Luke 7:11; K. 140:3; L. 279:41.

This name continues near Aendōr (K. 34:8). Region is not indicated. The location next is repeated by Jerome in Epistle 108:13 (PPT I, 14) Jerome in 141:4 calls it an "oppidum" (cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). In Epistle 46 (Migne PL22:49) it can be seen from Thabōr. The distance in Greek 12 miles is erroneous if present Nein is involved. The Latin has 2 miles from Thabōr points to Nein.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Naa, beauty" (111).



751. Xil. Joshua 15:30; K. 140:8; L. 279:46.

Vulgate has Cesil.

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 172:18).



752. Orech. Genesis 10:10; K. 140:11; L. 279:49.

Outside limits of the Holy Land and therefore suspect. Arach is identified in Hebrew Questions as Edessa (13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Orech, length" (70).

753. Our of the Chaldees. Genesis 11:28; K. 140:12; L. 279:50.

Also outside the limits of the Holy Land and therefore suspect. Josephus in Antiquities I, vi, 5 notes the sepulchre is still in Ur of the Chaldees. In Hebrew Questions Jerome notes "region of Chaldaea really is 'in Ur Casdim' in Hebrew and means fire of Chaldaea" (15).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ur, fire or light" (77).

754. Oulammaous. Genesis 28:19; K. 140:15; L. 279:53.

Textual variant Ulamma for the other site in Latin text.

For the Baithēl-Louza equation see K. 40:20. For the other east of Nazareth there is 'Ulam which has Byzantine remains. The distance is incorrect and short. In Hebrew Questions Jerome notes "Ulam is not a name of a city, but means 'former'" (34).

755. Olibama. Genesis 36:14; K. 140:19; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Olibama, my tabernacle somewhere, or high tabernacle" (70).

756. Odollam. Genesis 38:11; K. 140:20; L. 279:57.

Cf. K. 84:22; K. 24:21 and Micah 1:25.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Odollamites, contesting somewhat or witness in water" (70).


757. Othom (Othon). Exodus 13:20; K. 140:23; L. 279:60.

Summary of biblical information on station.


758. Opher. Joshua 12:17; K. 140:26; L. 279:63.

Simple biblical notation.

Could be Joshua 19:12 and so cf. K. 108:29, Epha.

759. Oolei. Joshua 19:25; K. 142:1; L. 279:65.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Oli, weakness" (90).

760. Ophra. I Samuel 13:17; K. 142:2; L. 279:66.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 29:4 and K. 86:1).

[Here we read through O the short letter, later we record the long vowel.]

761. Ous. Job 1:1; K. 142:3; L. 279:67.

Before this entry the Latin notes the end of the short O but this entry still follows, possibly an editor's edition.

Summary of biblical information (Genesis 36: 28). Other references to Job are in K. 76:10 and K. 112:3.



762. Petra. Judges 1:36; K. 142:7; L. 279:71.

No letter division in the Vatican Greek manuscript here.

Procopius 1048B has Petra in Idumala (K. 102:23). On Tabula Peutinger it is 48 miles south of Theman (K. 96:18). It is an important referent for the Onomasticon and all the Roman road systems. It is also called Rekem (K. 144:7 and K. 36:13). Mt. Nor (K. 176:7) is nearby. The Nabatean influence lasted into the Roman period of the Onomasticon. Petra was one of the Nabatean cities given autonomy about 106 A.D. with the establishment of the Roman Province of Arabia. It was a great city in the 3rd and 4th centuries. The Christians of Petra were persecuted by Diocletian.



763. Roōbōth. Genesis 10:11; K. 142:11; L. 280:75.

Outside the limits of Holy Land proper as so often the first entry in a new alphabetic section. In Hebrew Questions (13) Jerome believes this is the same as Nineve (K. 136:1)

764. Roōbōth. Genesis 36:37; K. 142:13; L. 280:77.

Textual variant Assyrian for Idoumaien (Greek).

This is probably the Rabath where the Notitia Dignitatum (73:27) locates a garrison. Jerome sees a large town but the Greek apparently only a garrison. Some scholars relate this to Areopolis and Rabbath Moab (K. 10:17). The Onomasticon is too vague to ascertain a location. Some suggest Kh Musrab.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rooboth, bending or streets" (70).

765. Ramesse. Exodus 1:11; K. 142:15; L. 280:79.

Outside the Holy Land proper (cf. Gen 47:11).

766. Roōb. Numbers 13:21; K. 142:18; L. 280:82.

Summary of biblical event, location and added item Levitical city (K. 144:22 and Joshua 21:31. This is not an accurate identification. Two sites seem confused. Contemporary site is located four miles south of Scythopolis (K.16:2) may be at Tell es aa'ram or Sheik er rahab which has Roman-Byzantine sherds.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Roob, streets or wide" (83).

767. Raphaka. Numbers 33:12; K. 142:21; L. 280:85.

Station listing. The Greek confused Hebrew D with R.

768. Raphidim. Numbers 33:14; K. 142:22; L. 280:86.

Summary of biblical information (Exodus 17:6f., 13). The Madaba Map has a "Raphidinn where Israel and Amalak fought." It is near Mt.Sinai (K. 154:1) or Paran (K. 166:12).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rafidim, wide hands or good judgment or eye sight or his suffering" (77).

769. Ratima. Numbers 33:18; K. 144:1; L. 280:90.

Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rathma, complete vision or juniper or sound." (83).

770. Remmen Prares. Numbers 33:19; K. 144:2; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Remmonfares, very bad division or high division" (83).

771. Ressa. Numbers 33:21; K. 144:3; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Recsa, bridle" (83).

772. Ramōth. Deuteronomy 4:43; K. 144:4; L. 280:91.

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 13:26 and 21:37).

The Latin has east for the Greek west. The Syriac agrees with the Greek in this entry while usually it follows the Latin text. The ruin of biblical site, Tell er Rumeith could fit the Onomasticon, especially if this is the same as (K. 146:4) where it is located near Iabbok (K. 102:19). There is little Roman evidence. Better Roman site at Kh jal'ad.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ramoth, high sign or he say death or height" (87).

773. Rekem. Numbers 31:8; K. 144:7; L. 280:94.

Identity and summary of biblical information (Joshua 13:21; Numbers 31:8; cf. K. 142:7 and K.36:13, for Petra, named Rekim by Josephus).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Recem, variety or painting" (83).


774. Remmōn. Joshua 15:32; K. 144:11; L. 280:98.

The Madaba map follows Eusebius and has a Remmōn northeast of Jerusalem. This is an error for the Old Testament border town (Joshua 19:7). The name for the Onomasticon's site continues today at Rammun 3 1/2 miles east of Bethel (K. 40:20) which is 12 miles south of et-taiyibeh. This fits the 15 miles of the Onomasticon and may be the biblical Rimmon of Benjamin.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Remmon, heights" (97).

775. Rōgēl. Joshua 18:16; K. 144:13; L. 280:00.

A spring and so not a proper entry for the Onomasticon. Near Zōeleth according to K. 94:6.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rogal, foot or bearing down" (97).

776. Rama. Joshua 18:25; K. 144:14; L. 280:01.

In Commentary on Hosea 5:8 Jerome reconfirms this location. Not a city of Saul (cf. Isaiah 10:24). On the Madaba map Rama is a bit farther north because of crowding. It is near Gabaon (K. 66:11) and Michmas (K. 132:3) and probably the name continues in er-Ram. The "opposite" Baithel is from the biblical text and doesn't contradict the Jerusalem location (cf. Jeremiah 31:15).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rama, high" (97).

777. Rekēm. Joshua 18:27; K. 144:16; L. 280:03.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Recem, variety or of death" (97).

778. Remmōn. Joshua 19:13; K. 144:17; L. 280:04.

Biblical information and tribal listing. Probably related to K. 144:11.

779. Rabbōth. Joshua 19:20; K. 144:19; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variants: Raboth and Rabooth (Latin).

This entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. No identity is made here. Robbo or Rebbo is only vaguely located in the region of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). About 7 miles northeast is Kh Ribba, not on a Roman road, which retains the name. Perhaps same as K. 26:17.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rabboth, many" (97).

780. Rethōm. Joshua 19:21; K. 144:21; L. 280:06.

The first part of this entry is missing from the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

781. Roōb. Joshua 19:28; K. 144:22; L. 280:07.

The last part of this entry is missing from the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 21:131, possibly Tell Birah).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Roob, widely" (97).

782. Rama. Joshua 19:29; K. 144:23; L. 280:08.

First part of the entry is missing from the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Summary of biblical information.

783. Rama. Joshua 19:36; K. 144:25; L. 280:09.

Simple tribal listing. Jerome notes that K. 144:14, 23 and 25 are all similar and explains them on the differences in the Hebrew alphabet.

[Some of the names of the villages are assigned to different tribes because with us we see only one name to pronounce, when among the Hebrews they are written with various letters.]

784. Rekkath. Joshua 19:35; K. 144:26; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing from the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Raccath, jaw bones or cheeks" (97).

785. Rouma (Arima also). Judges 9:41; K. 144:27; L. 281:10.

Textual variant for contemporary site Remfthis (Latin).

The identity of this Rouma is given as present day Rentia and equated with Arimathaia (cf. K. 32:21) by Eusebius and Jerome but the Old Testament Arumah (K. 32:11) is probably Kh el-'Urmeh.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ruma, high" (117).


786. Remmōth. I Samuel 30:26f.; K. 146:2; L. 281:14.

Simple biblical notation on "spoils."

787. Rachel. I Samuel 30:26, 29; K. 146:3; L. 281:15.

Simple biblical notation on "spoils."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rachal, negotiation but Rachel, truly means sheep or God seeing" (104).

788. Remmōth Galaad. I Kings 4:13; K. 146:4; L. 281:16.

Textual variants: Remmōd (Greek) and Iakōb (Greek and Latin) for wadi name (cf. K. 144:4). This may be Tell er Rumeith. A gloss.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ramoth, vision of death" (112).

789. Rabbath. II Samuel 12:26; K. 146:6; L. 281:18.

Textual variant Rabba (Greek).

This identity of Rabbath Amman with Philadelphia is made by Jerome in Commentary on Ezekiel21:18 (cf. Jeremiah 49:2; cp. K. 12:1 and K. 16:15 above).

790. Raōs (Roos). II Samuel 15:32; K. 146:8; L. 281:20.

Simple biblical notation plus Hexaplaric information. Not a proper name.

791. Rogellein. II Samuel 17:27; K. 146:9; L. 281:21.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ragalim, feet" (108).

792. Raphaein (Raphaeim). II Samuel 23:13; K. 146:11; L. 281:22.

Latin transliterates "foreigners" rather than translate or identify them.

Biblical information and geography.

793. Remman. I Kings 15:17; K. 146:13; L. 281:24.

Textual variant Remmam (Latin).

Biblical information and geography. Not clear if Syria is the Roman province or not (cf. K. 146:19).

794. Reth. I Kings 15:20; K. 146:15; L. 281:25.

Simple biblical notation.

This text is corrupt in the LXX (cf. K. 34:28).

795. Rathem. I Kings 19:4; K. 146:16; L. 281:26.

Textual variant Remth (Greek).

Hexaplaric information. This and the next entry are late additions.

796. Remmōn. Isaiah 15:9; K. 146:17; L. 281:27.

Simple biblical notation.

MT has Hebrew D which is confused in the Greek here with the Hebrew R (see above).

797. Raseph. Isaiah 37:12; K. 146:19; L. 281:28.

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 146:13 and K. 146:20).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "'Rasef, pavement" (121).

798. Rapheth. Isaiah 37:12; K. 146:20; L. 281:29.

Textual variant Rapheph (Greek).

Possibly the same as above K. 146:19. Syria and Assyria are occasionally equated.

799. Rebla. II Kings 23:33; K. 146:22; L. 281:31.

Textual variant Rebas (Greek).

Summary of biblical information (cf. K. 146:27).

This may be out of order or else all the prophetic entries are later addition.

For Aimath see K. 22:23.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Rablai, this many or many" (117).

800. Remma. Amos 4:3; K. 146:14; L. 281:33.

Textual variants Remona (Greek) and Emous (Latin).

A mountain and not properly original to Onomasticon's list. It is also out of order if the other King's entries are correct.

Hexaplaric information indicating another error in Greek transcription.

"In Daroma" is perhaps same as Eremmo in K. 88:17 at Umm er ramamin. Idols of Damascus refer to II Kings 5:18, "house of Rimmon" (Appendix II).

801. Reblatha. II Kings 25:6; K. 146:27; L. 281:36.

Outside of the Holy Land limits of the Onomasticon. Latin adds a contemporary identification.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Roblath, many of you or multitude" (117).

802. Ramade (Ramale). Zechariah 14:10; K. 146:28; L. 281:37.

Textual variant Rabede (Greek).

Hexaplaric information plus an irrelevant remark on Jeremiah 31:15 and Matthew 2:18. The Madaba map quotes the Greek text "Rama a voice heard in Rama." It is located just west of Bethleheem (K. 42:10) about at the present Rachel's tomb tradition (PPT I, 26 Itin. Bourd. The confusion is all Christian (cf. K. 82:10 and K. 172:5).

803. Rinokoroura. Isaiah 27:12; K. 148:3; L. 281:40.

The border or river of Egypt in MT. One of the few additions from LXX noted in Onomasticon by Jerome as such. Procopius 1025B has "Wadi of Aigyptos is said to be the Romokorouros. Together in the Madaba map are the borders of Aegyptos and Palaistinē, Rinokoroura." Jerome locates Ostracine in the same area (K. 39:9). In Tabula Peutinger Ostraciana is 24 miles and Rinocura 34 miles from Rafia (K. 50:19). The Madaba map has followed Josephus Wars IV, ii, 5 here. Probably el 'arish today.

For other sites in Egypt see note on K. 58:7.


[What we have said in the book on Interpretation of Hebrew Names, even now in the heading of the letter S we see that among the Hebrews there are three S's: Samech, Sade and Sin. Yet these are pronounced as one sound among the Greek and Latin which in the Hebrew language are differentiated. So it is that each name appears to us to sound differently, and further each has another letter. Not only from one but from three letters places and cities and villages are described.]

804. K. 148.4

The Latin again inserts remarks about the difference in the alphabets. The three S's in Hebrew are all under one section in Greek and Latin.


805. Sidōn. Genesis 10:15; K. 148:6; L. 281:43.

Summary of biblical information Judges 1:31. This city is not located but occasionally is used as a referent. Jerome here translated "foreigners" of the Greek text into "enemy."

806. Sennaar. Genesis 11:2f.; K. 148:11; L.

This entry is out of the Holy Land proper (Genesis 10:11). It includes a quotation from Josephus Antiquities I, 4, 3 after a simple biblical summary. Procopius 312B has the same information but calls it a "city" as well as a "plain."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sennaar, knocking out teeth, or their stink" (71).

807. Suchem (Sikima) (Salēm). Genesis 12:6; K. 150:1; L. 282:55.

This is a much worked over entry. A simple biblical summary (Genesis 33:18) and traditional location is followed by additions from scripture including an additional town (Judges 9:45; I Kings 12:25; I Chronicles 7:28; Genesis 33:19 and Joshua 20:7). Procopius 320A practically quotes the original two items: "Suchem and Sikima and Sēlon in the suburbs of Neapolis." Madaba map also follows Eusebius and separates "Suchem and Sikima and Salēm" from "Neapolis." Sychar (K. 164:1) seems to be to the left and Jacob's well to the right on the map. An entry on Salēm is incomplete in the Greek text at K. 152:4. The church at Jacob's well is seen on the Madaba map and affirmed by Jerome (K. 165:3). That entry does not say, however, that the well is at Sychar but around Neapolis. Paula "passed through Sichem, not as most travellers spell it, Sichar, which now is named Neapolis and entered the church built upon the side of Mt. Gerizim round about Jacob's well" (Epistle 108: 13 and PPT I, 13).

In the time of Eusebius and Jerome the traditional site of Shechem was "a deserted place." It seems correct to point this to the well-excavated site of Tell Balata in the pass between Ebal and Garizim east-southeast of Nablus. The pilgrims followed Eusebius and locate the tomb of Joseph in Shechem (not in Neapolis) and about a mile from it they locate Sechar (Itin. Bourd. and PPT  I, 18).

The oak of Sikimon and the tomb of Joseph are located in the suburbs of Neapolis in K. 54:23 also. Not until much later does the Christian tradition identify Neapolis with Shechem. The terebinth of Sikimon (K. 164:11) is located near Neapolis.

In Genesis 33:18 Shalem is not identified with Shechem itself but is "a city of Shechem." Eusebius seems to make this identification. The present village of Salim has many Roman-Byzantine remains with some earlier artifacts as well. A late 4th century church has been discovered near the well of Jacob.

For the other Suchem see the confusion in K. 158:1 below.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sichem, of the shoulder or labor" (71).

808. Sennaar. Genesis 14:1; K. 150:8; L. 282:63.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 148:11).

809. Sodoma. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:10; L. 282:65.

The chief city of the Pentopolis with only biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sodoma, silent beast or blindness or their likeness" 71).

810. Sebōeim. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:12; L. 282:67.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seboim, of the roes or of damages or his place on the sea or place of the sea" (71).

811. Sōpheira. Genesis 10:30; K. 150:14; L. 282:69.

This entry is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land and out of order. Josephus Antiquities I, 6, 4 plus summary of the biblical information (I Kings 10:11 and cf. K. 160:20 below). This same quotation from Josephus appears in K. 82:2 and K. 176:14. Josephus' Antiquities VII, 6, 4 had, "These (ships) Solomon ordered to sail along with his own stewards to the land anciently called Sopheir but not the land of gold; it belongs to India."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sefar, story or book" (71).

812. Soora. Genesis 14:2; K. 150:19; L. 282:74.

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 42:4; K. 94:2 and K. 152:8.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names we find "Segor, which is called Zoara in the Syrian language" (17). This is repeated in Procopius 373B.

813. Sauē. Genesis 14:5; K. 150:21; L. 282:76.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sau or Saube, worthy or high" (72).

814. Sēeir. Genesis 14:6; K. 150:23; L. 282:78.

Procopius 332C quotes the entry entirely which in part depends on Josephus' Antiquities 1, 20, 3. Jerome in Commentary on Obadiah 1 repeats the etymology and the location. This is a summary of biblical information (Genesis 32:1, 14:6, 25:25, 27:11 and Isaiah 21:11) and no specific location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seir, covered with hair or hairy" (72).

815. Salēm. Genesis 14:18; K. 152:4; L. 282:84.

The beginning of this entry is only a revision of K. 150:1. The use of Salēm as identical to Shechem seems to be the result of the LXX text for Joshua 24:1, 25. There the LXX has Sēlō. Procopius 333A has the Greek of Eusebius word for word and then continues following Jerome.

Another village west of Ailia is unidentifiable, perhaps Kh Selma preserves the name, but perhaps represents the Josephus' tradition that Jebus, Salem and Jerousalem are all one place. In Hebrew Questions Jerome says "Salem is the name of the king of Jerusalem which was formerly called Salem" (19).

Salumias is located 8 miles south (direction not given in the text) of Scythopolis (K. 16:2) at Umm el 'umdan or on the Jordan at Tell Rijba where there is a Sheik Salim nearby. This could be the tradition of Salem-Aenon (K. 40:1). In Jerome's Epistle 73:7 he attaches the tradition of Melchizedek to this site called an "oppidum" (see Appendix I), where the ruins were shown (Migne PL 22, 680). The archaeological remains are not decisive.

The Salim which belongs to Shechem is perhaps in the plain about 4 miles east of Shechem at present Salim. But Eusebius does not make a distinction here (cp. Judith 4:4). This is probably because LXX and Syriac identify Salem and Shechem as above in K. 150:1 and the first part of this entry.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salem, peace or returning" (72).

816. Sour. Genesis 16:7; K. 152:6; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The Greek text is lost.

The Greek of Procopius 352D says, "The desert of Sour extends opposite Egypt where the Hebrews came when about to cross the Red Sea, as Exodus says." In Hebrew Questions (20) Jerome notes the Way of Sur "leads through the desert to Egypt."

For Kades see K. 112:7, 8. Jerome seems to be correcting Eusebius on the basis of scripture.

817. Sēgōr. Genesis 19:22; K. 152:8; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of the Greek is lost (Isaiah 15:5). No real place is pointed here.

In Hebrew Questions (23) Jerome writes, "Segor which is frequently earth and more frequently destroyed, was first called Bale and later Salissa" (cf. K. 150:19; K. 42:4 and K. 94:2).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Segor, poor. It is the same as Seor above" (72).

818. Skēnai (Scenae). Genesis 33:17; K. 152:13; L. 283:87.

Simple biblical notation.


819. Sokchōth. Exodus 12:37; K. 152:16; L. 283:90.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Socchoth, tabernacle" (77).

820. Sin. Exodus 16:1; K. 152:18; L. 283:93.

Summary of biblical information (Exodus 17:1, 19:1 and Numbers 33:36). LXX and MT texts disagree as noted in the Onomasticon. Probably this extends from Red Sea to Sinai. On the Madaba map the desert of Sin is also: "the place of Manna and quails."


821. Selmona. Numbers 33:41; K. 154:5; L. 283:00.

Last part of this entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

A Simple listing of station.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salmona, shade of the part or he reckoned the shade or his image" (85).

822. Saphar. Numbers 33:23; K. 154:7; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

First part of this entry is missing in Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple listing of station.

823. Sattein (Sattim). Numbers 25:1; K. 154:9; L. 283:01.

Summary of biblical information and geography (Numbers 25:3 and Joshua 2:1)

On Phogōr see K. 18:1 and K. 168:25.

This and the next entry seem to be late editorial additions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Settim, thorns" (84).

824. Sabama. Numbers 32:3, 38; K. 154:12; L. 283:04.

Textual variant Saba (Greek).

Summary of biblical information (Joshua 13:19 and Isaiah 16:8.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabama, turning around of someone, or lift on him or lifted high" (85).

825. Selcha. Deuteronomy 3:10; K. 154:15; L. 283:07.

Simple biblical notation.

826. Senna. Numbers 34:4; K. 154:16; L. 283:08.

A border listing (Joshua 15:3).

The mileage in the two texts is different. This could be the result of the older Jewish text locating from Roman Jericho (K. 104:25) and Jerome's from er-riha.

The Magdalsenna is hardly in Ioudaia with this location. On the Madaba map east of Archelais is a small unlabeled town which could be Magdalsenna but cannot be the Zin of Numbers (cf. K. 84:14) but could be identified with Sennaah of Ezra. This is possibly located now at Kh el Beiyudat.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Senna, wished or his teeth" (85).

827. Sephama. Numbers 34:10; K. 154:18; L. 283:10.

Textual variant Sephema (Greek).

Simple biblical listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safan, life or hair on the upper lip which the Greeks call a moustache" (85).

828. Sadada. Numbers 34:8; K. 154:19; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "from his tile" (85).


829. Somerōn. Joshua 12:20; K. 154:21; L. 283:12.

A biblical note and identification followed by additional biblical information probably added by a later hand (I Kings 16:24). Onomasticon recognizes a region of Sebastē called polichnē (cf. K. 22:11; Appendix II), Samaria was called Sebastē in honor of Augustus (Epistle 108:13, Migne PL 22, 889; PPT I, 13 and cf. K. 162:13). Herod had much to do with its redevelopment. Jerome notes the graves of Obadiah, Elisha, and St. John the Baptist are traditionally located here (Epistle 46; Migne PL 22, 491 and Commentary on Obadia Migne PL 25, 1099 etc.). In this entry only the Latin text notes the relics of John. Also called an "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). A bishop was present from here at the Council of Nicea.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Semronmaron, custodian of the bitter walls" (97).

830. Sēeira. Joshua 11:17; K. 156:1; L. 283:17.

Simple biblical notation.

831. Selcha. Joshua 13:11; K. 156:2; L. 283:18.

Simple biblical notation.

832. Siōr. Joshua 15:54; K. 154:21; L. 283:19.

Two sites are involved in this entry. Sior is from the Onomasticon perhaps located at Siler north-northeast of Chebrōn (K. 6:8) on the border of Eleutheropolis and Aelia regions.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sior, very small or disturbed" (97).

833. Saorth. Joshua 13:19; K. 156:5; L. 283:21.

Textual variants: Saor (Greek) and Saorh (Latin).

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarth, chains or his narrowness" (97).

834. Sachoth. Joshua 13:27; K. 156:6; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

835. Saphōn. Joshua 13:27; K. 156:7; L. 283:22.

Simple tribal listing and biblical location.

836. Sachōron. Joshua 15:11; K. 156:8; L. 284:23.

Textual variant Sachorona (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sechrona, intoxicated or tabernacle" (97).

837. Sama (Samen). Joshua 15:26; K. 156:9; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is not in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seme, hearing" (97).

838. Soual. Joshua 15:28; K. 156:10; L. 284:24.

Double tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sualim, foxes" (97).

839. Sikelag (Secelec). Joshua 15:31; K. 156:11; L. 284:25.

Textual variant Sicelec (Latin).

Summary of biblical information (I Samuel 27:6; Joshua 19:5 and cp. Thalcha 98:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sicileq, clearing a tight voice or pouring forth the sixth part" (97).

840. Sansana. Joshua 15:31; K. 156:31; L. 284:27.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Senesanna, bearing a bramble or holding" (97).

841. Saleei. Joshua 15:32; K. 156:14; L. 284:28.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saloim, comings forth or emissions" (97).

842. Saraa. Joshua 15:33; K. 156:15; L. 284:29.

Textual variant Sarda (Greek).

Tribal listing of Joshua 19:41 (cf. K. 160:4).

Esthaol (K. 88:2) is also 10 miles north of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). The distance is somewhat short for both Eathaol and Saraa unless it marks turn off from the main road to lesser road. They are near each other about 14-15 miles north. Today at sar'a southeast of Nicopolis (K. 30:27).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saraa, hornets or shortness of evil" (97).

843. Sokchō. Joshua 15:35; K. 156:18; L. 284:32.

Twin villages. The Madaba Map has only one Sōchō on the edge of the valley. They are a few miles west-southwest of Bait Nettif at Kh Abbad and Kh Shuweikeh. The sound of the name may survive in the second, where there are late remains.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Socha, little tabernacle or shady arbor" (97).

844. Saraein. Joshua 15:36; K. 156:21; L. 284:35.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saarim, doors" (97).

845. Sennaan (Senam). Joshua 15:37; K. 156:22; L. 284:36.

Textual variant Senna (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sanam, abundant or their departure" (97).

846. Sapheir. Joshua 15:48; K. 156:23; L. 284:37.

This is not located along any main road and does not seem to be the Sapharea of the Madaba map. It is best located at Sawafir 10 miles northeast of Ascalōn (K. 22:15) on the road to Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). Perhaps on the border.

847. Sokchō. Joshua 15:48; K. 156:25; L. 284:39.

Textual variant Socho (Latin).

Cf. II Kings 17:30 and cp. K. 156:18 above.

848. Skacha. Joshua 15:61; K. 156:27; L. 284:41.

Textual variants: Sakcho (Greek) and Scaca and Scatha (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

849. Selo. Joshua 16:6; K. 156:28; L. 284:42.

Two biblical items (Genesis 38:5) separated by a location. The distance varies by two miles between Latin and Greek. In the Madaba map "Silo where the ark was" following Eusebius. The present Kh Seilun is over 12 miles from Neapolis (K. 4:28). But turn off from the main road is at 12th milestone. Paula saw a destroyed altar there (Epistle 108:13, PPT I, 13). Perhaps the 10 miles of Jerome locates Akkrabein.

850. Suchem (Sechem). Joshua 17:7; K. 158:1; L. 284:46.

Manssseh and Ephraim both hold biblical Shechem. K. 150:7 seems to distinguish Joshua 20:7, Joshua 21:21 from the area around Neapolis. Yet this entry has been corrected and the same site is the Ephraim city of refuge and the Manasseh city with the tomb of Joseph. No location is given here other than reference back to K. 150:1 which is probably a marginal gloss.

851. Sama. Joshua 18:17; K. 158:4; L. 284:49.

Textual variant "spring of Sam" (Greek).

Biblical and Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sames, sun" (97).

852. Semreim. Joshua 18:22; K. 158:5; L. 284:50.

Textual variants: Sereim (Greek) and Semeri (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

853. Sela. Joshua 18:28; K. 158:6; L. 284:51.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sela, bear from, to bear, not from breadth" (97).

854. Sabe (Sabēe). Joshua 19:2; K. 158:7; L. 284:52.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabe, seven or seven times" (97).

855. Sarith (Sarid). Joshua 19:10; K. 158:8; L. 284:53.

Textual variant Sarith (Latin).

Simple tribal border.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarith, remains" (97).

856. Sams. Joshua 19:12; K. 158:9; L. 284:54.

Textual variants: Sam (Greek) and Samis, Samus (Latin).

Hexaplaric information.

857. Semerōn. Joshua 19:15; K. 158:10; L. 284:55.

Simple tribal listing.

858. Sounēm (Sunem). Joshua 19:18; K. 158:11; L. 284:56.

Textual variant Soubēn (Greek).

Perhaps the tradition confuses this with the Shulamite of Canticles.

It is at Sulem about 3 miles south of Naim (K. 140:3) and correctly located 5 miles from Thabor.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sonim, scarlet colored" (97).

859. Sion (Seon or Soen). Joshua 19:19; K. 158:13; L. 284:58.

Vague location may point to 'ajun esh sha'en, but it could be the same as the previous location. Jerome alone gives an alternate. A' has Seian.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Seon, his seeds" (97).

860. Sasima. Joshua 19:22; K. 158:15; L. 284:60.

Simple border listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sassim, going out he stayed" (97).

861. Sior. Joshua 19:26; K. 158:16; L. 284:61.

Simple tribal listing.

862. Sennanein. Joshua 19:33; K. 158:17; L. 284:62.

Textual variant Sennanim (Latin).

Biblical notation and tribal listing. A corrupt LXX test wherein two Hebrew names in the MT become coalesced into one.

863. Sorek (Sorec). Joshua 19:41; K. 158:18; L. 285:63.

Summary of biblical information and geography (Judges 13:25 and cf. K. 88:12).

This form is from the MT not from the LXX (cf. K. 160:2).

864. Sames. Joshua 19:41; K. 158:20; L. 285:65.

Textual variant Samer (Greek).

Cf. K. 54:11 and K. 32:26.

865. Salabein (Salabeim). Joshua 19:41; K. 158:21; L. 285:66.

Salaba is only vaguely located, perhaps Onomasticon points to site (not the Old Testament site) at Kh Selhab north of Tubas (cf. K. 100:11).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salabin, growing intelligence" (91).

866. Sepheth. Judges 1:17; K. 158:23; L. 285:68.

Textual variants: Sephet, Seth and Sapeth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safeth, watchtower" (101).


867. Seirōtha. Judges 3:26; K. 158:25; L. 285:70.

Textual variants: Ahod, Aioth and Ahud (Latin).

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 156:1 related to Mt.Se'ir)

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sairath, she goat" (101).

868. Sour Oreb. Judges 7:25; K. 158:27; L. 285:72.

Textual variant. A' is lacking in Vatican Greek manuscript.

Hexaplaric information.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Suroreb, rock of the raven" (101).

869. Selmon. Judges 9:48; K. 158:28; L. 285:73.

Simple biblical notation. This is not Shechem but Sikima near Haifa (K. 108: 30). It is probably located at Tell es Samak.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salmana, preventing shade or shade of movements" (101) and "Salma, feeling or perfect or peace making" (101).

870. Sephina. Judges 12:1; K. 160:1; L. 285:75.

Hexaplaric information.

871. Sōrēch. Judges 16:4; K. 160:2; L. 285:76.

Identified with Cafarsorech northwest of Saraa (K. 56:15) possibly Eusebius points to Kh Surik (not the Old Testament site) Judges 13:2, 25. It is not on a Roman road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sorec, best choice" (101).


872. Sōpheim. I Samuel 1:1; K. 160:6; L. 285:80.

Textual variants: Armathe and Armathaim (Latin).

Simple biblical location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sofim, watchtower or crag." (105).

873. Salisa. I Samuel 9:4; K. 160:7; L. 285:81.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salisa, third" (105).

874. Senna. I Samuel 14:4; K. 160:8; L. 285:82.

Textual variant Sanna (Latin).

This entry and part of the next are missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript. As a rock it does not belong to the place names. It is also out of proper order and doubly suspect (cf. K. 94:5).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sena, borne or narrowness or good" (105).

875. Saaleim. I Samuel 9:4; K. 160:11; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

The first part of this entry and the previous one are missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript (cp. K. 156:14). Probably Kh Shaikha 7 miles due west of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). Some scholars see it on the road at Araq el Manshiya but Eusebius' location seems to be off the road (cf. K. 68:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Salim, foxes but better written Sualim" (105).

876. Seiph (Sthif). I Samuel 9:5; K. 160:11; L. 285:84.

Textual variant Seim (Greek).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Suf, watchtower or pouring forth" (105).

877. Sabeim. I Samuel 13:18; K. 160:12; L. 285:85.

Simple biblical notation.

878. Sōnam. I Samuel 28:4; K. 160:13; L. 285:86.

Cf. K. 158:11 and K. 158:13. Perhaps also Salim east of Nablus is intended, in the Akrabattinē (I Kings 1:3 and Song of Solomon 6:12). It could be sanur north of Samaria as well. Neither site is the Old Testament location.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sonaim, scarlet colored or his standing."

879. Saphamōth. I Samuel 30:28; K. 160:15; L. 285:89.

Textual variant Sophamoth (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safathmoth, lip of death." (105).

880. Seeira. II Samuel 3:26; K. 160:16; L. 285:90.

Simple biblical notation.

881. Souba. II Samuel 8:3; K. 160:17; L. 285:91.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Soba, divided from cutting, not from following" (105).

882. Sarthan. I Kings 4:12; K. 160:18; L. 285:92.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sarthan, their tribulation or demolition or limitation " (112).

883. Sōpheira (Soupheir). I Kings 9:28 and I Kings 10:11; K. 160:19; L. 285:93.

Textual variant Sophira (Latin). This variant name is a LXX error.

Out of the Holy Land proper (cf. K. 150:14 and K. 176:13).

884. Serōra. I Kings 11:26; K. 160:21; L. 285:95.

Textual variant Serora (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

885. Saba. I Kings 10:1; K. 160:22; L. 285:96.

This entry is out of the Limits of the Holy Land and out of order as well, so is quite suspect. In Josephus Antiquities II, 10, 2 we have "Saba, the capital of the Ethiopian realm which Cambyses later called Meroe after the name of his sister."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saba, captured" (112).

886. Sela. II Kings 12:21; K. 160:25; L. 285:99.

Simple biblical notation.

LXX has Gaalad or Gaalla for the MT "to Silla."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sela, always" (117).

887. Sephpharouem (Saffaruaim). II Kings 17:24; K. 160:26; L. 285:00.

Simple biblical notation (Isaiah 36:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Safaruahim, books or letters" (118).

888. Sademoth. II Kings 23:4; K. 160:28; L. 286:03.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sademoth, ploughed land or region" (118).

889. Sarepta. I Kings 17:9; K. 162:1; L. 286:04.

This item is perhaps out of order.

This is the only site between Tyre (K. 162:15) and Sidon (K. 148:6) mentioned in the Onomasticon. Jerome adds it is on the main highway. Tabula Peutinger locates it 9 miles from Sidon and 12 from Tyre. The Pilgrims note it is on the coast also 9 miles from Sidon (Paula PPT I, 4 and Itin. Bourd.18:22). It is the present Sarafand (MT, cf. Luke 4:26 not noted in our text). In Latin "oppidulum" used only here, the diminutive is "oppidum" (cf. K. 10:25 and Appendix I).

890. Sarōn. Isaiah 33:9; K. 162:3; L. 286:06.

Part of this entry is missing in the Vatican manuscript.

Ioppa is an "oppidum" in Jerome here (cf. K. 111:25; cp. K. 10:25 and Appendix I). In Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah 33:7 and elsewhere he describes the plain of Sharon as near Ioppa and Lidda. This may describe the limits of the plain. The added notation is more precise for biblical Sharon.

The first Saronas is connected with Aphek and Endor (K. 34:11) of the Esdraelon plain, northeast of Tabor toward the Sea of Galilee, perhaps named after a town Saruna but not the biblical site.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Saron, first wall or gloomy singing" (122).

891. Sephela. Isaiah 32:19; K. 162:7; L. 286:09.

"Another" as the above plain. In Jerome's Commentary on Obadiah 19 he describes this area of Diospolis (K. 8:14) to Nicopolis (K. 30:27) but notes, as in Onomasticon that others see it as near Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12). The Onomasticon locates it between Eleutheropolis and Ioppa (K. 110:24 and cp. I Maccabees 12:38).

892. Sennaar. Micah 1:11; K. 162:10; L. 286:12.

Textual variants: Sennaan (Greek) and Sennam (Latin).

Hexaplatic information and references (cp. K. 156:22).

893. Sedrach. Zechariah 9:1; K. 162:11; L. 286:13.

Simple biblical notation. LXX has confused the Hebrew of MT here.

894. Siōn. Zechariah 9:9; K. 162:12; L. 286:14.

Mountain and simple biblical location. One of the details of Jerusalem but no real location given. In Jerome's Commentary on Isaiah1:21 he says, "Sion is the mountain on which the city of Jerusalem was founded."

895. Samareia (Samaria). Ezekiel 16:46; K. 162:13; L. 286:15.

Samaria is Sebaste and gives its name to the territory (cf. K. 154:21).

896. Sor (Tyre). Ezekiel 26:2; K. 162:15; L. 286:17.

Simple biblical summary (Joshua 19:35). The Onomasticon uses "metropolis" only rarely for Tyre and Jerusalem. Difficult to know if this is in reference to biblical or contemporary times. Tyre was the capital of the Roman province of Phoenicia north of Karmel and Palaistinē. It was 73 miles between Caesarea and Tyre according to Itin. Bourd. (PPT I, 17). Tabula Peutinger has 12 miles from Sarepta, 24 from Sidon and 32 from Ptolmais. It is presently called Sur (perhaps cf. K. 164:17).

897. Soēne. Ezekiel 29:11; K. 162:16; L. 286:19.

This is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land. This is one of the most distant Egyptian cities mentioned (cp. K. 126: 1). Hebrew has migdol. Eusebius follows the LXX here.

For other sites in Egypt see note on K. 58: 1.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Soene, his circle or expected" (130).

898. Sais. Ezekiel 30:15; K. 162:17; L. 286:20.

This is outside the proper limits of the Holy Land. Greek text is corrupt.

The Madaba map has "Sais."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sais, proof" (132).

899. Sadala. Ezekiel 47:15; K. 162:18; L. 286:21.

Simple biblical notation of border. Name follows Qere vocalization.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sadada, has the same meaning as Sela" (132, cf. 97 also cf. K. 158: 6).

900. Sabareim. Ezekiel 47:16; K. 162:19; L. 286:23.

Simple biblical notation and geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sabarim, to go around the mountains" (132).

901. Salisa. Jeremiah 48:34; K. 162:21; L. 286:25.

Hexaplaric information.

902. Suchar. John 4:5; K. 164:1; L. 286:26.

This is not related to Shechem (K. 150:1) by this text. Yet it is east of Neapolis (K. 4:28) near the field of Jacob and the well where the Samaritan came. In this entry the well seems to be near or to belong to the village from which the woman came. Jerome notes a church is now built at the well (cf. Note on K. 7:13). Paula sees Sychar as near the well but one mile from Shechem (Epistle 108:13 and PTT I, 18).The Madaba map is unclear, "Sychar now Sychchōra" is usually separated from "Where the well of Jacob is" as well as from "the tomb of Joseph." None of these is equated with Shechem. The oak of Sikimon and the tomb of Joseph however are connected in K. 54:23.

The well and church tradition has remained constant since the 4th century (Latin text). Shechem is clearly Balata although later pilgrims identified it with Neapolis. Sychar is the small village of Samaritans which clustered around the well a bit south of Balata. The name Sychar has been preserved perhaps in present 'Askar at the foot of Mt.Ebal.

The reality of a Sychar was already questioned by Jerome. He notes that Sicima was called Sychem in Hebrew but the Gospel of John through an error wrote Sychar (Migne PL 23, 1055). In Epistle 108:13 he also remarks on this error and equates Sychem with Neapolis (Migne PL 22, 888). Many scholars favor this argument: Sychar is a copyist's error or alternate form for Sychem in the New Testament. This would mean between the well and Balata were located the Samaritan inhabitants of Sychem. The fact that no Roman remains are found on Tell Balata does not preclude the existence of a small village around the well and under the present village of Balata.

After the 4th century the village north of Sychem was pointed out as Sychar. It is a Byzantine settlement.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Sichar, conclusion or twig. However in error for Sichem, which means shoulder, Schar was written." (142).



903. Tigris. Genesis 2:14; K. 164:7; L. 286:32.

A river and outside the Holy Land limits proper. Also as often in the first entry to a new alphabetic section this is suspect. The rivers of Paradise are all in the Onomasticon (see note on K. 60:3). Josephus Antiquities I, 1, 3 says, "The Euphrates and Tigris end in the Red Sea" apparently meaning the Red Sea includes both gulfs. "Tigris Diglath expressing at once its narrowness and its rapidity" (Ibid.).

904. Terebinthos in Sikemon. Genesis 35:4; K. 164:11; L. 286:36.

Textual variant Tereminthos (Greek). Sikemos and other idols (see Appendix II).

Simple biblical notation (cf. the oak K. 54:23). Is it possible that terebinthos or balanos may relate to the Matzevoth?

On Sykem see K. 150:1 and K. 158:1.


905. Tina. Joshua 15:22; K. 164:14; L. 287:39.

Simple tribal listing (cp. K. 114:14).

906. Telem. Joshua 15:24; K. 164:15; L. 287:40.

Simple tribal listing.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Talam, their dew or moistened with dew" (97).

907. Tessem. Joshua 15:52; K. 164:16; L. 287:41.

Simple tribal listing (cp. K. 16:10. Here the guttural is expressed in Greek).

908. Turos. Joshua 19:35; K. 164:17; L. 287:42.

Simple tribal listing (cp. K. 162:15).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Tyrus which is called Sor in Hebrew and interpreted tribulation or difficulty or strength" (97).


909. Tabath. Judges 7:22; K. 164:19; L. 287:44.

Textual variant Tabam (Greek).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Tabath, good" (101).

910. Tōb. Judges 11:3; K. 164:20; L. 287:45.

Simple biblical notation.

911. Tapheth (Tofeth). II Kings 23:10; K. 164:21; L. 287:46.

Simple biblical summary with generalized location (cf. K. 102:14).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Thof, protection of the face or gehenna" (118).

912. Tanis. Isaiah 19:11; K. 164:23; L. 287:48.

Located outside the proper limits of the Holy Land.

Here the Madaba map has "Tania" the only site in the delta of Egypt mentioned in the Onomasticon.

On other sites in Egypt see K. 58:7.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Tanis, commanding humility" (122).

913. Taphnas. Hosea 9:6; K. 164:24; L. 287:49.

Located outside the proper limits of the Holy Land.

Summary of biblical references as Ezekiel 30:14, 18 and Jeremiah 43:7.

In the Greek a confused text (cf. K. 134: 6).

On other sites in Egypt see K. 58:7.


914. Trachonitis territory or Itouraia. Luke 3:1; K. 166:1; L. 287:53.

Cp. 110:27. The limits are clear. Bostra was probably the border in Herod's time. Eusebius equates the two regions but they are not really identical. Philip did not control up to Damascus. Josephus called the region south of Damascus Trachōn, roughly equivalent to the basalt desert.




915. Jerome notes that in the Latin text the TH is followed next as in Hebrew and Latin alphabet.

In Greek they are already included earlier in the alphabet.


916. Pheisōn (Fison). Genesis 2:11; K. 166:7; L. 287:59.

A river outside the limits of Holy Land proper and again suspect as the first entry in alphabetic section. Again Josephus and the Bible are the simple sources for the entry inserted by a late editor. In Antiquities I, 1, 3 "one of these (four rivers) Phison, a name meaning multitude, runs toward India and falls into the sea, being called by the Greeks Ganges." In Interpretation of Hebrew Names Jerome repeats this identity of Fison with Ganges (4).

On rivers of Eden see note on K. 60:3.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Pison, mouth of an orphan or change of mouth" (66).

917. Pharan. Genesis 14:6; K. 166:12; L. 287:64.

Summary of biblical information separated by location (Numbers 10:12 and Genesis 21:21, 14:6). Several different hands have been at work adding to this text. Procopius 332D repeats the first part of this entry. It is three days from Bluth or Aqabah (K. 6:17). It is south of the Roman province of Arabia. In Jerome's Commentary on Habakkuk 3:3 he says it is near Mt.Sina. Probably generally from Aqabah to Suez.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Faran, their courage" (66).

918. Pulistieim. Genesis 21:34; K. 166:18; L. 287:71.

The city is Askalōn (K. 22:15) and the territory around it. Does Eusebius mean Philistine coastal area of the five cities or does he mean Palaistinē the Roman province? Probably here it is the former although in the Onomasticon the usage is quite irregular. Jerome at times translated Greek "foreigners" with Filistine (K. 7:15, K. 21:2, K. 33:25 and K.119:3) but more frequently with the Greek transliteration Allofylus, but most often as translated into "foreigners" or "enemy" (see Appendix I).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Filistiim, double ruins" (66).

919. Phrear. Genesis 21:31; K. 166:20; L. 287:73.

A series of wells all of which are additions to the text. Not all the wells of the Bible are inserted by this later scribe into the Onomasticon. Usually only a biblical notation and no attempt at specific location is made. The Greek is transliterated above and the Latin is translated.

Here identical with Bērosoba (K. 50:1) in the Geraritikē (K. 60:7). Confused entry.

In Hebrew Questions21:30 these two are equated, perpetuating an obvious error.

920. Phrear. Genesis 24:62; K. 166:22; L. 287:75.

Simple biblical notation.

921. Phrear. Genesis 26:20f.; K. 166:23; L. 288:76.

Berdan has the etymology given. It is in the Geraritikē (K. 60:7 and cf. K. 166:20 above). In the Vulgate the well is called Calumnia. The location is uncertain, perhaps barade.

922. Phrear. Genesis 26:33; K. 168:1; L. 288:78.

Summary of biblical information and a general statement on the many wells in southwest Palaistinē. This may also be around Bēroeaba (K. 50:1 and cf. K. 166:20). Some early Christians confused this with Askalon possibly here.

923. Phanouēl. Genesis 32:30; K. 168:4; L. 288:83.

The Greek text is corrupt here.

Biblical summary of Genesis 32:24, 28. The location here is not specific, but location on the Iabok (K. 102:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Fanuhel, face of God" (66).

924. Phogōr (Fogo). Genesis 36:39; K. 168:7; L. 288:84.

Simple biblical notation and geography (cp. K. 48:3 and K. 168:25).

925. Phinōn. Genesis 36:41; K. 168:8; L. 288:86.

Summary of biblical information for two locations.

Phainon is probably present day Fenan. In K. 80:15 it is 4 miles from Daidan. On these mines see K. 114:1ff. Roman fort remains are nearby, Jerome reports on labor supply. This may be quite distinct from the station on the desert (Numbers 33:42).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Fiennon, their mouths or mastered faces" (66).


926. Phithōm. Exodus 1:11; K. 168:12; L. 288:89.

This entry is out of the limits of the Holy Land proper.

Simple biblical notation.


927. Pharagx. Numbers 13:24f.; K. 168:15; L. 288:92.

Several wadies or ravines are listed in this section (cf. Deuteronomy 1:25). Most of them are not in the Latin. Not all of the wadies of the Bible are in the Onomasticon. Just as the wells above, so the wadies are suspect as being of a later hand.

On Gouphna see Gophna (K. 26:2 and K. 74:2) here wrongly equated with Eshkal. The text seems to hint of a doubt in the unknown source which makes the spies come so far North.

Fifteen miles from Jerusalem is Jifna on the Nablus road. It is 16 miles on the Tabula Peutinger and 20 from Neapolis. On the Madaba map it crowds Baithēl (K. 28:5) but "Gophna" is generally located as here (cf. Joshua 18:24).

928. Phin. Numbers 33:42; K. 168:19; L. 288:96.

Simple listing of station.

929. Pharagx Zare. Numbers 21:12; K. 168:20; L. 288:97.

Not in the Latin text.

Another wadi or ravine (cf. K. 92:10). Simple biblical notation.

930. Phear. Numbers 21:16; K. 168:21; L. 288:98.

Not in the Latin text.

A well. Simple biblical notation.

931. Phathoura. Numbers 22:5; K. 168:22; L. 288:99.

This entry is outside the limits of the Holy Land. But the "another" not in the Roman province of Mesopotamia or biblical Mesopotamis is Kh Furt about 5 miles southwest of Eleutheropolis (K. 18:12) off the main road.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Fethora, exploring mouth or mouthful of light or mouth of the turtle dove." (81).

932. Phogōr (Bēthphogōr). Numbers 33:28; K. 168:25; L. 288:03.

Textual variants: Phephphogōr (Greek) and Fara (Latin). Greek dittography from K. 168:24.

The city Bethphogōr, Mt.Phogōr and another village Phogōr are all combined in this entry. It is in Moab (K. 12:23; K. 44:13 and K. 64:22). Bethphogor see K. 48:3. The cities of Phogōr and Phogō (K. 168:7 and K. 170:13) are probably one and the same in the Scriptures. The mountain as located here is related to Phasga (K. 16:23; K. 18:3 and K. 168:28) and Nebo (K. 136:6). Dannaba also is near Mt.Phogōr (K. 76:9) as Sattein (K. 154:10). Bēthphogōr is on this mountain (cf. Deuteronomy 3:28, 4:46).

The one near Bethlehem is based on the LXX of Joshua 15:59 and probably located at Kh Fajjar or Beit Fajjar southwest of Tekoa (K. 98:17).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Faqur, skin of the mouth or he opened" (81).

933. Phasga. Deuteronomy 3:17; K. 168:26; L. 288:05.

Summary of biblical information and Hexaplaric data.

The city and mountain are related to Phogōr (K. 168:25) and to Nebo (K. 136:6). The equation of Phasga and Phogōr is made also in K. 18:3.

The etymology of Phasgō for cliff or cutting is also in K. 16:24 (cf. K. 12:17).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Fasga, cut off or hewn or mouth selected" (87).


934. Phanouel. I Kings 12:25; K. 170:2; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple biblical notation (I Chronicles 4:4).

935. Phanouēl. Judges 8:8, 17; K. 170:3; L. 288:09.

Textual variants: Hor and Cham (Latin).

Summary of biblical information (cf. K. 168:4).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Fanuhel, face of God" (100).

936. Phraathōn. Judges 12:13ff.; K. 170:5; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

This entry is missing in the Greek Vatican manuscript.

Simple biblical notation and geography.


937. Pharagx Ennom. Judges 15:8; K. 170:8; L. 288:12.

A ravine and suspect as later addition (cf. K. 70:2; K. 164:21 and K. 102:14).

The more recent name is also reported here.

938. Phelmoni Almoni. I Samuel 21:2; K. 170:11; L. 289:15.

Hexaplaric information. This is not a Hebrew proper name in MT.

A vague statement of a king's right to assign his underlings where and how he sees fit.

939. Phogō. I Chronicles 1:50; K. 170:13; L. 289:17.

Textual variants: Phobō (Greek) and Fogor (Latin).

Simple biblical notation (cf. K. 168:7).

940. Pharphar. II Kings 5:12; K. 170:14; L. 289:18.

A River and therefore suspect.

Simple biblical geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Farfar, digging or scattering or moles" (115).

941. Phathori. Ezekiel 29:14; K. 170:15; L. 289:19.

Textual variants: Fatore, Fature and Fathure (Latin).

Cf. Jeremiah 44:15.



942. Chalannē. Genesis 10:10; K. 170:19; L. 289:23.

Again the first entry in an alphabetic section is outside the Holy Land proper and suspect as a late addition (Isaiah 10:9 and cf. K. 174:8 below).

Summary of biblical information and geography (cf. K. 148:11) Sennaar and K. 40:7 Babel. In Hebrew Questions Jerome notes Chalaane was called later Seleucia after the name of the king and is also to be known as Ktēsiphōn (13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chalanne, future completion or all of us." (63).

943. Chalak. Genesis 10:11; K. 170:21; L. 289:25.

Outside the proper limits of the Holy Land.

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chalech, as if green" (63).

944. Charran. Genesis 11:31; K. 170:23; L. 289:27.

Outside the proper limits of the Holy Land. Probably still retains the name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Charran, hole or wrath or his digging" (64).

945. Chebrōn. Genesis 13:18; K. 170:25; L. 289:29.

Summary of biblical information (Genesis 23:2; Numbers 13:23 and Joshua 14:15 also cf. Arbō (K. 6:8 as well as K. 76:1)).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chebron, united or enchanted or everlasting sight" (64).

946. Chōba. Genesis 14:15; K. 172:1; L. 289:32.

Textual variants: Choba and the town Coba (Latin).

This is the only mention of the Ebionites in the Onomasticon. This is probably not a correct identification of the biblical site. The name is continued in at least three locations from Byzantine times. Probably Greek text pointed to today's kokaba southwest of Damascus.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Choba, condemnation" (64).

947. Chabratha. Genesis 35:16; K. 172:4; L. 289:35.

The Hexaplaric information is supplemented with the late tradition of Rachel's tomb near Bethlehem (K. 42:10 and cf. K. 146:28). In Ephata (K. 82:10) the tomb is located near a Hippodrome. In Hebrew Questions (54) Jerome notes Chabratha is not a proper name.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chabratha, as if chosen or heavy" (64).

948. Chasbi. Genesis 38:5; K. 172:6; L. 289:37.

Textual variants: dollōm (Greek) and Adollam (Latin).

Possible located in the region of Eleutheropolis (K. 8:12) about 10 miles northeast at 'Ain el Kazbeh. No indication it was a ruin in the earlier Greek text (cf. Adullam K. 24:21). In the Hexapla (not noted here) Aquila translated this word and Jerome in Hebrew Questions (46) writes 'Chasbi therefore is not the name of a place, but is a lie."

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chazbi, a lie" (64).


949. Chōrēb. Deuteronomy 1:2; K. 172:9; L. 289:40.

Outside the limits of the Holy Land proper.

The Onomasticon separates this from Mt.Sinai but Jerome believes Sinai and Horeb are names for the same mountain.

950. Charada. Numbers 33:24; K. 172:11; L. 289:43.

Simple listing of station.

951. Chenereth. Numbers 34:11; K. 172:12; L. 289:44.

A summary of biblical information (Joshua 19:35) with added identification with Tiberias. At the death of Agrippa II Tiberias became an autonomous city. Called "oppidum" in Latin (K. 10:25 and Appendix I). This is not an exact equation since Tiberias is quite far south of the location of Chennereth, Gennesaret at Tell el 'Oreimeh. No location is given in the Greek.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chenneroth, sign of lutes or as if lamps" (80).


952. Chepheira. Joshua 9:17; K. 172:15; L. 289:46.

Textual variants: Chepherra (Greek) and Cheffira (Latin).

Simple biblical summary (Joshua 18:26).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chifara, his whelp or scattered hands or atonement" (92).

953. Chasalōn. Joshua 15:10; K. 172:16; L. 289:47.

Textual variant Chalasōn (Greek).

A large village with nothing but the biblical location written here. Perhaps this is Kasla southwest of Jerusalem near Esthaol (K. 88:12).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Cheslon, their revelation" (92).

954. Chsil. Joshua 15:30; K. 172:18; L. 289:49.

Textual variant Choilē (Greek).

Simple tribal listing (cf. K. 140:8).

955. Chaphtheis. Joshua 15:40; K. 172:19; L. 290:50.

Textual variant Chasthis (Latin).

Simple tribal listing.

956. Chermel. Joshua 15:35; K. 172:20; L. 290:51.

Chermel is now south of Chebrōn (cf. K. 118:5 and I Samuel 25:2). Notitia Dignitatum 73:20 confirms the garrison (cf. Procopius 1020C).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chermel, softly or delicate or knowing the circumstances" (92).

957. Chabōn. Joshua 15:40; K. 172:23; L. 290:54.

In Latin this appears before Chermel (K. 173:25).

Simple tribal listing.

958. Cheilōn. Joshua 15:51; K. 172:24; L. 290:55.

Simple tribal listing.

959. Chephrei. Joshua 18:26; K. 174:1; L. 290:56.

Simple tribal listing.

960. Cheselath Thabor. Joshua 19:12; K. 174:2; L. 290:57.

Cf. below K. 174:11 and Chsalous K. 28:22.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chsiloth, foolish signs" (92).


961. Chettieim. Judges 1:26; K. 174:4; L. 290:59.

This entry is not in the Holy Land limits proper to the Onomasticon. Procopius 1047A follows the Latin here. But see K. 122:14 for possible relationship to Bethelarea.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chetim. raging or dreading or marked" (99).

962. Charrei. II Samuel 20:14; K. 174:6; L. 290:61.

Simple biblical notation.

The CH in Greek seems to be for the Hebrew guttural, following the LXX.

963. Chomarreim. II Kings 23:5; K. 174:7; L. 290:62.

Textual variant Chōmarrei (Greek).

Simple biblical notation.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chomarim, keepers of the temple" (115).

964. Chalannē. Isaiah 10:9; K. 174:8; L. 290:63.

Outside the limits of the Holy Land proper as in Onomasticon (cf. K. 170:19).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chalanne, all" (115).

965. Charran. Isaiah 37:12; K. 174:10; L. n/a; Lacuna in Greek Text.

Textual variant Charan (Latin).

Outside the limits of the Holy Land proper (cf. K. 170:18).

966. Chaselath tou Thabōr. Joshua 19:12; K. 174:11; L. 290:64.

Textual variant Chaselous (Greek) cf. K. 174:2 and K. 28:22.

967. Chōbal. I Kings 9:13; K. 174:13; L. 290:66.

Textual variant Chōbar (Greek).

Simple tribal border (cf. Joshua 19:27).

968. Chalab. Judges 1:31; K. 174:14; L. 290:67.

Textual variants: Chalobter and Chalath (Latin).

Simple biblical notation.

969. Chorra. I Kings 17:3; K. 174:16; L. 290:69.

Simple biblical notation and geography.

LXX has Chorrath for the Wadi.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Charith, division or knowing" (110).

970. Chōtha. II Kings 17:24; K. 174:17; L. 290:70.

Outside the limits of the Holy Land proper (cf. K. 36:9, 10) for other regions of Assyria.

971. Chōbar. Ezekiel 1:1; K. 174:18; L. 290:71.

A River and also outside the limits of the Holy Land proper and so doubly suspect as later addition.

Simple biblical notation and geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chobar, heaviness or heavy or near choice" (130).

972. Charchamus. Jeremiah 46:2; K. 174:19; L. 290:72.

Outside the limits of the Holy Land proper.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Charchamos, group of sheep or recognize as if twigs" (126).

973. Chamōam. Jeremiah 41:17; K. 174:20; L. 290:73.

Textual variant Chamoar (Greek).

Simple biblical notation and geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chamoan, his likeness" (126).

974. Chelōn (Elōn). Jeremiah 48:21; K. 174:21; L. 290:74.

Textual variant Aealon (Latin) (cf. K. 176:20).

Simple biblical notation.

975. Chamōs. Jeremiah 48:7; K. 174:22; L. 290:75.

Another idol. It is out of order and suspect double. For other idols see K. 36:15; K. 44:13; K. 58:9; K. 134:17; K. 138:19; K. 146:26 etc. and Appendix II).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chamos, assembly" (126).

976. Chōrazein. Matthew 11:21; K. 174:23; L. 290:77.

No Gospel section is indicated by division here. One Latin manuscript does have it.

Textual variant has 12 miles for two.

Two miles from Kapernaoun (K. 120:2) north of the lake are the ruins of Kh Kerazeh which preserves the name. Deserted in the time of Eusebius and Jerome. Jerome in Commentary on Isaiah puts Tiberias, Bethsaida, Capharnaum and Chorazin all along the shore. Called "oppidum" in Latin (K. 10:25 and Appendix I). A synagogue of early 2nd or 3rd century testifies of the rapid decline, it was rebuilt in the 5th century A. D.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Chorazaim, this my mystery" (135).

977. Cheimarrous Kedrōn. John 18:1; K. 174:26; L. 290:80.

A wadi in Jerusalem (cf. K. 70:2 and K. 118:11).



978. ōn. Exodus 1:11; K. 176:3; L. 290:84.

Outside the limits of the Holy Land. Along with Soēnē one of the most southern cities mentioned in the Onomasticon.

Summary of biblical information (Genesis 41:25). The form of the name is from the LXX. It is not in the MT. There is some debate therefore on its construction (cf. K. 94:13).

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "On, work or sorrow" (77).

979. ōr. Numbers 20:22, 28; K. 176:7; L. 291:88.

Mt. near Petra (K. 142:7). Cf. K. 126:19 and K. 46:14 for Aaron's death. See K. 150:23 for Mt. Seir. Josephus Antiquities IV, 4, 7 tells of Aaron's death up on the mountain range that encloses Petra.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Or, passionate" (77) and "Or, light" (83).

980. ōbōth. Numbers 21:10; K. 176:9; L. 291:91.

Simple listing of station.


981. Osa. Joshua 19:29; K. 176:11; L. 291:93.

Simple tribal listing. Only here are Joshua and Kings combined as a section heading.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Osa, hope" (96).

982. Oram. Joshua 19:38; K. 176:12; L. 291:94.

Simple tribal listing.

983. Opheir. I Kings 9:28; K. 176:13; L. 291:95.

Outside of the Holy Land proper (cf. Genesis 10:29).

This quotation of Josephus Antiquities I, 6, 4 is repeated in K. 82:2 and K. 150:14.

Probably the same site as in K. 160:19 after the LXX.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Ofir, weakening" (112).

984. ōn. Hosea 10:5; K. 176:18; L. 291:00.

Textual variants: Aun and Auna (Greek).

Probably the same as Bēthaun (K. 50:24) an epithet possibly for Baithēl (K. 40:20 cf. Joshua 21:15). Hexaplaric information on the meaning.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "On, useless or sorrow or labor or injustice" (122).

985. ōlō. Joshua 21:15; K. 176:20; L. 291:02.

Simple biblical notation (cp. K. 174:21).

986. ōronaeim. Jeremiah 48:34; K. 176:21; L. 291:03.

Textual variants: Oranaim and Ornaim (Latin).

Simple biblical notation and geography.

In Interpretation of Hebrew Names "Oronaim, opening of the wall" (128).

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Early Church Fathers - Additional Texts